Download Ch. 16 Presidents of 1950s and Early 1960s

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Transcript
*
What were the two races of
the Cold War and who won
them?
* Born and raised in
Missouri
* Fought in WWI
* Democrat
* Died in 1972 at age 88
 Tough decision to drop atomic
bombs
 Led Berlin Airlift
 Sent troops to Korea
 Left office in 1952 with
lowest approval rating ever,
now ranks in top 10 best
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=va5Bt
g4kkUE
* Raised in Kansas
* Nicknamed “Ike”
* Republican
* Great military commander: led
invasion of North Africa and DDay
* Died in 1969
 Continued many of the
New and Fair Deal
programs
 Helped establish NASA,
Interstate Highway
 Peaceful presidency
* Raised in Massachusetts
* Only Catholic president
* In Navy in WWII
* Youngest elected and youngest
to die– curse of the Kennedy’s
President Kennedy had a
special style that made
him seem different
from other politicians.
The new First Family
charmed Americans with
their youth and energy.
Kennedy launched a new Cold War strategy.
• He built up both conventional and special military
forces.
• He dealt with Bay of Pigs Invasion, Cuban Missile
Crisis, and Berlin Crisis.
• He developed the Alliance for Progress to improve
relations with Latin American countries.
• He created the Peace Corps.
Joseph Stalin died in 1953.
After a brief power struggle, he was succeeded
by Nikita Khrushchev.
The Arms Race
On September 2, 1949, the balance of power between the
U.S. and the Soviet Union changed forever.
In response, Truman ordered scientists to produce
a hydrogen bomb—a bomb 1,000 times more
powerful than the atomic bomb.
In 1952,
the U.S.
tested the
first
H-bomb.
The next
year, the
Soviets
tested their
own H-bomb.
The arms
race had
begun.
Both sides hoped that this program of
mutually assured destruction would
serve as a deterrent.
For many, however, the existence of so many
weapons was a further threat to peace.
Nuclear Warhead Proliferation
Year
U.S.
USSR
Britain
France
China
1945
6
0
0
0
0
1950
369
5
0
0
0
1955
3,057
200
10
0
0
1960
20,434
1,605
30
0
0
1965
31,642
6,129
310
4
1
While the U.S. worked to contain communism on the
ground, they suffered a serious setback in space.
In 1957, the
Soviets launched
the Sputnik I
satellite into
orbit around the
earth.
Fearing Soviet
dominance of
space, Congress
approved funding
to create NASA.
The arms race
was now
joined by a
space race.
Kennedy recognized the need for the United States
to beat the Soviet Union in the space race.
He made it a national goal to place a
man on the moon before 1970.
Congress gave generous funding to
NASA, the National Aeronautics and
Space Administration.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RMINS
D7MmT4
In July, 1969 an
American flag flew on the moon.