Download Revolutionary War

yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the workof artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts

American Revolution wikipedia , lookup

History of the United States (1776–89) wikipedia , lookup

Lead up to Revolution and
Revolutionary War
Revolutionary war paragraph
for US History 111
The revolutionary war was as much an
ideological struggle as it was a physical
Essential Question
How were the colonists able to defeat the
British, a much stronger adversary?
(USH4b,c; USH5d)
 What sacrifices did the colonists make in
order to win independence? (USH4c,d)
Video clip
..\..\..\..\US History\revolution video.asf
Social Contract theory
Thomas Hobbes – Leviathan (1651)
People sacrifice some rights to be part of a
greater society. Society in turn can protect
the remaining rights of the people that
makeup the society.
John Locke – Second Treastie of
Government (1689)
Government must be instituted as a “neutral”
judge to protect societies rights. This
government must get it’s power from the
consent of the governed.
Proclamation of 1763
Taxes and Acts
1764 – Sugar Act (salutary neglect)
1765 – Stamp Act (1st direct tax)
“no taxation without representation” – Sons of Liberty is formed
1765 – Quartering Act (troops in homes)
1766 – Declaratory Act (“fake” act)
1767 – Townshend Act (Broad taxes)
1770 - Boston Massacre
1773 – Tea Act (Led to Boston Tea party)
1774 – Intolerable Acts (1st Continental Congress)
First Continental Congress
Continental Congress explained
 Met in 1774 in Philidelphia
 Established a unified voice
 Created a boycott of G.B.
 Sent a letter to the King
Paul Revere.
“One if by land, two if by sea” – code for
the lanterns hung in the north church
steeple to warn settlers across the river
from Boston in Charlestown.
Warning and battle
Paul Revere - Wikipedia, the free
encyclopedia – The minutemen knew to
attack because of a pre determined
warning system.
 Thomas Gage commanded the British
forces stationed in Boston to carry out the
Intolerable acts.
 Outside Boston, the colonists had great
dislike for the British army.
First battles
April 19, 1775, the battles of lexington and
Concord were fought
 The British were going to seize weapons
they had stored in Concord and they were
told to jail John Hancock and Samuel
 Along the journey to seize the weapons,
the British military was attacked by
A stunning success
The colonial army could not believe how
successful they had been and were
 15,000 militiamen made their way to
Boston and surrounded the city setting up
a seige.
Second Continental Congress
A reconvening of the 1st Congress that met
May 10, 1775 in Philly.
This congress acted as a the government for the
Raised an army
Directed war strategy
Made treaties with other countries
Sent the Olive Branch petition on July 8 1775.
Battle of Bunker Hill – 6/17/1775
The siege of Boston continued
The colonist occupied Bunker Hill on
Charlestown peninsula
In an effort to break the siege, the British
attack Bunker Hill in an attempt to flank
the colonists.
 Two advances are repulsed by the 3rd
advance proves effective since the
colonists ran out of ammo.
Bunker Hill cont’d.
Militarily this battle was a British success.
 Morally, this battle was a MASSIVE British
800 wounded; 226 killed
 305 wounded; 105 killed
The battle was so costly for the British,
they could not pursue the colonists past
Bunker Hill and the siege remained intact
The publishing of COMMON
These notes go with the “Common Sense” worksheet
Paine knows that the colonist think the British are awesome, right, just and
unbeatable in warfare. He needs them to relinquish this thought process.
To have an open mind and be receptive of his message because he strongly believes
he can change their mind.
Paine references multiple times in his pamphlet why the colonies will someday
separate. Reasons (distance, colonies are more profitable than England, more
populated than England, the colonies are too big, the colonies have more weapons
than England, the colonies are too rich and someone else will fight England to take
the colonies)
Paine knows that everyone thinks a break will occur, but no one can decide when that
will be. Paine is attempting to tell the reader why “now” is as good a time as any to
break from the British.
Paine says the time to rebel is now. His reasons are: (Britain has a huge empire and
cannot concentrate all their military efforts on the colonies, The British will be fighting
on foreign soil, the colonies will be able to fund a war, the colonies have enough
people and weapons to win)
Paine’s book is EXTREMELY successful in achieving its goal!
Siege continues
Throughout the fall and winter the colonist
hold Boston.
 The colonist bring in cannons and fire on
the British until the British flee to Nova
Scotia in May of 1776.
 Washington moves the army to fortify New
York from attack.
The founding fathers publish the Declaration of Independence John Locke and Charles
Montesquieu invented the theory of “Life, liberty, and property” and unalienable rights.
Our founding fathers were influenced by this theory and adopted it but slightly changed it to read
life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness.
“They derive their just power from the CONSENT OF THE GOVERNED”
Our founding fathers wanted and did create a representative government that makes sure the
PEOPLE (VOTERS) control the direction of the government.
Setup the government so they would be at the “mercy of the people” (Government works FOR the
people, not vice versa)
Derived from Thomas Hobbs’ social contract theory!
the chief scribe)
John Hancock was the President of the committee
Declaration was written in 1776 and was adopted on July 4.
Recruiting fighters
During the time of the revolution, the
British army only numbered 36,000.
Britain paid 30,000 German fighters or
Hessions to fight with them, making up 1/3 of
their fighting force
 15,000 Indians fought with the British
Hessian (soldiers) - Wikipedia, the free
Canada campaign
While Washington is holding Boston and
then fortifying New York, Ethan Allen and
Benedict Arnold take columns of soldiers
to Canada and take over Ft. Ticonderoga
and Ft. St. Johns just outside Montreal.
 They are defeated at Ft. Quebec.
 Invasion of Canada (1775) - Wikipedia, the
free encyclopedia
Interactive map
Howe’s army comes to battle
Washington had 20,000 men stationed to
protect New York.
 August 27, 1776 British General Howe
brought 22,000 men and won multiple
consecutive battles driving Washington’s
army out of New York into New Jersey and
then down into Delaware by the winter.
British prison ships
Prisoners in the American Revolutionary
War - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 Many colonial soldiers were neglected and
died on prison ships in New York harbor
Winter of 1776
By the winter, Washington’s 20,000 men
had dwindled to 5,000.
 By the end of the year, many men’s
enlistments would be up and the army
would # 1,400.
 Washington then make a decisive
 Absolute
low point of the revolution
 “These are the times that try men souls” - T Paine
Rules of 18th century war
1. Were not supposed to fight during the
winter (supposed to be in camp)
 2. Not supposed to fight at night (lead to
 3. Not supposed to kill opposing generals
 4. Not supposed to fight on Holidays
Crossing the Delaware
Washington decided to attack on
Christmas night (violation of 2 rules of war)
Captures 1,000 Hessians at Battle of Trenton
 Defeats British at battle of Princeton on
January 3, 1777.
Turning point of war
Early in 1777, John
Burgoyne attempts to
attack the colonists
stationed in Canada.
Horatio Gates is able
to outlast the British
contingent and force a
surrender at the Battle
of Saratoga.
As a result, France
enters the war.
Philadelphia campaign and Valley
In 1777, Howe secures New York City and
goes to take over Philadelphia.
 Through a series of skirmishes, he
 Washington camps for the next 6 months
20 miles outside of Philly at Valley Forge.
Valley Forge and Washington
Valley Forge
Washington’s army set up log cabins to protect
from the conditions, but disease ran rampant
through the camp
Shortages of food and clothing were also
Washington feared his army would abandon.
2,000 men died
Much needed training happened here though to
make the army much stronger.
Von Steuben of the French army came and
trained the colonial militia in war techniques and
Washington at Valley’s Forge
Surviving Valley Forge
 Valley Forge America Story of us
Animated Battle maps
Western War
George Rogers Clark defended the area
west of Appalachian mountains in what
was known as the “Indian Wars”
 Clark captured strategic points of the Ohio
River valley and Detroit and prevented the
army from being flanked from the west
Southern war
Cornwallis begins to “port hop”
 In late 1778, Savannah and then early
1780, Charleston are taken.
 Francis Marion carries out many attacks.
 Horatio Gates is put in command but is
defeated at the battle of Camden.
 Nathaniel Greene is put in command and
devised the strategy “We fight, get beat,
rise, and fight again “
Battle of Yorktown
Colonial Army bottles up Cornwallis in
 Cornwallis surrenders in 1781!!!!
 Yorktown
 War is over
Treaty of Paris 1783
All land between Mississippi and the
Atlantic belong to the colonists.
 Canada is returned to the French.
 Florida is returned to Spain
 British agree to remove ships from Great
Lakes region
 Britain must acknowledge USA
Advantages and Disadvantages of
the Revolutionary war
British Advantages
More soldiers
Huge navy
Trained army
“Real” money
Country not destroyed
More supplies
Colonists advantages
Knew the lay of the
Did not have to travel
far for supplies
Spirit and
determination (fighting
for a cause)
Guerilla warfare
Early currency in America
Revolution in summary
Summary - History