Download Worm et al. 2006 in science

Survey
yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts
no text concepts found
Transcript
Ocean Biogeographic
Information System
Edward Vanden Berghe
‘Mission’
• OBIS publishes primary data on marine
species locations online through
www.iobis.org
– It facilitates data discovery and exploration by
• Searching by species, higher taxa, time, location,
depth, data set
• Mapping observed occurrences
• Modelling of potential environmental range
– Integrates data over marine themes
• Microbes to whales
• Genetics and morphology
• Poles to equator…
– Enables data capture for re-use
• Provides the biogeographic context for
ocean research
Global loss of species from LMEs
Biodiversity issue
Worm et al. 2006 in science
Why do this?
• Proper management of natural resources
requires properly managed data and
information
– Several organisations sharing fisheries data
• OBIS model makes data and information
management more efficient
– Share responsibilities, tools, standards…
– Share data across different organisations and
countries
• OBIS is a way of ensuring data is not lost
– Archaeology and rescue for historic data
– Repositories for new data
• Assist in data discovery
– Links with EoL, BOLD…
OBIS as part of GBIF
• Same technology
– DiGIR, investigating IPT
• Same structure
– Darwin Core, OBIS Schema
– Investigating expansion
• Same philosophy and terms of
use
OBIS as part of UNESCO
• Adopted by the Intergovernmental
Oceanographic Commission of
UNESCO
• As part of their International
Oceanographic Data and information
Exchange programme
• So no longer an project-based
activity, but intergovernmental
GBIF
OBIS
IODE
OBIS in context
• Data integration component of CoML
– Capturing and integrating data
– Support the 2010 synthesis
• Marine component of GBIF
– Fully inter-operable with GBIF standards
– Extending with marine-specific elements
• Biodiversity component of IOC
– Under IODE programme
– Contributing to GOOS
• Partner with FAO, UNEP (WCMC)
• Hosted by Rutgers University IMCS
• Funded by Sloan Foundation
Distribution of cod, Gadus morhua, shown as ‘csquares’ map
Predicting distribution of invasive species, Pterois volitans
OBIS records viewed
200000
180000
160000
140000
120000
100000
80000
60000
40000
20000
0
Mar-2006 Oct-2006 Apr-2007
Nov-2007 Jun-2008 Dec-2008 Jul-2009
Jan-2010
Standards
• Biogeography: GBIF/TDWG
– Darwin Core, Extended to OBIS Schema
– ABCD
• Metadata: discovery metadata
– Global Change Master Directory – NASA
– MEDI – IODE; FGDC – US Gov?
• Taxonomy: World Register of Marine
Species (WoRMS)
– Contribution to Species 2000 and Catalogue of
Life
• Geography
– Polygon sets
• EEZs, FAO areas, IHO…
– Gazetteer
Extensions to Darwin Core
• Begin and end point
– Position, depth, date/time
– Accommodate trawls
• Sample size
– Quantitative information
• In collaboration with GBIF working on
system to extend standard
– Ecological information, EML
Standards: taxonomy
• Aphia is general species register
maintained at VLIZ
– Consists of several overlapping subsets
• defined geographical (ERMS, NWARMS…)
• defined taxonomic (Porifera, Platyhelminthes…)
• defined thematic (HABs, invasive species)
• Exposed through
www.marinespecies.org
• WoRMS = Aphia + external GSDs
– Algaebase, Hexacorallia, FishBase…
OBIS number of records
•
•
•
•
699 datasets
20.1 million distribution records
147,000 names, 107,000 taxa
Among the largest provider to
the Global Biodiversity
Information Facility
• Who’s providing data?
– Regional OBIS Nodes
– Census of Marine Life
Map of CoML field projects
CoML & Ocean Observing
An example of how CoML technologies can be
implemented in earth and ocean observing systems
Some animals dive 1000m
7 seals tracked during 2-3 month summer feeding migrations
Some CoML Discoveries
Ceratoserolis – an isopod
from the Weddell Sea
Athorybia rosacea – a
siphonophore from the
Sargasso Sea
Promachoteuthis sloani – a squid
from the mid-Atlantic Ridge
Kiwa hirsuta – a crab
from around Easter
Island (nicknamed the
Yeti crab)
Palinurus barbarae –
a lobster from around
Madagascar
HMAP data extends timeline
1,000,000
100,000
10,000
1,000
100
10
1
1600
1700
1800
1900
2000
2100
Location of RONs
Role of the regional nodes
• Ensuring true global cover for OBIS
• Regional nodes are closer to the providers
of the data
–
–
–
–
Local visibility for global OBIS data
Mobilise data from region
Technical assistance, also with standardisation
Specialised information products and services
• Data available on the regional network are
also available on the global network
– Increased global visibility for local data and data
providers
– Data sharing
OBIS Regional Node Architecture
Global Node
Regional Node
Provider
Global Database
Regional Database
Products
All Data
Subset of Data
Public Accessibility
GBIF
IOBIS
Data Found By
IOBIS Not From
Global Databases
Regional
Subset
Regional Node
With Local Datasets
And Online Providers
All data
Global Datasets e.g.
FAO, Hexacorallia
Fishbase &
Seamounts
Online Providers
Regional Node
With Local Datasets Only
RMB - March 14, 2004
Still a lot of work…
• We don’t know the total
biodiversity
– New species are discovered
• Selective sampling in geography
– Mostly in surface waters
– Temperate zones
• Selective sampling in taxonomy
– Mostly big things, vertebrates
New species are discovered
Data from http://marinespecies.org
Geographical bias
Bias in depth: all data
Bias in depth: deeper than 2500m
Taxonomic bias
Taxon
Cetaceans
Seals…
Fish
# species # in OBIS %
133
117
88
45
36
80
24139
21258
88
Echinoderms
Decapods
Bryozoans
6199
8227
6000
1624
3796
1096
26
46
18
Analysis of OBIS data
• First attempts at diversity pattern on
a global scale, with a large number
of taxa
– Previously either local or on one taxon
(e.g. commercial large fish like tuna,
forams…)
– ‘Safety in numbers’
• Results not affected by idiosyncrasies of
single taxon or study
• Results very preliminary, and need
data cleaning and further checking
– E.g. by artificially removing datasets
from analysis
Global pattern of sampling effort
Pattern in number of species
Corrected for bias: ES(50)
Large Marine Ecosystems
Latitudinal gradient ES(50)
es(50)
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
-100
-50
0
50
100
Marine fish to be discovered
Percentage completeness
1
100
Mora et al (2007). The completeness of taxonomic inventories for describing the
global diversity and distribution of marine fishes. Proc. R. Soc. B, published on line
Plans for the future
• More data and analysis
• Develop thematic portals, on issues
of direct societal relevance
– Invasive species, HABs…
• Develop demonstrator projects
– Species distributions, hotspots…
• Support CoML scientists
– Integration across themes
– 2010 Synthesis
– Publications: theme section(s)
Get in touch
• www.iobis.org
• [email protected],
[email protected]