* Your assessment is very important for improving the workof artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project
Download Greek Theater PowerPoint
Document related concepts
Greek Tragedy "tragedy" Was a public genre from its earliest beginnings at Athens refers primarily to tragic drama: a literary composition written to be performed by actors in which a central character called a tragic protagonist or hero suffers some serious misfortune the misfortune is logically connected with the hero's actions. Tragedy stresses the vulnerability of human beings whose suffering is brought on by a combination of human and divine actions. TRAGIC HEROES ARE: BORN INTO NOBILITY: RESPONSIBLE FOR THEIR OWN FATE ENDOWED WITH A TRAGIC FLAW DOOMED TO MAKE A SERIOUS ERROR IN JUDGEMENT EVENTUALLY, TRAGIC HEROES FALL FROM GREAT HEIGHTS OR HIGH ESTEEM REALIZE THEY HAVE MADE AN IRREVERSIBLE MISTAKE FACE AND ACCEPT DEATH WITH HONOR MEET A TRAGIC DEATH FOR ALL TRAGIC HEROES THE AUDIENCE IS AFFECTED BY PITY and/or FEAR Other Traits of the Tragic Hero: Suffers more than he/she deserves. Doomed from the start, But bears no responsibility for possessing his/her flaw. Noble in nature, But imperfect so that the audience can see themselves in him/her. Discovered his fate by his own actions, Not by things happening to him/her. Fate was also determined by his/her own actions. Sees and understands his/her doom Story should arouse fear and empathy. Physically/spiritually wounded by his/her experiences, often resulting in his death. Ideally, should be a king or leader of men, so his people experience his fall with him. Could also include a leader of a family. Intelligent so he may learn from his mistakes. Has a weakness; usually, it is pride. Faced with a very serious decision. Something goes wrong in his/her current life. Suffering of the hero must have meaning. Three Popular Greek Playwrites Aeschylus: •(525 BC—456 BC; Greek: Αἰσχύλος) •playwright of Ancient Greece. •Earliest of the three Greek tragedians whose plays are not entirely lost. Bust of Aeschylus from the Capitoline Museums, Rome Sophocles Euripides Classical Drama: Theater is derived from the Greek word theatron, which contains the stem of the verb theasthai 'to view as spectators'. Drama is a Greek word meaning 'action', related to the verb dran 'to do'. The author of a tragedy was not just a writer of a script. When his work was approved for presentation at the state religious festival in honor of the god Dionysus (the City Dionysia), the state assigned him actors and a chorus. Dionysus The Greek Theater: Theatron: literally, "viewing-place“ where spectators sat. usually part of hillside overlooking orchestra, and often wrapped around a large portion of orchestra see diagram in previous slide. Orchestra: literally, "dancing space" normally circular. level space where chorus would dance, sing, and interact with the actors who were on the stage near the skene. Example of a Greek amphitheater. Greek Tragedy Tragedy: Drama that recounts the downfall of a dignified, superior character called the tragic hero. Involved in historically or socially significant events. Invokes both pity and fear in audiences. Pity: they feel sorry for the tragic hero. Fear: realization that hero’s struggles are a necessary part of human life. Archetypes: Frequently used characters or events Example: Simon, “The Christ Figure” Motifs: Repeating elements that advance plot and illustrate theme. Example: LOTF- Objects of Power, Nature, Garden of Eden Myths, Legends, Gods and Goddesses: Myth: Traditional stories about gods and goddesses. Legend: Stories about people believed to havce once lived. Gods and goddesses are often characters in tragedies. Even when they’re not onstage, they influence fate of characters Tragic hero’s downfall usually results from offending the gods Usually speak through prophets. Dramatic Irony: the Origin Dramatic Irony: When the audience knows more than the characters. Example: defenseless, naïve woman enters dark room in horror flick, and we are compelled to scream “don’t go in there!!” at the TV, as if it will help her. Because drama contained archetypes and motifs, audience often knew how the play was going to end, and what resulted was dramatic irony. Allusion: In Greek theater, allusions are references to gods and rituals. Characters in tragedies honor and fear their deities. Characters struggle to have a good relationship with them Sophocles Oedipus the King Oedipus at Colonus Antigone Oedipus the King: The Myth Laius, King of Thebes is told in an oracle that his son will kill him. With the agreement of his wife, Jocasta, the baby’s feet are pinioned and the baby was given to a slave to be exposed to wolves and other wild beasts. The slave, who is a shepherd of Laius’ flocks, takes pity on the baby, and instead of leaving it to die, gives the baby boy to a fellow shepherd from another kingdom, Corinth. The Corinthian shepherd gives the baby to the childless King of Corinth, Polybus. Polybus and his wife adopt the baby and give him the name “Oedipus,” meaning “Swollen Feet” because of the baby’s deformity. Eighteen years or so later, someone at a party calls the young Oedipus a bastard, and Oedipus is greatly disturbed. Oedipus leaves Corinth for Delphi to confirm his parentage at the oracle of Apollo. The oracle, however, instead gives him a horrific prediction: he will kill his father and marry his mother. The priestess of the oracle at Delphi was known as the Pythia. Apollo spoke through his oracle, who had to be an older woman of blameless life chosen from among the peasants of the area. Temple of Apollo at Delphi Afraid that the oracle will come true, Oedipus decides not to return to Corinth and heads for the opposite direction, Thebes. On a place where 3 roads meet, Oedipus meets a man driving a wagon with a bunch of slaves. The man is rude to Oedipus and orders him off the road. Oedipus is enraged and kills the man and his slaves. He continues his way to Thebes while one of the slaves escapes the attack A man on his way from Delphi to Thebes. When Oedipus reaches Thebes, the kingdom is being plagued by a monster---a sphinx: Creature with body of a lioness and the head of a woman Slaughters all who cannot solve her riddle: “What creature stands on four legs in the morning, two at midday and three at sun down?” Oedipus replies “man,” solves the riddle of the sphinx and liberates Thebes. As a reward, he is offered the vacant position of King of Thebes and marries the Queen, Jocasta. Many years pass and Oedipus fathers four children by Jocasta. Antigone Ismene Eteocles Polynices, **ALL, of whom are featured in Antigone, by Sophocles. A plague besets Thebes, killing crops, animals and children. Plagues are believed to be caused by sin, and only the appropriate god can reveal that sin. Oedipus, the King, promises to save his city. Oedipus assigns his brother-in-law, Creon, to consult the oracle at Delphi to determine the cause of the plague. The oracle reveals that the plague is caused by an unpunished murder---that of the former king, Laius. Oedipus vows to let the murderer of the former king pay for his crime. Oedipus then turns to Teiresias, the blind but highly respected prophet to name the murderer. Teiresias hesitates at first, but after several threats from Oedipus, names Oedipus as the murderer. Oedipus is enraged, believing that Teiresias and Creon have concocted the story to dethrone him and seize power for themselves. Hearing that their quarrel was about the oracle, Jocasta assures her husband that oracles are nonsense. She goes on telling Oedipus how she and Laius had a baby boy before whom the oracle prophesied would kill its father. Then Jocasta tells Oedipus how the innocent babe died and how Laius was killed by robbers at a place where 3 roads meet. Suddenly, Oedipus remembers how he killed a man at such a place before when he was on his way to Thebes. Jocasta calls for the man who escaped the attack which killed Laius and several others. Before the lone survivor of the attack is presented to Oedipus and Jocasta, a messenger from Corinth arrives to tell Oedipus that Polybus, his father, is dead Oedipus is now the new King of Corinth. Oedipus tells the messenger that he won’t dare return to Corinth for fear of marrying his mother. The messenger then reveals to Oedipus that the queen of Corinth is not his real mother. At last, the survivor of the ambush arrives He explains how baby Oedipus was given to him by a shepherd from Thebes. At that point, everything becomes clear to Jocasta. He turns to be the shepherd who was told to abandon baby Oedipus, and the same guy who gave baby Oedipus to a Corinthian(messenger). Upon learning the truth, Oedipus rushes to Jocasta, but Jocasta has already hanged herself. Greatly agonized, Oedipus takes the pins from Jocasta’s dress and pierces his eyes until he gets blind. Creon becomes the new ruler of Thebes. So what causes the curse to King Laius and Jocasta?? Reason Laius and Jocasta were punished by the Gods: They tried to alter their fate after hearing the Oracle at Delphi’s prophecy about Oedipus. Instead of killing Oediups, they “gave him away,” and since they allowed him to grow up, they were given consequences by the gods. So who’s to blame?? Fate? Laius and Jocasta? The gods? Oedipus himself? Gee, you could argue that really well in a paper… http://www.teachtheteachers.org/projects/J Zarro2/process2.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tragic_hero “Classical Greek Drama.” Holt McDougal Literature: World Literature. Ed. Janet Allen. Evanston: Holt, 2010. 1064-1065.