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th 10 Grade TAKS Review 1492 The Italian navigator, Christopher Columbus, who sailed with the support of the Spanish crown, arrived in the Americas in 1492. Colombian Exchange A series of interactions between the Native Americans and Europeans. 1607 In this year, representatives of the Virginia Company of London established the first permanent English settlement in North America. The settlement was called Jamestown in honor of King James I of England. 1776 Declaration of Independence signed. Start of the Revolutionary War. United States established as an independent nation. 1787 In 1787, delegates gathered in Philadelphia to revise the Articles of Confederation. Instead, they drafted, debated, compromised, and finally approved for ratification the Constitution of the United States. 1861-1865 The American Civil War was fought during these years. It began with the firing on Fort Sumter and ended with the Confederate surrender at Appomattox Court House almost four years later Magna Carta The Magna Carta was signed by King John in 1215. It asserted the right of citizens to a trial by jury no imprisonment without a trial no taxation except by approval of Parliament English Bill of Rights 1689 King William and Queen Mary accepted this document in 1689. It guaranteed certain rights to English citizens It declared that elections for Parliament would happen frequently. By accepting this document, they supported a limited monarchy = a system in which the king shared his power with Parliament and the people. Declaration of Independence This document was adopted by the Second Continental Congress on July 4, 1776. It established the 13 American colonies as independent states, free from rule by Great Britain. Thomas Jefferson wrote the majority of this document. Quote from: Declaration of Independence “We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness. That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among men, deriving their just power from the consent of the governed. That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or abolish it, and to institute new government…” Declaration of Independence 1776 The Declaration states the two major principles on which the Constitution is based: Government gets its power from the consent of the governed. All men are created equal and have unalienable rights. Unalienable Rights Rights/Privileges according to the Declaration of Independence. These rights cannot be taken away. Unalienable Rights are: life Liberty the pursuit of happiness Grievances = Complains Colonial Grievances Taxation without consent (permission) No representation No trial by jury Quartering troops Standing armies in peace time Thomas Jefferson Writer of the Declaration of Independence Colonial leader 3rd President George Washington Leader of the Continental Army during the Revolution 1st president of the United States “No Taxation Without Representation” Colonial protests against British policies and taxes. American Revolution The war of independence fought between Britain and 13 of its colonies in North America 1775-1783 Lexington and Concord (1775) Battles that started the American Revolution. Battle of Saratoga (1777) Colonist victory over British. Turning point in Revolutionary War. French offer help to colonists. Battle of Yorktown (1781) Colonists defeated the British. The British surrendered. End of military struggle. Treaty of Paris (1883) Ended the Revolutionary War. British recognized colonists’ independence. British gave colonists all the lands stretching west of the Mississippi River. Articles of Confederation This document was the nation’s first constitution It was adopted by the Second Continental Congress in 1781 during the Revolution. The document was limited because states held most of the power, and Congress lacked the power to tax, regulate trade, or control coinage. U.S. Constitution A document that sets out the laws and principles of the government of the United States. Principles of the U.S. Constitution 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Limited Government Republicanism Checks and Balances Federalism Separation of Powers Popular Sovereignty Individual Rights Limited Government A government in which its powers are specified in the Constitution. A government in which everyone, including all authority figures, must obey the laws Republicanism The idea that government is controlled by the people who hold power and elect representatives, giving those representatives power to make and enforce laws. Checks and Balances The sharing of powers by the three branches of government to “check” the activities and power of the others Checks and Balances Federalism The distribution of power between a federal government and the states within a union. =1 = 50 Separation of Powers The idea that the power of government is separated into three branches of government. The three branches are: Legislative Executive Judicial Popular Sovereignty All political power rests with the people who can create, alter, and abolish government. Representative Government A system of government in which power is held by the people and their will is carried out by elected representatives. Individual Rights Individual rights, our personal rights, are protected by the Bill of Rights, the first ten amendments. The Federalists The Federalists, John Jay, James Madison, and Alexander Hamilton, favored ratification of the Constitution. Federalist Papers A series of essays written by three leading Federalists. They supported a form of government that divided power between a strong central government and the states. Anti-Federalists The Anti-Federalists argued that the Constitution was taking power away from the states and individuals. Their arguments against the Constitution led to the passage of the Bill of Rights after the Constitution was approved. Ratify Approve Bill of Rights First ten amendments to the Constitution (ratified in 1791) Amendments The way of making changes to the U.S. Constitution First Amendment: Religious and Political Freedom States that “Congress shall make no law” restricting freedom of: Speech Press Religion Assembly Petition Second Amendment: Right to Bear Arms Guarantees the right of states to organize militias, or armies, and the right of individuals to bear arms. Third Amendment: Quartering of Troops Soldiers cannot be housed in people’s homes unless it is approved by law. Fourth Amendment: Search and Seizure Protects citizens from unreasonable searches and seizures. If a judge believes the search is reasonable, a search warrant will be granted. Fifth Amendment: Rights of the Accused This amendment protects an accused person from having to testify against him or herself (selfincrimination). It bans double jeopardy (tried twice for the same crime) It guarantees that no citizen may be deprived of life, liberty, or property without due process of law – certain legal procedures that must be carried out before a person can be punished. Sixth Amendment: Right to a Speedy, Public Trial Guarantees a fair and impartial trial to those accused of a crime. Accused must be told of the charges. Accused has a right to a trial by jury. Accused has a right to be represented by a lawyer. Seventh Amendment: Trial by Jury in Civil Cases Guarantees individuals the right to a jury trial in many noncriminal matters. Eighth Amendment: Limits of Fines and Punishment Federal courts can not require an unusually high bail. No one can be punished in an cruel and unusual way. Manifest Destiny This expression was popular in the 1840s. Many people believed that the United States was destined to secure territory from “sea to sea,” from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean. This rationale drove the acquisition of territory. Plantation System A system of agricultural production based on large-scale land ownership and use of slave labor. Tariff Tax on imported goods. Protective Tariff A tax on an imported product instituted to protect local industries Nullify Nullification Crisis Southerners favored freedom of trade and believed in the authority of states over the federal government. Southerners declared federal protective tariffs null and void. States’ Rights The idea that states had the right to control all issues/laws in their state not specifically given to the federal government by the specific words of the Constitution. States’ Rights It was used mostly by Southern states to argue that they had the right to nullify federal laws they did not agree with. States’ Rights States’ rights became the leading cause of the Civil War as Southern states seceded from the United States and formed the Confederate State of America in 1861. Dred Scott v. Sandford Supreme Court case that ruled that African Americans were not citizens of the U.S. Slavery Abolitionist Movement The movement to end slavery in the United States. Sectionalism A word describing being loyal to a local interest instead of the national level concerns and also a word that stood for a major cause of the Civil War. Civil War The U.S. Civil War (18611865) resulted from years of conflict between competing sectional interests – including slavery States’ rights conflicting economic and social structures of the North and South. Secession = to withdraw 11 of the Southern states separated from the United States and formed their own country = Confederate States of America. Gettysburg Address Speech given by Abraham Lincoln which captured the spirit of liberty and morality ideally held by citizens of a democracy. That ideal was threatened by the Civil War. Emancipation Proclamation Issued by Abraham Lincoln on September 22, 1862 It declared that all slaves in the rebellious Confederate states would be free. th 13 Amendment A Reconstruction amendment that freed slaves in the United States th 14 Amendment A Reconstruction amendment, which declared that all persons born in the U.S. were citizens and were entitled to equal rights. th 15 Amendment A Reconstruction amendment that granted black men the right to vote. Reconstruction (1867-1877) Reconstruction (1867-1877) The period after the Civil War. The United States confronted problems of re-admitting the Southern states to the Union and integrating the freed slaves into society. 1914-1918 World War I 1939-1945 World War II 1941-1945 U.S. Involvement in World War II Primary Sources Consists of evidence produced by someone who participated in an event or lived during the time being studied Secondary Sources Include descriptions or interpretations prepared by people who were not involved in the events described – like textbooks or biographies.