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Transcript
Chapter 28
Pregnancy and Human Development
I.
FROM EGG TO EMBRYO
A. Developmental Stages and Terminology
B. Accomplishing Fertilization
1. Sperm transport and capacitation
2. Acrosomal reaction and sperm penetration
3. Cortical reaction and polyspermy
4. Completion of Meiosis II and syngamy
C. Pre-embryonic Development
1. Cleavage and blastocyst formation
2. Implantation
3. Placentation
II.
EVENTS OF EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT
A. Formation and Roles of the Embryonic Membranes
1. Amnion
2. Yolk sac
3. Allantosis
B. Germ Layers
1. Gastrulation: germ layer formation
2. Organogenesis
1. Specialization of Ectoderm
2. Specialization of Endoderm
3. Specialization of Mesoderm
3. Developmental aspects of fetal circulation
III.
EVENTS OF FETAL DEVELOPMENT
A. Weeks 9 thru 12
B. Weeks 13 thru 16
C. Weeks 17 thru 20
D. Weeks 21 thru 30
E. Weeks 30 thru 40
IV.
EFFECTS OF PREGNANCY OF THE MOTHER
A. Anatomical Changes
B. Metabolic Changes
1. Human Placental Lactogen
2. Human Chorionic Thyrotropin
C. Physiological Changes
1. Gastrointestinal system
2. Urinary system
3. Respiratory system
4. Cardiovascular system
V.
PARTURITION
A. Initiation of Labor
B. Stages of Labor
1. Dilation stage
2. Expulsion stage
3. Placental stage
C. Lactation and breastfeeding
D. Adjustments of the infant to extrauterine life
1. First breath
2. Occlusion of fetal blood vessels and shunts
3. Transitional period
VI.
HOMEOSTATIC IMBALANCES
A. Ectopic Pregnancy
B. Placenta Previa
C. Placental Abruption
D. Pre-eclampsia
E. Spontaneous and Inducted Abortions
F. Dystocia