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ENZYMES and Activation Energy EQ: How do enzymes affect a reaction? What is Energy? • Energy is the ability to cause matter to move or change. • All life processes are driven by energy • Where does all energy come from? Chemical Reactions • When bonds are broken and reformed to make different substances, energy is released. EX: Reactants Products C6H12O6 + 6O2 6CO2 + 6H2O What is Metabolism? • Metabolism is the sum of all chemical reactions in your body - Metabolism is basically two components 1. 2. Breaking down foods for energy Building new compounds to make new products Activation energy What is needed to start a reaction? Activation Energy is the energy needed to break down reactants into products. reactant Energy released Products What is a Catalyst? • A catalyst is anything that lowers activation energy. • Enzymes are organic catalysts. •Predict what the graph will look like after a catalyst (enzyme) is added. What do you notice about the activation energy? reactant Products Comparing Reactions Energy released Energy absorbed Which line would represent a reaction without an enzyme present? With an enzyme present? Reactant Products Enzymes lower the amount of activation energy needed How Do Enzymes Work? • Enzymes work like a lock and key. • Specific enzymes have an ACTIVE SITE for specific substrates. enzyme substrate How Do Enzymes Work? 1. Each substrate fits into the enzyme’s active site. 2. Then the enzyme controls the rate of the chemical reaction. 3. The substrate is broken into products. 4. The enzyme is free to accept another substrate. Enzymes are NEVER used up in a reaction!! the reaction rate is controlled by enzymes Denaturation A protein is denatured when it loses its shape and becomes inactive. Enzymes can be affected by: • Temperature: Battery Acid • pH: 0 Blood (7.5) 3 5 7 Neutral • Concentration: Bleach 9 11 13 Inhibitors Competitive Inhibition Occurs when a molecule mimics the substrate and enters the active site, not allowing the real substrate to fit. Non-competitive Inhibition Occurs when a molecule binds to an enzyme somewhere other than the active site, causing a change in shape.