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Transcript
Copy the following onto the top half
of NB p. 77.
Washington’s Farewell Address
What he urged the
country to do
Allow 2 lines
Allow 2 lines
(Skip one line)
Why he was
concerned
Copy these terms at the very
bottom of NB 77.
• political party –
(skip a line)
• foreign policy –
Copy the following onto the rest
of NB p. 77.
The Federalists
Leader
Allow 2 lines
Supporters
Allow 2 lines
Interpretation of
the Constitution
Allow 2 lines
The common
people
Allow 2 lines
The national bank
Allow 2 lines
The national
government
Allow 2 lines
Who should run
the government
Allow 2 lines
The economy
Allow 2 lines
The DemocraticRepublicans
Section 9.3: The
Federalists in
Charge
Lesson 9.3a
Today we will explain
how Washington's
retirement led to the
formation of political
parties.
Vocabulary
• political party – a group of people that tries
to promote its ideas and influence
government, and also backs candidates for
office
• foreign policy – relations with the
governments of other countries
• domestic – coming from one’s own country
Check for Understanding
• What are we going to do today?
• Name an important political party.
• What country’s foreign policy is or
once was hostile to the United States?
• What is a domestic wine?
What is foreign policy?
Foreign policy is way in which the
governments of different countries relate
to each other.
What is a political party?
A political party is a group of people that
tries to promote its ideas and influence
government, and also backs candidates
for office.
What We Already Know
The members of our country’s first
presidential cabinet were very talented men.
What We Already Know
Jefferson and
Hamilton had first
clashed over
several parts of
Hamilton’s
financial plan.
What We Already Know
They also disagreed over which side the
United States should support in the new
war between France and Britain.
In 1789,
Washington had
come to the
presidency greatly
admired by the
American people.
During his second
term, however,
opponents of
Jay’s Treaty led
attacks on the
president.
Supporters of the
French Revolution also
criticized him for his
neutrality policy.
Cabinet members Jefferson and
Hamilton disagreed over many issues,
starting with the national bank.
Only George Washington’s leadership made it
possible for the two men to work together in the
cabinet.
In 1796, President George
Washington decided to retire.
• He had served two terms in office and
wanted to return to his quiet life as a
wealthy Virginia planter.
• But as he left office, he had two fears for the
future of the nation.
Washington’s Fears
• He feared what
would happen if the
United States made
alliances with
foreign countries.
• He feared what
would happen if
people ever formed
political parties.
Washington’s ‘Farewell Address’
• He urged the nation to
remain neutral and “steer
clear of permanent alliances
with any portion of the
foreign world.”
• He warned that agreements
with foreign nations might
work against U.S. interests.
• His advice guided U.S.
foreign policy into the 20th
Century.
Washington also warned against
forming political parties.
• During his second term,
divisions between his
cabinet began to create
political parties.
• In his Farewell Address,
Washington warned of the
dangers of political division,
or what he termed “the spirit
of party.”
• Despite his advice, political
parties became a part of
American politics.
Get your whiteboards
and markers ready!
10. What two pieces of advice did
Washington give in his Farewell
Address?
A. Avoid political parties
and divisions.
B. The country must
abandon slavery.
C. The country should
remain neutral.
D. Settle the West as
rapidly as possible.
E. The nation must not to
violate the treaties they
had signed with Native
Americans.
Why did Washington favor neutrality
with other countries?
A. Alliances with other nations
might work against American
interests.
B. Neutrality would be the best way
to promote trade with European
nations.
C. The United States was powerful
enough and had no need for help
from other nations.
D. Most European nations were
dishonest and could not be
trusted.
Growth of Political Parties
• Despite Washington’s warning against political
parties, Americans were deeply divided over
how the nation should be run.
• During Washington’s first term, Hamilton and
Jefferson had hotly debated the direction the
new nation should take.
• During Washington’s second term, Jefferson
resigned and Madison took his place in the
cabinet and in the debates with Hamilton.
Growth of Political Parties
• As Hamilton and Madison argued, other
Americans gathered around whichever
of these two men they agreed with.
• Their differences on foreign and
domestic policy led to the nation’s first
political parties.
Get your whiteboards
and markers ready!
11. What led to the rise of
political parties?
A. The growing expense of election campaigns
B. Disagreements over which class of people
should run the nation
C. Different views on economic policy
D. Differing interpretations of the Constitution
E. Washington’s favoritism toward Jefferson
Choose all that are true!
The new political parties were the
Federalists and the DemocraticRepublicans.
Hamilton
Jefferson and Madison
Together, Jefferson and Madison
founded the DemocraticRepublican Party.
The party name reflected
their strong belief in
democracy, states’ rights,
and their concern for
individual liberties.
James Madison
Hamilton continued to lead the
Federalists.
Hamilton’s followers
kept the name
‘Federalists’ from the
days of the ratification
debate.
The supporters of
the Federalists
included lawyers,
merchants,
manufacturers,
and the wealthy.
The Federalists and the
Government
The Federalists
supported a stronger
national government,
with more power than
the state governments.
Jefferson and Hamilton disagreed over
interpretation of the Constitution.
• Hamilton was a loose constructionist, and
claimed the elastic clause gave Congress
broad legislative powers.
• Jefferson was a strict constructionist, who
wanted to keep the powers of government.
These differences became clear
when Hamilton called for Congress
to charter a national bank.
• Jefferson opposed the bank on the
grounds it was unconstitutional.
• Congress, however, voted in favor of
Hamilton’s bank proposal.
The Federalist Party and the
Common People
• Federalists saw the common
people as dangerously
unstable.
• They believed the wealthy
and the well-educated
should have the greater
voice in government,
because they would be more
likely to govern well than the
common people.
As a former banker and businessman,
Hamilton had a distinct vision of the
nation’s future.
• Hamilton wanted a United States in
which the economy was based on
manufacturing, trade, and cities.
The Democratic-Republicans viewed
government and society differently.
• They feared that a
strong government
could lead to monarchy,
or to rule by the wealthy
upper classes.
• They wanted more
power given to the
states.
Unlike the Federalists, they trusted
the common people.
• The Democratic-Republicans saw in the common
people a great deal of honesty and good
judgment, so they wanted them to have a large
role in government.
• Their ideas drew farmers, shopkeepers, workers,
and recent immigrants to the new party.
Unlike Hamilton, Jefferson and
Madison pictured a rural nation of
planters and farmers.
They believed such people would
make good, honest citizens that
could not be corrupted by bribes
and political promises.
Get your whiteboards
and markers ready!
Who were the supporters of the
Federalists?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
Farmers
Manufacturers
Immigrants
The working classes
Merchants
Choose all that are true!
Who supported the DemocraticRepublicans?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
Farmers
Manufacturers
Immigrants
The working classes
Merchants
Choose all that are true!
How did Jefferson and Hamilton
disagree over the government?
A. Hamilton wanted state governments
to have more power.
B. Hamilton wanted a strong central
government.
C. Jefferson wanted to limit the power
of state governments.
D. Jefferson feared that a strong federal
government could lead to tyranny.
Choose all that are true!
How did Jefferson and Hamilton
disagree over the Constitution?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Hamilton was a strict constructionist.
Jefferson was a strict constructionist.
Jefferson was a loose constructionist.
Hamilton did not support the elastic
clause.
How did Jefferson and Hamilton
disagree over the national bank?
A. Hamilton opposed it as unconstitutional.
B. Jefferson opposed it as unconstitutional.
C. Jefferson supported it because of the
elastic clause.
D. Hamilton claimed it violated the elastic
clause.
How did Hamilton and the Federalists
view the common people?
A. As people with little
talent and no ambition
to improve their
situation
B. As a frightening and
unstable mob
C. As good, honest people
filled with common
sense
D. As the citizens best
suited for government
How did Jefferson’s DemocraticRepublicans see the common people?
A. As people who would quickly
give their support to a tyrant
B. As a frightening and unstable
mob
C. As good, honest people filled
with common sense
D. As the citizens best suited for
government
Choose all that are true!
How did Jefferson and Hamilton
disagree over the right direction
for America’s future?
A. Hamilton favored a nation of cities,
trade, and manufacturing.
B. Hamilton wanted to stop the nation’s
expansion at the Mississippi River.
C. Jefferson pictured a rural nation of
planters and farmers.
D. Jefferson favored a nation of small
businessmen.
Choose all that are true!
How did Jefferson and Hamilton
disagree over America’s future?
A. Hamilton favored a nation of cities, trade,
and manufacturing.
B. Hamilton wanted to stop the nation’s
expansion at the Mississippi River.
C. Jefferson pictured a rural nation of
planters and farmers.
D. Jefferson favored a nation of small
businessmen.
Choose all that are true!