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The social mind & cognitive psychology Morals - religion Gender differences and ToM Religion Common reasons Why be religious? Popular beliefs Why have mascots? Make sense of otherwise unpredictable events Illness Personal crisis Adolescence – identity crisis Luck, chance, etc.. Make sense of the world – the problem of attribution Attribution Human obsession : causal thinking – there HAS to be a cause for everything Attribution: percieved cause of action Internal vs external attribution Consensus – other people same situation Distinctiveness – same individual – different situation Consistency – same individual – same situation Interoceptive sensations of bodily action Flaws in the system Actor/observer effect (Jones and Nisbett) – fundamental attribution error Attention: drawing attention either to self or others shifs attribution Self-serving attributions – just world hypothesis Avoid feelings of vulnerability and mortality – religion? Self-awareness Why do we inevitably feel stupid after an interview or presentation? self-awareness – how conscious we are of our own looks, behaviour and words Enhances negative opinion – as a result of experiencing oneself as the source of perception and action Interview – people look bored – reason person/fatigue Footnote: depression – more self-aware? Hypercorrection The „mirror experiment” subjective and objective self-awareness (Duval and Wicklund, 1972) Mirror makes people more self-aware and less environment aware Mirrors make one stick to norms more often Stigmas – social and linguistic enhance self-awareness and conforming to norms A footnote on linguistics Bement a házba. Bent van a házban. Mirror: sticking to the norms more God’s authorship Authorship in a word recognition task Participants are told they are competing with a computer The computer takes the word off the screen after 450, 500, 550, 600, 650, 700 ms Participants have to make a judgement on 1-6 scale whether it was them or the computer who took the word off the screen Dijksterhuis, A. et al., EVects of subliminal priming of self and God on self-attribution of authorship for events, Journal of Experimental Social Psychology (2007), doi:10.1016/j.jesp.2007.01.003 17 ms prime 250 ms premask „me” „computer” „God” „the” „broccoli” „xxxxx” 50 ms postmask Target word Judgement task: was it you or the computer? (1 computer 6 me) No differences in lexical decision time "It wa s me wh o did th is " 4,2 4 3,8 3,6 non-primed primed 3,4 3,2 3 me computer GOD nonb GOD believers Sociology of religions Five main religions: Judaism Christianity Muslim Hinduism Buddhism This is based on a historical account – not on current sociological averages Religions – how important is it? Religions in the world Atheism - The Lenin Mausoleum Embalmed body of Vladimir Ilyich Lenin 2 reasons for embalming Temporary preservation until although proper burial Eva Perón (Princes Diana, American War, Abraham Civil Lincoln Crusades) Long-term Some religions Preserving for (Muslims, Jews) veneration explicitly forbid embalming An interesting footnote The Cathedral of Our Lady of Kazan Museum of the History of Religion and Atheism Anti-religious propaganda Evolutionary accounts of religion Richard Dawkins Openly attacking religion – derogatory of believers Supporter of the Brights movement Bright – Paul Geisert’s umbrella term Daniel C. Denett More of a compromise Restricts himself to the argument that religion can and should be studied by science Dawkins’s previous views An ardent opponent to creationism and proponent of evolution - earning him the title of Darwin’s Rottweiler The Blind Watchmaker – focuses on how evolution could create marvellous structures – like the eye Not openly against religion William Paley – a watch presupposes intelligent design because of its complexity The Weasel problem Shakespeare’s Hamlet Hamlet: Do you see yonder cloud that's almost in shape of a camel? Polonius: By the mass, and 'tis like a camel, indeed. Hamlet: Methinks it is like a weasel. Based on the infinite monkey theorem A monkey bashing away at random on a typewriter – given enough time he would type the entire works of Shakespeare how long would it take him to produce the sentence ‘Methinks it is like a weasel.’? The Weasel problem Methinks it is like a weasel This is 28 characters Using 26 letters – only capitals and aspace bar Probability? 2728 = 1040 = infinity, or at least much longer than milliseconds from the existence of the universe (13,73 billion = 13,73 * 109 years = 7,22 * 1018 milliseconds) Sir Frederick Hoyle „approximately the same order of magnitude as the probability that a hurricane could sweep through a junkyard and randomly assemble a Boeing 747.” solar system full of blind men solving Rubik's Cube simultaneously. The simplest bacterium needs 1040,000 permutations, while the number of the atoms in the universe is „only” 1080, the chance is the same as throwing 50 000 sixes in a row with a die Astronomer and sci-fi writer He opposed the Big Bang theory – because it needs a cause Steady State theory He also opposed natural abiogenesis! Intelligent design - Evolution from Space Hoyle’s fallacy They calculate the probability of the formation of a "modern" protein, or even a complete bacterium with all "modern" proteins, by random events. This is not the abiogenesis theory at all – it starts with VERY SIMPLE organisms (you don’t need 28 letters. You start with say 3.) They assume that there is a fixed number of proteins, with fixed sequences for each protein, that are required for life. They calculate the probability of sequential trials, rather than simultaneous trials. Changing one at a time – mutations are rare but do not exclude each other They seriously underestimate the number of functional enzymes/ribozymes present in a group of random sequences – only one good solution fallacy The Weasel problem Cumulative selections instead of a single step selection Two differences in his model: Copying mechanism – it retains previous states There is an inherent goal – any change that occurs towards methinks it is a weasel is kept, others are discarded Generation 1: WDLMNLT DTJBKWIRZREZLMQCO P Generation 2: WDLTMNLT DTJBSWIRZREZLMQCO P Generation 10: MDLDMNLS ITJISWHRZREZ MECS P Generation 20: MELDINLS IT ISWPRKE Z WECSEL Generation 30: METHINGS IT ISWLIKE B WECSEL Generation 40: METHINKS IT IS LIKE I WEASEL Generation 43: METHINKS IT IS LIKE A WEASEL Fitness or adaptive landscapes – genetic variation is pushed to the direction of the arrows Waddington – epigenetic landscape – curiously posits a rolling, not a climbing ball Saddle points in mathematics as non-optimal solutions The circular argumentation problem Inherent goal – often evokes attacks of circular argumentation The effects strive towards the goal The goal preexists (who invented the goal?) Answer – evolutionary forces How do you know this was the goal? Because it is reached! The book was a best-seller sold over 1,5 million copies and translated to 31 languages „If this book works as I intend, religious readers who open it will be atheists when they put it down. What presumptuous optimism! Of course, dyed-inthe-wool faith-heads are immune to argument, their resistance built up over years of childhood indoctrination using methods that took centuries to mature (whether by evolution or design).” „But I believe there are plenty of open-minded people out there:” Conversely it raised sales of spiritual books by 50% and the sales of the Bible by 120% (amazon.com) Douglas Adams: "isn't it enough to see that a garden is beautiful without having to believe that there are fairies at the bottom of it too?„ (The Hitchhiker’s guide to the Galaxy) Robert Pirsig: when one person suffers from a delusion it is called insanity. When many people suffer from a delusion it is called religion. The God hypothesis Einsteinean religion Metaphor for nature or the mysteries of the universe „God does not play dice” – rules of nature can be established (there is a trap of intentionalism here) The God Hypothesis God=creator of universe, who needs to be worshipped Denies the fact that science and religion are non-overlapping magisteria The God hypothesis „How the complex, improbable desing of the universe arises” The Arument from Design vs natural selection The Ultimate Boeing 747 Gambit The God hypothesis Curiously universal „theory of religion as an accidental by-product – a misfiring of something useful” The intentional stance Memes Morals would you commit murder, rape or robbery if you knew that no God existed? Kant : categorical imperatives Dawkins : altruistic genes selected for by evolution creating natural empathy Strongy against the religious indoctrination of children Should all cultural practices be banned then? Denett on religion An argument towards the scientific study of religion – terrorist attempts 9/11 Explanation given on the basis of meme theory (by Dawkins) Evaluation of good and bad aspects Denett on religion Part I: Opening Pandora's Box Relationship of science and religion Part II: The Evolution of Religion Part III: Religion Today What should be done to stop religious fanatics Breaking which spell? The story of the suicidal ant and the lancet fluke, a small worm There are many ideas to die for protecting ideologies (other animals protect food, cubs or habitat only) The curious example of the dog (domestication) Ideas are not intelligent themselves- why should they cause others to kill Neither are lancet flukes and the wings of butterflies Breaking which spell? Religion Social systems Participants avow belief In supernatural agents OR Agents whose approval is to be sought Elvis Presley fan club is not one Need not be anthropomorphic Jehova exists in real-time according to some accounts and not real.time according to others If prayer is a symbolic activity, not addressed to anyone, it is not part of religion Maybe this is the origin of religion Some rituals can pass to non-religious (Santa Claus or Halloween) Private religions – spiritual in his terms, not religious Black magic and satanist cults They are not religions, because no one thinks so?? Buddhism & Confucianism (again a contradiction) Breaking which spell? Breaking the spell – of religion The analogy of the men with a cell phone in the room Religion as a potentially evil spell – Sharin gas attack, 9/11 Other ones mentioned: Drugs Gambling Alcohol Child pornography Addiction? – life without it is not worth living Excessive physical or psychological dependence (conversation? Communication?) Breaking which spell? Wouldn’t an extensive and invasive examination destroy the phenomenon itself? Nobody knows the answer – incl.Denett Endangered species – often become extinct because of capturing them to breed – which they don’t in captivity Isolated people are often changed if studied by anthropologists Cadavres were prohibited to study – medicine started off, when they did Alfred Kinsey’s study of Human sexual behaviour – myths dispelled – it improved sex life although consider „free love” Breaking which spell? Reformulating the category names Gays and straights (and not glum) Bright and … supers? (from supernatural) Philip Tetlock’s sacred values You’re money or your life! I’m thinking, I’m thinking! Aside – mugging becomes lucrative.. Breaking which spell? Religion is a natural phenomena Not an opposition of culture Of course it is cultural Not an opposition of supernatural either It is in the nature of the homo sapiens to create religious memes New myths What about a Harry Potter day? A new pretext to recieve presents! Would you be in favour of inventing it? Santa Claus - 1985 Some questions about science Basically the same argument as Dawkins’ – and Gould’s non-overlapping magisteria again It is possble to be neutral to religion The gap between mind sciences (Geistwissenschaften) and nature sciences (Naturwissenschaften) is narrowing (though not yet disappeared) Some questions about science Homo sapiens – the power of the source of prediction We can minimalize damages by preventing them – no other species has been observed to do that (collecting food is a general answer to periodic changes) Epidemics Economical crisis Hurricanes Can we prevent the next 9/11 by studying religion? What if music is bad for you? It can’t feed anyone or cure the ill… All he asks for is to study religion – f it turns out to be bad, we need to think if it turns out to be good, atheist attacks can be silenced Why Good things happen Because of evolution… Footprintsof coyotes and dogs Why do coyotes howl? The homo sapiens sugar industry Tons of sugar and its counterpart – obesity clinics, toothpaste Co-evolution of plant strategies to spread and homo s. strategies to find energy source The free-floating rationale It is perfectly rational as a mechanism, but nobody – including the participants – is aware, not conscious i.e. you don’t need to understand it for it to work Why Good things happen The CUI BONO obsession No free luch – somebody has to benefit „Evolution is remarkably efficient in sweeping pointless accidents off the scene” Remember the lancet fluke And the toxoplasma gondii Which lives in rats, drives them reckless, so they get eaten by cats, which is the only place they can reproduce Sexual reproduction vs asexual – making offspring more inscrutable to parasites – actually adaptation in general Parasites are in an arms race with hosts Why Good things happen The Good Trick obsession Anything that enhances fitness is a Good Trick Flight and eyes were invented repeatedly over the course of evolution Religion takes time & energy, both valuable and finite resources -> it must be a Good Trick -> cui bono? Free-floating rationale works with culture too – that is a meme You don’t have to understand the shape of the boat in terms of biodynamics it it is a tradition (N.B. is this true for modern science ?) Why Good things happen The CUI BONO of religion The sweet tooth theory Religion is good for us – just as sugar is – and we have developed a taste for it And just as sugar – saccharine – it can be chated The Symbiont Theories The lancet fluke theory Primarily it is not the Homo S that religion is good for Mutualists Commensals Parasites Hundred trillion cells – 90% not human cells Why Good things happen The CUI BONO of religion Sexual selection The Peacock’s tail theory Runaway selection A whim of females? Fitness indicator Not a whim a sign of health Faithfulness Intelligence – music Group selection People with religion were more altruistic in necessary cases – better survival in rough times The pearl theory – spandrels in a cathedral A beautiful by-product Does not enhance anything, it is an objet trouvé The roots of religion Historians „There have always been religion” Dennett: that only means religion is more ancient than history writing The CARGO cults & Melanesians – shows the formation of new religions The John Frum cult The Pomio Kivung cult The roots of religion Formation of new religions goes at an astounding pace 2-3 created every day Average lifetime is less than a decade Religions – as known today – are relatively young historically compared to other cultural phenomena Christianity – cca. 2,000 years Judaism – cca. 4,000 years Writing – cca. 5,000 years Agriculture – cca. 40,000 Language – cca. 35,000 - ? The roots of religion Psychological explanations – raisons d’être 1. 2. 3. To confort To explain the unexplainable Encourage group cohesion Premature curiosity satisfaction (Dennett – the hows and whys) The roots of religion Modules that are combined Pascal Boyer Agent detector Movements – categorizing them http://astro.temple.edu/~tshipley/mocap/dotMovie.html http://www.biomotionlab.ca/Demos/BMLwalker.html •Useful if you need to find agentive entities in a noisy background Biological motion • based on a few dots • it does not work upside down • pattern of activity • gender! The roots of religion HADD – Hyperactive Agent Detector Device (Justin Barrett) Signal detection theory and game theory combined Is this noise a tiger? I think it is It really is tiger rustling tiger Hit Miss rustling False alarm Correct rejection The roots of religion HADD – Hyperactive Agent Detector Device (Justin Barrett) Better safe than sorry Missing a signal is more expensive than a false alarm Animism Children Adults?? the sun smiles at you There are spirits in every tree My computer hates me… The less predictable something is, the more you tend to attribute intentions to it Practical animism – flowers and river The roots of religion Rain dances – impractical animism (at least without proper meteorological knowledge) Skinner, B.F. Pigeon superstition Random reinforcement Elaborate dances The roots of religion Successful memes Some counterintuitive ideas are more interesting than others Invisible person? Living dead? Invisible axe with no handle? Axe made of cheese? Successful? Contradict only one or two biases – but in other ways they fot the schema Often concerned with animacy Proto-meme – obsessional thought Do not miss the circular argument – again… The roots of religion Supernormal stimuli – success? Tinbergen – the gull and the orange spot Humans love to surround theselves with supernormal stimuli Music – rather pure sounds than noise Pure vowels – melody Pure consonants – rhythm Pure coloured pictures - art Bilateral symmetry It is only characteristic when the other faces you Sign of health! The roots of religion „But the bogeyman under your bed is not yet religion” You need to believe that they exist! Non-referential names abound Cinderella Unicorns Flying carpets Pudus The roots of religion Strategic information = theory of mind = intentional stance Homo s. obsessed with societal relationships and other minds (remember their group size!) Stories – learn about the intentions and beliefs of others = gossip A Full Access Agent? In traditions it is often ancestral figures Parents seem like that to children Freud – Father Figure mythic struggles Not necessarily omniscient – if you lost your knife vs. You left it at the crime scene (strategic information only) They became omniscient later on (Boyer) The roots of religion Why are parents like full access agents? Precocial species less prone to epigeneic effects Altricial species Prolonged paternal care & training – extended information transmission Informational superhighways Genes is everything needed to be coded in the genome? Presupposed regularities Gravity, salinity, electromagnetic wave spectrum, composition of atmosphere Instructional pathyway imprinting The roots of religion Coevolution of cuteness – altricial species Humans Dinosaurs - fossils Mickey Mouse The roots of religion Coevolution of hones information - teaching It is in the best interest of parents to inform and not misinform It is in the best interests of children to listen and be obedient Authority figures often have hypnotical powers analgesia The roots of religion Suppose there is a Full Access Agent – you need a wa to know what he knows Divination! Flip a coin – More serious rituals take away the responsability – and the acrimony of bad decisions Numerology Astrology Clouds Cards Tea leaves Melted wax pored into water Jaynes exopsycic methods of decision making The idea of randomness is relatively new The roots of religion Decision making Maybe people just need a placebo effect of support from their ancestors – (remember what we said about the consciousness of decision making!) Skeptics are spoiling the fun The roots of religion Shamans and rituals – it actually works Jared Diamond – we have discovered all edible plants (even if preparation needed) and most medical plants Ritual healing : Psychological/hypnotic effect – usually called placebo today Shamanic treatment is correlated with patient hypnotizability Childbirth! Direct connection to evolution The roots of religion Why are we susceptible to hypnotizing effects at all? Humphrey (2002) economic resource management Body has its own cures : fever, vomiting, pain, immune system However this is costly Stress reduces the possibility of these responses – energy is needed for immediate defense against something else Only works if there is hope of curing Hypnosis creates both! Shamanic healing – ancient health insurance! The roots of religion Rituals – functions Divination Shamanistic healing Multilexing – creating a common memory store to preserve knowledge The more people know sg the less likely it is that it is forgotten – repeating all over Evans-Pritchard – shamans typically try to enlist people from a young age to these rituals Stewardship Practitioners of folk religions do not go about convincing each other of the existence of the spirits – no more than we go about convincing each other of the existence of germs, atoms, oxigens or gravity How do you know? Best to rely on others about knowledge Conducting R&D is expensive Neolithic – agricultural revolution and population boom – no time to theorize Separation of proto-science and proto-religion Unable to refute Invisible- cannot Ecplicit instructions not to Stewardship Of sheep and men Domestication – caused a population growth in both species Clear case of symbiosis Religion meme and its shepherds Teachers and priests keep religious and calculus memes alive The memes keep them alive Dawkins’s idea on kleptocracy the entertwining of the political and religious Threat of an Ultimate Being Studies of fanatism in religion Cross/culturally recurrent features of religion: communal participation in costly ritual belief in supernatural agents and counterintuitive concepts separation of the sacred and the profane adolescence as the critical life phase for the transmission of religious beliefs and values costliness of religious activities the four “B’s” religious belief behavior (rituals) badges (such as religious attire) bans (taboos) Sosis, 2006: honest signals costly religious demands are today increasing in many communities throughout the world! kashrut (laws pertaining to edible food) among UltraOrthodox Jews are more stringent now than at any time multicultural openness of Western societies in-group cohesion requires that groups increase their distinctiveness in order to preserve the relative costliness of the group’s previous bans and badges the universal features of religious terrorists is a strong rejection of Western multiculturalism! video testaments - undeniable contracts How could suicide terrorism be adaptive? suicide terrorism is likely to benefit the group - groups deploying suicide terrorists tend to achieve their goals recoup their losses through benefits to their kin Palestinian suicide terrorists receive financial payments (up to $10,000) for their martyred sons and daughters Israel’s policy of destroying suicide bomber’s homes ! payoffs motivating suicide bombers are not material but rather otherworldly 72 virgins await a shahid Female martyrs are promised to be the chief of the virgins and exceed their beauty Suicide terrorism Religious? Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE), a Marxist-Leninist group Bin Laden local grievance (getting U.S. troops off “Muslim” soil) into a cosmic clash between civilizations Controversial ideas Palestinian suicide bombers have above average education and are economically better off than the general population no evidence of psychopathology in an international sample of Muslim terrorists (not depressed) religion is the means by which terrorists translate a local political struggle into a cosmic war – divine significance Suicide terrorism Group cohesion? Conscious of death – anxious to defeat it (cemeteries – exclusively human)? Religion and morals The Ten commandments of Christianity The Qu’ran Moral Dilemmas Development – Kohlberg Universality Moral dilemmas Two approaches One emphasising development – Kohlberg Moral stories - development Another emphasising universality of morality Moral relativity/subjectivity or universalism Moral stories – universal patterns of answers Kohlberg and his dilemmas Hans, the pharmaceutist story Level 1 (Pre-Conventional) 1. Obedience and punishment orientation (How can I avoid punishment?) 2. Self-interest orientation (What's in it for me?) Level 2 (Conventional) 3. Interpersonal accord and conformity (Social norms) social relationships (The good boy/good girl attitude) – the golden rule – ToM! 4. Authority and social-order maintaining orientation (Law and order morality) rigid dictums (Kantean imperatives) Level 3 (Post-Conventional) 5. Social contract orientation 6. Universal ethical principles (Principled conscience) Universal moral grammar Certain actions are prohibited in all cultures Intuitive jurisprudence is very similar to a well-developed legal code 3-4 years 5-6 years Use intent or purpose to evaluate an action that has the same result Genuine violations – violations of social conventions (battery vs wearing pyjamas to school) Distinguish between false factual beliefs and false moral beliefs Purpusful: dullus directus (want), dullus eventualis (don’t mind (stealing a bag with ID card)) Non-purpuseful: luxuria (consciousness), negligentia (unconsious) - taking into account individual abilities Uncle Joseph falling in the pit The trolley and other dilemmas Universal moral codes Poverty of stimulus Battery as means vs battery as side effect Other considerations Personal vs impersonal attacks Using fellow men as „tools” – not living persons Scripts activated as a basis for the event Structural grammar Variation is still too big compared to meta- linguistic judgements In some cases you do have „gut feelings”, but in others you just have to think (Dupoux) The essential difference??? Some background for theory of mind “I know you think you understand what you thought I said, but I don’t think you realise that what you heard was not what I meant.” ~ Daniel Greenspan Theory of Mind (ToM): The ability to understand that others have beliefs, desires and intentions that are different from one's own. (David Premack and G. Woodruff, 1978) Three questions: •Do animals have TOM? •When do children start to have ToM? •What is the mechanism of origin of ToM? Chimps have shown evidence of culture, imitation, deception, and selfawareness in both the wild and in controlled experiments • complex, shifting social coalitions • hide objects to deceive others • occasionally use naturally occurring gestures to direct behaviors of partners • brush lipstick from own forehead • captive chimps point when interacting with humans • hide objects from others But do these behaviors show ToM? • never use gestures to solicit help or direct attention of another, even with extensive training • notice the regularities in behaviors of others, not mental states when they deceive • do not follow gaze of others and oblivious to attentional state of others • experimentally shown not to understand that people have to see them to respond to a begging gesture … until they were adults (over age 11) Gergely & Csibra First-Order False Belief The ability to infer one person’s mental state. In this case, the child recognizes that Little Red Riding Hood thinks that it is her grandmother in the bed, but the child knows it is really the wicked wolf. Typically developing children recognize this by 4 yrs; m.a. matched children with autism instead report what they themselves know; may pass it at older m.a.. Sally Anne False Belief Task The Sally-Anne task is usually administered using puppets or dolls. Like all False Belief tasks it requires the child to take the perspective of another, and to answer questions based on what the other person knows. 1 2 1) Sally plays with her ball, puts it in a basket. 2) Then she leaves. 3 4 3) Anne moves the ball to a box. 4) Where will Sally look for it? Where does Anne think Sally will look for the ball? Monkey Neurons See Do Rizzolatti (2002) recorded from the ventral premotor area of the frontal lobes of monkeys and found that certain cells will fire when a monkey performs a single, highly specific action with its hand: pulling, pushing, tugging, grasping, picking up and putting a peanut in the mouth etc. Different neurons fire in response to different actions. The essential idea in ToM: Link first–person and third person experiences HUmans respond to mimicked movements as well! – fMRI studies 15% of neurons that respond to action sound scenes (cracking peanuts, tearing paper apart) respond to sound alone as well. Simon Baron-Cohen The female and male brain types The other side – social constructionists Sex might be biological – but gender is entirely constructed Talking about gender is like fish talking about water Gender is one of the major ways that humans organize their lives: Division of labour Allocation of scarce goods Assigned responsability for taking care of children Choosing people for a job : ageism and sexism exist in all cultures We are not animals Rituals – animals have none Some of these create gender – different for men and women Incest taboos in H.S. Dominance hierarchies- based not on physical power, but on other things – control of surplus food, etc. Mating feeding nurturing In animals its inborn, in humans its learned Gender transgression – construction! Some societies have three genders Berdache, hijra, yanith – biologically male, but treated as women Manly hearted women Western society: Transsexuals Transvestites Women fighting in wars Gender bending Homo sapiens shows very little physical difference between the sexes Needs identifying clothing, jewelry, hairstyles Common gender misidentification with people in jeans and T-shirts Jan Morris Conundrum – easy to shift from one gender to another Queen Elisabeth and Saudi Arabia – an honorary man Theater – Japanese kabuki or Shakespeare’s theatre M Butterfly Gender blenders Women with short hair, jeans, no jewelry, etc. Sent out from ladies washrooms Tertiary sex characteristics Children are taught, to walk, talk, eat and gesture according to their biological sex The accidental transsexual – the case of circumcision Even bodies are formed Chinese feet Genitalia mutilations Parents create gender entire, with their behaviour to children The Baby X experiment – hypothetical People’s perception of anger or sadness of them if they cry! Sameness taboo Women in the military are required to wear make-up and skirts at balls Gender differences in society Work and wages (transsexuals) Prestige of a job (Russian doctors) Learned helplessness (opening doors for women) Freudian psychoanalytic theory Oedipous conflict The Maxist explanation Keep them in the dark Szendi: Evolutionary strategy – control over the very scarce resource of reproduction! „Harry Potter is a sexist, neo-conservative autocrat.” Rosie Ivády Sexist Women The universal second race Rarely in power – secondary positions Homogenic group compared to men (well characterized) Some argue this is an accident and women are portrayed positively // that of course depends very much on what you consider positive http://atheism.about.com/od/harrypotter/i/women.htm, 2008-10-04 Sexist- Heads of House Filius Flitwick Severus Snape 1. 2. 3. Albus Dumbledore Severus Snape ?Minerva McGonagall? Pomona Sprout Minerva McGonagall (that only becomes clear in later interviews) Sexist – main characters – the Dark Side and the Light Side Voldemort Amycus Carrow? Fenrir Greyback Lucius Malfoy Draco Malfoy Severus Snape Albus Dumbledore Harry Potter Ron Weasley Bellatrix Lestrange, Alecto Carrow Narcissa Malfoy? Minerva McGonagall Hermione Granger Neo-conservative Conservative? I take as „adherent to traditions” Hogwarts is the very symbol of traditions Harry Potter – constant evasion to a Golden age past –family reunion FAMILY itself is central Consider the Weasleys – the ideal family with traditional roles Potter family – and Auror and a ??? Housewife? Aurors in general are men – except for N. Tonks Consider Hogwarts as a quasi-family. /Your house is going to be like your family here./ Autocrat Political power in the hands of a single self-appointed ruler Harry Potter by the end of the series It is rather an oligarchy, a triumvirate ruling over the fate of the world (no cooperation with the ministry, does not tell ANYone what he is doing, battle scene) Autoritarian in sociopsychological sense – group leading Only in the 7th book. 6th – rather ridiculized because on his idea on Malfoy (which in case turns to be true), but by the end already orders people around 1-4th Harry-Hermione division „Harry Potter is a sexist, neo-conservative autocrat.” No good answer – please rely on your own common sense. Thank you for your attention! This presentation would not have been possible without the ingeniously fantasy-rich schematic work of J.K. Rowling. I thank her for the inspiration.