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2016 AP US Government and Politics Exam • • • • • • • Are you signed up? Do you have a review book? Do you have a plan? Some words of advice… How do you eat an elephant? Get a plan that works for you Remember the resources you have created What will we do in class… • 19 days of review. • Each day we will… • Identify and review “Key Concepts” for the day • (sometimes) Give you copies of good handouts from the past • Some practice exams • (sometimes) Have quizzes that address the key concepts for the previous day • Review a FRQ from the past • Other cool stuff… • After school review sessions starting the week of the 25 (up to then I am on the mock trial beat) • No homework, other than… Can Johnny …? Unitas! Key Concepts for today • English documents • Enlightenment thinkers • Structural problems with the Articles of Confederation • Problems that arose due to these problems • Federalist 10 • Federalist 51 Constitution I (road to Philadelphia) The really cool kids • English Documents –Magna Carta (1215) –Petition of Right (1628) –English Bill of Rights (1689) Magna Carta • The first document forced onto a King of England by a group of his subjects, the feudal barons, in an attempt to limit his powers by law ( “law of the land”) and protect their rights. Petition of Right • Sets out specific liberties of the subject that the king is prohibited from infringing • Contains restrictions on non-Parliamentary taxation, forced billeting of soldiers, imprisonment without cause, and restricts the use of martial law. English Bill of Rights • It lays down limits on the powers of the crown and sets out the rights of Parliament and rules for freedom of speech in Parliament, the requirement for regular elections to Parliament and the right to petition the monarch without fear of retribution. • It reestablished the liberty of Protestants to have arms for their defense within the rule of law • Restates certain constitutional requirements of the Crown to seek the consent of the people, as represented in Parliament. So, …English Contributions • • • • • • • • • • • Consent for taxation Trial by jury Ability to petition Limited Government No Quartering of troops Right to keep and bear arms Freedom of Speech No Excessive Bail No cruel and unusual punishment Regular sessions of the legislature Consent of the Governed Enlightenment Philosophers • Thomas Hobbes- “solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short” • John Locke-what’s there not to like-Social Contract, consent of the governed, equality, natural rights, right to rebel • Montesquieu: Separation of powers • Rousseau: consent, social contract-plus coolest line ever: “Man is born free; and everywhere he is in chains.” So, …ideas of the Enlightenment • Right to life, liberty, and property • Social Contract Theory • Freedoms of speech and religion • Separation of Powers All of which leads us to… Declaration of Independence (1776) Articles of Confederation Which of the following statements about the Articles of Confederation is True? • States had most of the Power • There were no specific executive powers • There were no national courts, only state courts existed • Congress was responsible to the states • 9 out of 13 states needed to approve a law before it could go into effect • Congress did not have the power to tax without permission of the states • Congress could not regulate trade among the states • Each state coined its own money; there was no national currency • Congress could not regulate foreign trade without the states’ permission • Unanimous consent of all states was needed to amend the Articles of Confederation • A national army or navy could not be raised without the permission of the states • The federal legislature was unicameral • Representation in the legislature was spread equally among the 13 states The Articles of Confederation: Success, Failure or Somewhere in Between? Structure of the Articles Issues or and Why Another set of golden oldies… Do you remember these problems under the Articles? $10 million owed to Foreign Creditors Settling the National Debt $34 million owed to American Creditors The Barbary Pirates Soldiers in a Time of Peace The Treaty of Paris Debtors, Creditors, and Paper Money Revolutionary War Period Debt Interest Note Western Lands Federalists • Supported the Constitution • Liked powerful central government • Distrusted the people Anti-Federalists • Opposed the Constitution • Wanted stronger state governments • Demanded a bill of rights And so, what do you remember about this guy… Mr. Internet tells me that this guy is also named “Jimmy Madison” Ok, we are sort of skipping the convention until tomorrow, so sue me… Federalist 10 • What is the “F” word? • What the best way to deal with them? • So, the tweet would be… True or False (according to Federalist 10)? 1. A Republican form of government is preferable to a direct democracy. 2. Factions are an unnatural element of a democracy and should be destroyed. 3. Elective representatives should be trusted to balance the needs of the majority and the minority 4. Restricting liberty best controls factions. 5. Government will be the most efficient when it controls factions instead of factions controlling the government. 6. Today factions would best be described as political parties or interest groups. 7. Madison was afraid of a tyranny of the majority that would overwhelm minority opinions. 8. The geographic size and diversity of the nation will allow factions to join together and control the government. 9. Factions work to advocate their points of view to the exclusion of others. 10.Compromise, deliberation, and a slow pace will mark a republic that works to control, but not eliminate factions. Federalist 51 • "Ambition must be made to counteract ambition” • “It may be a reflection on human nature, that such devices [checks and balances] should be necessary to control the abuses of government. But what is government itself, but the greatest of all reflections on human nature? If men were angels, no government would be necessary. If angels were to govern men, neither external nor internal controls on government would be necessary.” • In framing a government which is to be administered by men over men, the great difficulty lies in this: you must first enable the government to control the governed; and in the next place oblige it to control itself. A dependence on the people is, no doubt, the primary control on the government; but experience has taught mankind the necessity of auxiliary precautions.” You don’t really have to know this for AP, but perhaps for life… • Jimmy also said in Federalist 51: • “Justice is the end of government. It is the end of civil society.” Fill in the Blank… 1. The Executive Branch can be checked when the ________________ refuses to approve a presidential appointment for the Supreme Court. 2. The President can check the power of ________________ by vetoing a bill. 3. The Courts can check _____________ by declaring a law ______________. 4. The Supreme Court can check the _________________ by declaring an action of the ________________ unconstitutional. 5. The ________________ can check the power of the ________________ branch by refusing to ratify a treaty. 6. ________________ can block efforts of the President by controlling the flow of ____________ to fund programs. 7. _______________ can check the power of the _______________branch by impeaching Federal judges. 8. The ________________ can withhold information from Congress by declaring ______________ privilege. 9. Congress can check the power of the _____________ branch by proposing Constitutional ________________ to overturn decisions of the ________________. 10. By using a ___________ appointment, the president can circumvent the ability of congress to approve or reject a presidential nominee for ambassador, judge, or cabinet official.