• Study Resource
• Explore

Survey
Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts
no text concepts found
Transcript
```II.2 Statistical Inference:
Sampling and Estimation
A statistical model Μ is a set of distributions (or regression
functions), e.g., all uni-modal, smooth distributions.
Μ is called a parametric model if it can be completely described
by a finite number of parameters, e.g., the family of Normal
distributions for a finite number of parameters μ, σ:

 f X ( x;  ,  ) 

IR&DM, WS'11/12
1
2
2
e
( x )2

2 2
October 25, 2011

for   R,   0

II.1
Statistical Inference
Given a parametric model M and a sample X1,...,Xn,
how do we infer (learn) the parameters of M?
For multivariate models with observed variable X and
„outcome (response)“ variable Y, this is called prediction
or regression, for a discrete outcome variable this is also
called classification.
r(x) = E[Y | X=x] is called the regression function.
IR&DM, WS'11/12
October 25, 2011
II.2
Idea of Sampling
Distribution X
Statistical Inference
(e.g., a population,
objects of interest)
What can we say about X based on
X1,…,Xn?
Distrib. Param.
μX
 X2
N
Sample Param.
mean
variance
size
Samples X1,…,Xn
drawn from X
(e.g., people, objects)
X
S X2
n
Example:
Suppose we want to estimate the average salary of employees in
German companies.
 Sample 1: Suppose we look at n=200 top-paid CEOs of major banks.
 Sample 2: Suppose we look at n=100 employees across all kinds of companies.
IR&DM, WS'11/12
October 25, 2011
II.3
Basic Types of Statistical Inference
Given a set of iid. samples X1,...,Xn ~ X
of an unknown distribution X.
e.g.: n single-coin-toss experiments X1,...,Xn ~ X: Bernoulli(p)
• Parameter Estimation
e.g.: - what is the parameter p of X: Bernoulli(p) ?
- what is E[X], the cdf FX of X, the pdf fX of X, etc.?
• Confidence Intervals
e.g.: give me all values C=(a,b) such that P(pC) ≥ 0.95
where a and b are derived from samples X1,...,Xn
• Hypothesis Testing
e.g.: H0 : p = 1/2
IR&DM, WS'11/12
vs.
H1 : p ≠ 1/2
October 25, 2011
II.4
Statistical Estimators
A point estimator for a parameter  of a prob. distribution X is a
random variable ̂n derived from an iid. sample X1,...,Xn.
1 n
Examples:
X :  X i
Sample mean:
n i 1
n
1
2
(
X

X
)
Sample variance: S X2 :
 i
n  1 i 1
An estimator ̂n for parameter  is unbiased
if E[̂n ] = ;
otherwise the estimator has bias E[̂n ] – .
An estimator on a sample of size n is consistent
if lim n P[| ˆn   |  ]  1 for any   0
Sample mean and sample variance
are unbiased and consistent estimators of μX and  X2 .
IR&DM, WS'11/12
October 25, 2011
II.5
Estimator Error
Let ̂n be an estimator for parameter  over iid. samples X1, ...,Xn.
The distribution of ̂n is called the sampling distribution.
The standard error for ̂n is: se(ˆn )  Var[ˆn ]
The mean squared error (MSE) for ̂n is:
MSE (ˆ )  E[(ˆ   )2 ]
n
n
 bias 2 ( ˆn )  Var[ ˆn ]
Theorem: If bias  0 and se  0 then the estimator is consistent.
The estimator ̂n is asymptotically Normal if
( ˆn   ) / se converges in distribution to standard Normal N(0,1).
IR&DM, WS'11/12
October 25, 2011
II.6
Types of Estimation
• Nonparametric Estimation
No assumptions about model M nor the parameters θ of the
underlying distribution X
 “Plug-in estimators” (e.g. histograms) to approximate X
• Parametric Estimation (Inference)
Requires assumptions about model M and the parameters θ of
the underlying distribution X
Analytical or numerical methods for estimating θ
 Method-of-Moments estimator
 Maximum Likelihood estimator
and Expectation Maximization (EM)
IR&DM, WS'11/12
October 25, 2011
II.7
Nonparametric Estimation
The empirical distribution function F̂n is the cdf that
puts probability mass 1/n at each data point Xi:
1 n
F̂n ( x )  i 1 I( X i  x )
n
1 if X i  x
with I ( X i  x)  
0 if X i  x
A statistical functional (“statistics”) T(F) is any function over F,
e.g., mean, variance, skewness, median, quantiles, correlation.
The plug-in estimator of  = T(F) is: ˆn  T( Fˆn )
 Simply use F̂n instead of F to calculate the statistics T of interest.
IR&DM, WS'11/12
October 25, 2011
II.8
Histograms as Density Estimators
Instead of the full empirical distribution, often compact data synopses
may be used, such as histograms where X1, ...,Xn are grouped into
m cells (buckets) c1, ..., cm with bucket boundaries lb(ci) and ub(ci) s.t.
lb(c1) = , ub(cm ) = , ub(ci ) = lb(ci+1 ) for 1 i<m, and
1 n
ˆ
freqf (ci ) = f n ( x)  v 1 I (lb (ci )  X v  ub(ci ))
n
1 n
freqF (ci ) = Fˆn ( x)   I ( X v  ub(ci ))
n v 1
Example:
X1 = 1
X2 = 1
X3 = 2
X4 = 2
X5 = 2
X6 = 3
…
X20=7
2
3
5
 2   3
20
20
20
4
3
2
1
 4  5  6  7 
20
20
20
20
 3.65
ˆ n  1 
fX(x)
5/20
4/20
3/20
3/20
2/20
2/20
1
2
3
4
5
6
1/20
7 x
Histograms provide a (discontinuous) density estimator.
IR&DM, WS'11/12
October 25, 2011
II.9
Parametric Inference (1):
Method of Moments
Suppose parameter θ = (θ1,…,θk ) has k components.

j
j
Compute j-th moment:  j   j ( )  E [ X ]   x f X ( x) dx

1 n
j
j-th sample moment: ̂ j  i 1 X i for 1 ≤ j ≤ k
n
Estimate parameter  by method-of-moments estimator ̂n s.t.
1 (ˆn )  ˆ1
and  (ˆ )  ˆ
…
and
2
n
2
…
 k (ˆn )  ˆ k
(for the first k moments)
 Solve equation system with k equations and k unknowns.
Method-of-moments estimators are usually consistent and
asymptotically Normal, but may be biased.
IR&DM, WS'11/12
October 25, 2011
II.10
Parametric Inference (2):
Maximum Likelihood Estimators (MLE)
Let X1,...,Xn be iid. with pdf f(x;θ).
Estimate parameter  of a postulated distribution f(x;) such that
the likelihood that the sample values x1,...,xn are generated by
this distribution is maximized.
 Maximum likelihood estimation:
Maximize L(x1,...,xn; ) ≈ P[x1, ...,xn originate from f(x; )]
Usually formulated as
Ln() = ∏i f(Xi; )
Or (alternatively)
 Maximize ln() = log Ln()
The value ̂n that maximizes Ln() is the MLE of .
If analytically untractable  use numerical iteration methods
IR&DM, WS'11/12
October 25, 2011
II.11
Simple Example for
Maximum Likelihood Estimator
Given:
• Coin toss experiment (Bernoulli distribution) with
unknown parameter p for seeing heads, 1-p for tails
• Sample (data): h times head with n coin tosses
Want: Maximum likelihood estimation of p
n
n
i 1
i 1
Let L(h, n, p)   f ( X i ; p)   p X i (1  p)1 X i  p h (1  p) n  h
with h = ∑i Xi
Maximize log-likelihood function:
log L (h, n, p)  h log( p)  (n  h) log( 1  p)
h
 ln L h n  h
 
0  p 
n
p
p 1 p
IR&DM, WS'11/12
October 25, 2011
II.12
MLE for Parameters
of Normal Distributions
 1 
2
L( x1 ,..., xn ,  ,  )  

 2  
n
n
e

( xi   ) 2
2 2
i 1
 ln( L )
1 n

2(
x


)

0

i

2 2 i 1
 ln( L )
 2

n
2 2
1 n
 ̂   xi
n i 1
IR&DM, WS'11/12

1
n
( xi   )2  0

2 4 i 1
n
1
ˆ 2   ( xi  ˆ ) 2
n i 1
October 25, 2011
II.13
MLE Properties
Maximum Likelihood estimators are
consistent, asymptotically Normal, and
asymptotically optimal (i.e., efficient) in the following sense:
Consider two estimators U and T which are asymptotically Normal.
Let u2 and t2 denote the variances of the two Normal distributions
to which U and T converge in probability.
The asymptotic relative efficiency of U to T is ARE(U,T) := t2/u2 .
Theorem: For an MLE ̂n and any other estimatorn
the following inequality holds:
ARE(  ,ˆ )  1
n
n
That is, among all estimators MLE has the smallest variance.
IR&DM, WS'11/12
October 25, 2011
II.14
Bayesian Viewpoint of Parameter Estimation
• Assume prior distribution g() of parameter 
• Choose statistical model (generative model) f (x | )
that reflects our beliefs about RV X
• Given RVs X1,...,Xn for the observed data,
the posterior distribution is h ( | x1,...,xn )
For X1= x1, ... ,Xn= xn the likelihood is
L( x1...xn ,  )  i 1 f ( xi |  )  i 1
n
n
h( | xi )  ' f ( xi |  ' ) g ( ' )
g ( )
which implies
h( | x1...xn ) ~ L( x1...xn , )  g ( )
(posterior is proportional to
likelihood times prior)
MAP estimator (maximum a posteriori):
Compute  that maximizes h( | x1, …, xn ) given a prior for .
IR&DM, WS'11/12
October 25, 2011
II.15
Analytically Non-tractable MLE for parameters
of Multivariate Normal Mixture
Consider samples from a k-mixture of m-dimensional Normal distributions
with the density (e.g. height and weight of males and females):



f ( x,  1 ,...,  k , 1 ,..., k , 1 ,...,  k )
k
 
   j n( x,  j ,  j )    j
k
j 1
j 1
1
(2 ) m  j
e
 
1  
 ( x   j )T  j 1 ( x   j )
2

with expectation values j
and invertible, positive definite, symmetric
mm covariance matrices  j
 Maximize log-likelihood function:
n
n 
k




 

log L( x1 ,..., xn , ) : log  P[ xi |  ]    log   j n( xi ,  j ,  j ) 
i 1 
j 1
i 1

IR&DM, WS'11/12
October 25, 2011
II.16
Expectation-Maximization Method (EM)
Key idea:
When L(X1,...,Xn, θ) (where the Xi and  are possibly multivariate)
is analytically intractable then
• introduce latent (i.e., hidden, invisible, missing) random variable(s) Z
such that
• the joint distribution J(X1,...,Xn, Z, ) of the “complete” data
is tractable (often with Z actually being multivariate: Z1,...,Zm)
• iteratively derive the expected complete-data likelihood by integrating J
and find best : ˆ  arg max 

z
J [ X 1... X n , | Z  z ]P[ Z  z ]
EZ|X,[J(X1,…,Xn, Z, )]
IR&DM, WS'11/12
October 25, 2011
II.17
EM Procedure
Initialization: choose start estimate for (0)
(e.g., using Method-of-Moments estimator)
Iterate (t=0, 1, …) until convergence:
E step (expectation):
estimate posterior probability of Z: P[Z | X1,…,Xn, (t)]
assuming  were known and equal to previous estimate (t),
and compute EZ|X,θ(t) [log J(X1,…,Xn, Z, (t))]
by integrating over values for Z
M step (maximization, MLE step):
Estimate (t+1) by maximizing
(t+1) = arg maxθ EZ|X,θ[log J(X1,…,Xn, Z, )]
 Convergence is guaranteed
(because the E step computes a lower bound of the true L function,
and the M step yields monotonically non-decreasing likelihood),
but may result in local maximum of (log-)likelihood function
IR&DM, WS'11/12
October 25, 2011
II.18
EM Example for Multivariate
Normal Mixture
Expectation step (E step):
P[ xi | n j (  ( t ) ) ]
hij : P[ Zij  1| xi , ( t ) ]  k
(t)
P[
x
|
n
(

)]
 i l
l 1
Maximization step (M step):
Zij = 1
if ith data point Xi
was generated
by jth component,
0 otherwise

EZ | X , [log J ( X 1 ,..., X n , Z , )]  i log  j n j ( xi , | Z ij  1) P[ Z ij  1]
n
 hij xi
 j : i n1
 hij
i 1
 hij ( xi   j )( xi   j )T
 j : i 1
n
 hij
i 1
 ( t 1 )
IR&DM, WS'11/12
n
n
October 25, 2011
 j :
 hij
i 1
k n
  hij
n
 hij
 i 1
n
j 1i 1
See L. Wasserman, p.121 ff.
for k=2, m=1
II.19
Confidence Intervals
Estimator T for an interval for parameter  such that
P[ T  a    T  a ]  1  
[T-a, T+a] is the confidence interval and 1– is the confidence level.
For the distribution of random variable X, a value
x (0<  <1) with P[ X  x ]    P[ X  x ]  1  
is called a -quantile; the 0.5-quantile is called the median.
For the Normal distribution N(0,1) the -quantile is denoted  .
 For a given a or α, find a value z of N(0,1)
that denotes the [T-a, T+a] conf. interval
or a corresponding -quantile for 1– .
IR&DM, WS'11/12
October 25, 2011
II.20
Confidence Intervals for Expectations (1)
Let x1, ..., xn be a sample from a distribution with unknown
expectation  and known variance 2.
For sufficiently large n, the sample mean X is N(,2/n) distributed
and ( X   ) n is N(0,1) distributed:

( X  ) n
P[ z 
 z ]  ( z )  ( z )  ( z )  (1  ( z ))  2( z )  1

 P[ X 
z
z
X 
]
n
n
1 / 2 
1 / 2 
 P[ X 
X 
]  1
n
n
For confidence interval [ X  a, X  a] or
confidence level 1- set

a n
z
:

(
1

) quantile of N ( 0,1 )
z :
2

z
then a :
then look up (z) to find 1–α
n
IR&DM, WS'11/12
October 25, 2011
II.21
Confidence Intervals for Expectations (2)
Let X1, ..., Xn be an iid. sample from a distribution X with unknown
expectation  and unknown variance 2 and known sample variance S2.
For sufficiently large n, the random variable
(X  ) n
T :
S
 n 1


1
2 
has a t distribution (Student

fT ,n (t ) 
n 1
distribution) with n-1 degrees
n
2
2



t


of freedom:
n 1  
2
n


( x)   e t t x 1 dt for x  0
with the Gamma function:
0
( with the properties ( 1 )  1 and ( x  1 )  x ( x ) )
 P[ X 
t n1,1 / 2 S
X
t n1,1 / 2 S
n
IR&DM, WS'11/12
]  1
n
October 25, 2011
II.22
Summary of Section II.2
• Quality measures for statistical estimators
• Nonparametric vs. parametric estimation
• Histograms as generic (nonparametric) plug-in estimators
• Method-of-Moments estimator good initial guess but may be biased
• Maximum-Likelihood estimator & Expectation Maximization
• Confidence intervals for parameters
IR&DM, WS'11/12
October 25, 2011
II.23
Normal Distribution Table
IR&DM, WS'11/12
October 25, 2011
II.24
Student‘s t Distribution Table
IR&DM, WS'11/12
October 25, 2011
II.25
```
Related documents