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Copy the following onto the top half of NB p. 77. Washington’s Farewell Address What he urged the country to do Allow 2 lines Allow 2 lines (Skip one line) Why he was concerned Copy these terms at the very bottom of NB 77. • political party – (skip a line) • foreign policy – Copy the following onto the rest of NB p. 77. The Federalists Leader Allow 2 lines Supporters Allow 2 lines Interpretation of the Constitution Allow 2 lines The common people Allow 2 lines The national bank Allow 2 lines The national government Allow 2 lines Who should run the government Allow 2 lines The economy Allow 2 lines The DemocraticRepublicans Section 9.3: The Federalists in Charge Lesson 9.3a Today we will explain how Washington's retirement led to the formation of political parties. Vocabulary • political party – a group of people that tries to promote its ideas and influence government, and also backs candidates for office • foreign policy – relations with the governments of other countries • domestic – coming from one’s own country Check for Understanding • What are we going to do today? • Name an important political party. • What country’s foreign policy is or once was hostile to the United States? • What is a domestic wine? What is foreign policy? Foreign policy is way in which the governments of different countries relate to each other. What is a political party? A political party is a group of people that tries to promote its ideas and influence government, and also backs candidates for office. What We Already Know The members of our country’s first presidential cabinet were very talented men. What We Already Know Jefferson and Hamilton had first clashed over several parts of Hamilton’s financial plan. What We Already Know They also disagreed over which side the United States should support in the new war between France and Britain. In 1789, Washington had come to the presidency greatly admired by the American people. During his second term, however, opponents of Jay’s Treaty led attacks on the president. Supporters of the French Revolution also criticized him for his neutrality policy. Cabinet members Jefferson and Hamilton disagreed over many issues, starting with the national bank. Only George Washington’s leadership made it possible for the two men to work together in the cabinet. In 1796, President George Washington decided to retire. • He had served two terms in office and wanted to return to his quiet life as a wealthy Virginia planter. • But as he left office, he had two fears for the future of the nation. Washington’s Fears • He feared what would happen if the United States made alliances with foreign countries. • He feared what would happen if people ever formed political parties. Washington’s ‘Farewell Address’ • He urged the nation to remain neutral and “steer clear of permanent alliances with any portion of the foreign world.” • He warned that agreements with foreign nations might work against U.S. interests. • His advice guided U.S. foreign policy into the 20th Century. Washington also warned against forming political parties. • During his second term, divisions between his cabinet began to create political parties. • In his Farewell Address, Washington warned of the dangers of political division, or what he termed “the spirit of party.” • Despite his advice, political parties became a part of American politics. Get your whiteboards and markers ready! 10. What two pieces of advice did Washington give in his Farewell Address? A. Avoid political parties and divisions. B. The country must abandon slavery. C. The country should remain neutral. D. Settle the West as rapidly as possible. E. The nation must not to violate the treaties they had signed with Native Americans. Why did Washington favor neutrality with other countries? A. Alliances with other nations might work against American interests. B. Neutrality would be the best way to promote trade with European nations. C. The United States was powerful enough and had no need for help from other nations. D. Most European nations were dishonest and could not be trusted. Growth of Political Parties • Despite Washington’s warning against political parties, Americans were deeply divided over how the nation should be run. • During Washington’s first term, Hamilton and Jefferson had hotly debated the direction the new nation should take. • During Washington’s second term, Jefferson resigned and Madison took his place in the cabinet and in the debates with Hamilton. Growth of Political Parties • As Hamilton and Madison argued, other Americans gathered around whichever of these two men they agreed with. • Their differences on foreign and domestic policy led to the nation’s first political parties. Get your whiteboards and markers ready! 11. What led to the rise of political parties? A. The growing expense of election campaigns B. Disagreements over which class of people should run the nation C. Different views on economic policy D. Differing interpretations of the Constitution E. Washington’s favoritism toward Jefferson Choose all that are true! The new political parties were the Federalists and the DemocraticRepublicans. Hamilton Jefferson and Madison Together, Jefferson and Madison founded the DemocraticRepublican Party. The party name reflected their strong belief in democracy, states’ rights, and their concern for individual liberties. James Madison Hamilton continued to lead the Federalists. Hamilton’s followers kept the name ‘Federalists’ from the days of the ratification debate. The supporters of the Federalists included lawyers, merchants, manufacturers, and the wealthy. The Federalists and the Government The Federalists supported a stronger national government, with more power than the state governments. Jefferson and Hamilton disagreed over interpretation of the Constitution. • Hamilton was a loose constructionist, and claimed the elastic clause gave Congress broad legislative powers. • Jefferson was a strict constructionist, who wanted to keep the powers of government. These differences became clear when Hamilton called for Congress to charter a national bank. • Jefferson opposed the bank on the grounds it was unconstitutional. • Congress, however, voted in favor of Hamilton’s bank proposal. The Federalist Party and the Common People • Federalists saw the common people as dangerously unstable. • They believed the wealthy and the well-educated should have the greater voice in government, because they would be more likely to govern well than the common people. As a former banker and businessman, Hamilton had a distinct vision of the nation’s future. • Hamilton wanted a United States in which the economy was based on manufacturing, trade, and cities. The Democratic-Republicans viewed government and society differently. • They feared that a strong government could lead to monarchy, or to rule by the wealthy upper classes. • They wanted more power given to the states. Unlike the Federalists, they trusted the common people. • The Democratic-Republicans saw in the common people a great deal of honesty and good judgment, so they wanted them to have a large role in government. • Their ideas drew farmers, shopkeepers, workers, and recent immigrants to the new party. Unlike Hamilton, Jefferson and Madison pictured a rural nation of planters and farmers. They believed such people would make good, honest citizens that could not be corrupted by bribes and political promises. Get your whiteboards and markers ready! Who were the supporters of the Federalists? A. B. C. D. E. Farmers Manufacturers Immigrants The working classes Merchants Choose all that are true! Who supported the DemocraticRepublicans? A. B. C. D. E. Farmers Manufacturers Immigrants The working classes Merchants Choose all that are true! How did Jefferson and Hamilton disagree over the government? A. Hamilton wanted state governments to have more power. B. Hamilton wanted a strong central government. C. Jefferson wanted to limit the power of state governments. D. Jefferson feared that a strong federal government could lead to tyranny. Choose all that are true! How did Jefferson and Hamilton disagree over the Constitution? A. B. C. D. Hamilton was a strict constructionist. Jefferson was a strict constructionist. Jefferson was a loose constructionist. Hamilton did not support the elastic clause. How did Jefferson and Hamilton disagree over the national bank? A. Hamilton opposed it as unconstitutional. B. Jefferson opposed it as unconstitutional. C. Jefferson supported it because of the elastic clause. D. Hamilton claimed it violated the elastic clause. How did Hamilton and the Federalists view the common people? A. As people with little talent and no ambition to improve their situation B. As a frightening and unstable mob C. As good, honest people filled with common sense D. As the citizens best suited for government How did Jefferson’s DemocraticRepublicans see the common people? A. As people who would quickly give their support to a tyrant B. As a frightening and unstable mob C. As good, honest people filled with common sense D. As the citizens best suited for government Choose all that are true! How did Jefferson and Hamilton disagree over the right direction for America’s future? A. Hamilton favored a nation of cities, trade, and manufacturing. B. Hamilton wanted to stop the nation’s expansion at the Mississippi River. C. Jefferson pictured a rural nation of planters and farmers. D. Jefferson favored a nation of small businessmen. Choose all that are true! How did Jefferson and Hamilton disagree over America’s future? A. Hamilton favored a nation of cities, trade, and manufacturing. B. Hamilton wanted to stop the nation’s expansion at the Mississippi River. C. Jefferson pictured a rural nation of planters and farmers. D. Jefferson favored a nation of small businessmen. Choose all that are true!