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2016 AP US Government and
Politics Exam
Are you signed up?
Do you have a review book?
Do you have a plan?
Some words of advice…
How do you eat an elephant?
Get a plan that works for you
Remember the resources you have created
What will we do in class…
• 19 days of review.
• Each day we will…
• Identify and review “Key Concepts” for the
• (sometimes) Give you copies of good
handouts from the past
• Some practice exams
• (sometimes) Have quizzes that address the key
concepts for the previous day
• Review a FRQ from the past
• Other cool stuff…
• After school review sessions starting the week
of the 25 (up to then I am on the mock trial
• No homework, other than…
Can Johnny …?
Key Concepts for today
• English documents
• Enlightenment thinkers
• Structural problems with the Articles of
• Problems that arose due to these problems
• Federalist 10
• Federalist 51
Constitution I
(road to Philadelphia)
The really cool kids
• English Documents
–Magna Carta (1215)
–Petition of Right (1628)
–English Bill of Rights (1689)
Magna Carta
• The first document forced onto a King of
England by a group of his subjects, the feudal
barons, in an attempt to limit his powers by
law ( “law of the land”) and protect their
Petition of Right
• Sets out specific liberties of the subject that
the king is prohibited from infringing
• Contains restrictions on non-Parliamentary
taxation, forced billeting of soldiers,
imprisonment without cause, and restricts the
use of martial law.
English Bill of Rights
• It lays down limits on the powers of the crown
and sets out the rights of Parliament and rules for
freedom of speech in Parliament, the
requirement for regular elections to Parliament
and the right to petition the monarch without
fear of retribution.
• It reestablished the liberty of Protestants to have
arms for their defense within the rule of law
• Restates certain constitutional requirements of
the Crown to seek the consent of the people, as
represented in Parliament.
So, …English Contributions
Consent for taxation
Trial by jury
Ability to petition
Limited Government
No Quartering of troops
Right to keep and bear arms
Freedom of Speech
No Excessive Bail
No cruel and unusual punishment
Regular sessions of the legislature
Consent of the Governed
Enlightenment Philosophers
• Thomas Hobbes- “solitary, poor, nasty,
brutish, and short”
• John Locke-what’s there not to like-Social
Contract, consent of the governed, equality,
natural rights, right to rebel
• Montesquieu: Separation of powers
• Rousseau: consent, social contract-plus
coolest line ever: “Man is born free; and
everywhere he is in chains.”
So, …ideas of the Enlightenment
• Right to life, liberty, and property
• Social Contract Theory
• Freedoms of speech and religion
• Separation of Powers
All of which leads us to…
Declaration of Independence (1776)
Articles of Confederation
Which of the following
statements about the Articles of
Confederation is True?
• States had most of the Power
• There were no specific executive powers
• There were no national courts, only state
courts existed
• Congress was responsible to the states
• 9 out of 13 states needed to approve a law
before it could go into effect
• Congress did not have the power to tax
without permission of the states
• Congress could not regulate trade among the
• Each state coined its own money; there was no
national currency
• Congress could not regulate foreign trade without
the states’ permission
• Unanimous consent of all states was needed to
amend the Articles of Confederation
• A national army or navy could not be raised without
the permission of the states
• The federal legislature was unicameral
• Representation in the legislature was spread equally
among the 13 states
The Articles of Confederation: Success, Failure or
Somewhere in Between?
Structure of the Articles
 or  and Why
Another set of golden oldies…
Do you remember these problems
under the Articles?
$10 million
owed to
Settling the National Debt
$34 million
owed to
The Barbary
Soldiers in a
Time of Peace
The Treaty of
Debtors, Creditors, and Paper Money
War Period Debt
Interest Note
Western Lands
• Supported the
• Liked powerful central
• Distrusted the people
• Opposed the
• Wanted stronger state
• Demanded a bill of
And so, what do you remember about
this guy…
Mr. Internet tells me that this guy is
also named “Jimmy Madison”
Ok, we are sort of skipping the
convention until tomorrow, so sue
Federalist 10
• What is the “F” word?
• What the best way to deal with them?
• So, the tweet would be…
True or False (according to Federalist 10)?
1. A Republican form of government is preferable to a
direct democracy.
2. Factions are an unnatural element of a democracy
and should be destroyed.
3. Elective representatives should be trusted to balance
the needs of the majority and the minority
4. Restricting liberty best controls factions.
5. Government will be the most efficient when it
controls factions instead of factions controlling the
6. Today factions would best be described as political
parties or interest groups.
7. Madison was afraid of a tyranny of the
majority that would overwhelm minority
8. The geographic size and diversity of the nation
will allow factions to join together and control
the government.
9. Factions work to advocate their points of view
to the exclusion of others.
10.Compromise, deliberation, and a slow pace
will mark a republic that works to control, but
not eliminate factions.
Federalist 51
• "Ambition must be made to counteract ambition”
• “It may be a reflection on human nature, that such devices
[checks and balances] should be necessary to control the
abuses of government. But what is government itself, but
the greatest of all reflections on human nature? If men
were angels, no government would be necessary. If angels
were to govern men, neither external nor internal controls
on government would be necessary.”
• In framing a government which is to be administered by
men over men, the great difficulty lies in this: you must
first enable the government to control the governed; and
in the next place oblige it to control itself. A dependence
on the people is, no doubt, the primary control on the
government; but experience has taught mankind the
necessity of auxiliary precautions.”
You don’t really have to know this for
AP, but perhaps for life…
• Jimmy also said in Federalist 51:
• “Justice is the end of government. It is the end
of civil society.”
Fill in the Blank…
The Executive Branch can be checked when the ________________
refuses to approve a presidential appointment for the Supreme Court.
2. The President can check the power of ________________ by vetoing a
3. The Courts can check _____________ by declaring a law
4. The Supreme Court can check the _________________ by declaring an
action of the ________________ unconstitutional.
5. The ________________ can check the power of the
________________ branch by refusing to ratify a treaty.
6. ________________ can block efforts of the President by controlling
the flow of ____________ to fund programs.
7. _______________ can check the power of the
_______________branch by impeaching Federal judges.
8. The ________________ can withhold information from Congress by
declaring ______________ privilege.
9. Congress can check the power of the _____________ branch by
proposing Constitutional ________________ to overturn decisions
of the ________________.
By using a ___________ appointment, the president can
circumvent the ability of congress to approve or reject a
presidential nominee for ambassador, judge, or cabinet official.