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Transcript
th
10
Grade
TAKS Review
1492

The Italian navigator,
Christopher
Columbus, who sailed
with the support of
the Spanish crown,
arrived in the
Americas in 1492.
Colombian Exchange

A series of interactions between the
Native Americans and Europeans.
1607


In this year, representatives
of the Virginia Company of
London established the first
permanent English settlement
in North America.
The settlement was called
Jamestown in honor of King
James I of England.
1776



Declaration of
Independence signed.
Start of the
Revolutionary War.
United States
established as an
independent nation.
1787


In 1787, delegates
gathered in Philadelphia
to revise the Articles of
Confederation.
Instead, they drafted,
debated, compromised,
and finally approved for
ratification the
Constitution of the United
States.
1861-1865


The American Civil War
was fought during these
years.
It began with the firing
on Fort Sumter and
ended with the
Confederate surrender at
Appomattox Court House
almost four years later
Magna Carta


The Magna Carta was
signed by King John
in 1215.
It asserted the right
of citizens to



a trial by jury
no imprisonment
without a trial
no taxation except by
approval of Parliament
English Bill of Rights
1689

King William and Queen Mary
accepted this document in
1689.



It guaranteed certain rights to
English citizens
It declared that elections for
Parliament would happen
frequently.
By accepting this document,
they supported a limited
monarchy = a system in
which the king shared his
power with Parliament and
the people.
Declaration of
Independence



This document was adopted
by the Second Continental
Congress on July 4, 1776.
It established the 13
American colonies as
independent states, free from
rule by Great Britain.
Thomas Jefferson wrote the
majority of this document.
Quote from:
Declaration of Independence
“We hold these truths to be self-evident,
that all men are created equal, that they
are endowed by their Creator with
certain unalienable rights, that among
these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of
Happiness. That to secure these rights,
Governments are instituted among men,
deriving their just power from the
consent of the governed. That whenever
any Form of Government becomes
destructive of these ends, it is the Right
of the People to alter or abolish it, and to
institute new government…”
Declaration of
Independence 1776

The Declaration states
the two major principles
on which the Constitution
is based:


Government gets its power
from the consent of the
governed.
All men are created equal
and have unalienable
rights.
Unalienable Rights



Rights/Privileges according
to the Declaration of
Independence.
These rights cannot be
taken away.
Unalienable Rights are:



life
Liberty
the pursuit of happiness
Grievances
=
Complains
Colonial Grievances





Taxation without
consent (permission)
No representation
No trial by jury
Quartering troops
Standing armies in
peace time
Thomas Jefferson



Writer of the
Declaration of
Independence
Colonial leader
3rd President
George Washington


Leader of the
Continental Army
during the Revolution
1st president of the
United States
“No Taxation Without
Representation”

Colonial protests
against British policies
and taxes.
American Revolution


The war of
independence fought
between Britain and
13 of its colonies in
North America
1775-1783
Lexington and Concord (1775)

Battles that started
the American
Revolution.
Battle of Saratoga (1777)



Colonist victory over
British.
Turning point in
Revolutionary War.
French offer help to
colonists.
Battle of Yorktown (1781)



Colonists defeated the
British.
The British surrendered.
End of military struggle.
Treaty of Paris (1883)



Ended the
Revolutionary War.
British recognized
colonists’
independence.
British gave colonists
all the lands
stretching west of the
Mississippi River.
Articles of Confederation



This document was the
nation’s first constitution
It was adopted by the
Second Continental
Congress in 1781 during
the Revolution.
The document was
limited because states
held most of the power,
and Congress lacked the
power to tax, regulate
trade, or control coinage.
U.S. Constitution

A document that sets
out the laws and
principles of the
government of the
United States.
Principles of the U.S.
Constitution
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Limited Government
Republicanism
Checks and Balances
Federalism
Separation of Powers
Popular Sovereignty
Individual Rights
Limited Government


A government in
which its powers are
specified in the
Constitution.
A government in
which everyone,
including all authority
figures, must obey
the laws
Republicanism

The idea that government
is controlled by the people
who hold power and elect
representatives, giving
those representatives
power to make and enforce
laws.
Checks and Balances

The sharing of powers
by the three branches
of government to
“check” the activities
and power of the
others
Checks and Balances
Federalism

The distribution of
power between a
federal government
and the states within
a union.
=1
= 50
Separation of Powers


The idea that the power
of government is
separated into three
branches of government.
The three branches are:



Legislative
Executive
Judicial
Popular Sovereignty

All political power
rests with the people
who can create, alter,
and abolish
government.
Representative Government

A system of government
in which power is held by
the people and their will
is carried out by elected
representatives.
Individual Rights

Individual rights, our
personal rights, are
protected by the Bill
of Rights, the first ten
amendments.
The Federalists

The Federalists, John
Jay, James Madison,
and Alexander
Hamilton, favored
ratification of the
Constitution.
Federalist Papers


A series of essays
written by three
leading Federalists.
They supported a
form of government
that divided power
between a strong
central government
and the states.
Anti-Federalists


The Anti-Federalists argued
that the Constitution was
taking power away from
the states and individuals.
Their arguments against
the Constitution led to the
passage of the Bill of Rights
after the Constitution was
approved.
Ratify

Approve
Bill of Rights


First ten amendments
to the Constitution
(ratified in 1791)
Amendments

The way of making
changes to the U.S.
Constitution
First Amendment:
Religious and Political Freedom

States that “Congress
shall make no law”
restricting freedom
of:





Speech
Press
Religion
Assembly
Petition
Second Amendment:
Right to Bear Arms

Guarantees the right
of states to organize
militias, or armies,
and the right of
individuals to bear
arms.
Third Amendment:
Quartering of Troops

Soldiers cannot be
housed in people’s
homes unless it is
approved by law.
Fourth Amendment:
Search and Seizure


Protects citizens from
unreasonable searches
and seizures.
If a judge believes the
search is reasonable, a
search warrant will be
granted.
Fifth Amendment:
Rights of the Accused



This amendment protects an
accused person from having to
testify against him or herself (selfincrimination).
It bans double jeopardy (tried twice
for the same crime)
It guarantees that no citizen may be
deprived of life, liberty, or property
without due process of law – certain
legal procedures that must be
carried out before a person can be
punished.
Sixth Amendment:
Right to a Speedy, Public Trial

Guarantees a fair and
impartial trial to those
accused of a crime.



Accused must be told
of the charges.
Accused has a right to
a trial by jury.
Accused has a right to
be represented by a
lawyer.
Seventh Amendment:
Trial by Jury in Civil Cases

Guarantees
individuals the
right to a jury trial
in many noncriminal matters.
Eighth Amendment:
Limits of Fines and Punishment


Federal courts can not
require an unusually
high bail.
No one can be
punished in an cruel
and unusual way.
Manifest Destiny



This expression was
popular in the 1840s.
Many people believed
that the United States
was destined to secure
territory from “sea to
sea,” from the Atlantic to
the Pacific Ocean.
This rationale drove the
acquisition of territory.
Plantation System

A system of
agricultural
production based on
large-scale land
ownership and use of
slave labor.
Tariff

Tax on imported
goods.
Protective Tariff

A tax on an imported
product instituted to
protect local
industries
Nullify
Nullification Crisis


Southerners favored
freedom of trade and
believed in the
authority of states
over the federal
government.
Southerners declared
federal protective
tariffs null and void.
States’ Rights

The idea that states
had the right to
control all issues/laws
in their state not
specifically given to
the federal
government by the
specific words of the
Constitution.
States’ Rights

It was used mostly by
Southern states to
argue that they had
the right to nullify
federal laws they did
not agree with.
States’ Rights

States’ rights became the leading cause of the
Civil War as Southern states seceded from the
United States and formed the Confederate State
of America in 1861.
Dred Scott v.
Sandford

Supreme Court case
that ruled that African
Americans were not
citizens of the U.S.
Slavery
Abolitionist Movement

The movement to end
slavery in the United
States.
Sectionalism

A word describing
being loyal to a local
interest instead of the
national level
concerns and also a
word that stood for a
major cause of the
Civil War.
Civil War

The U.S. Civil War (18611865) resulted from years
of conflict between
competing sectional
interests – including



slavery
States’ rights
conflicting economic and
social structures of the
North and South.
Secession


= to withdraw
11 of the
Southern states
separated from
the United States
and formed their
own country =
Confederate
States of America.
Gettysburg
Address


Speech given by
Abraham Lincoln
which captured the
spirit of liberty and
morality ideally held
by citizens of a
democracy.
That ideal was
threatened by the
Civil War.
Emancipation
Proclamation


Issued by Abraham
Lincoln on September
22, 1862
It declared that all
slaves in the rebellious
Confederate states
would be free.
th
13
Amendment

A Reconstruction
amendment that freed
slaves in the United States
th
14
Amendment

A Reconstruction
amendment, which
declared that all
persons born in the
U.S. were citizens and
were entitled to equal
rights.
th
15
Amendment

A Reconstruction
amendment that
granted black men
the right to vote.
Reconstruction
(1867-1877)
Reconstruction (1867-1877)


The period after the
Civil War.
The United States
confronted problems
of re-admitting the
Southern states to the
Union and integrating
the freed slaves into
society.
1914-1918

World War I
1939-1945

World War II
1941-1945

U.S. Involvement in
World War II
Primary Sources

Consists of evidence
produced by someone
who participated in an
event or lived during
the time being
studied
Secondary Sources

Include descriptions
or interpretations
prepared by people
who were not
involved in the events
described – like
textbooks or
biographies.