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Transcript
chapter
3
Public Health at the Local, State, National,
and Global Levels
n n n
Learning Outcomes
1. Explain why public health issues in
one country often become a concern in
other countries.
2. List the key functions of public health
organizations or systems.
3. Explain the role of surveillance in mitigating the spread of disease.
4. Describe how the U.S. public health
system is structured at the national,
state, and local levels.
5. Describe the roles of the World Health
Organization, Pan-American Health
Organization, and non-governmental
organizations such as the Red Cross,
International in addressing public
health issues.
Introduction
Public health activities are performed at
many levels from local to national to global.
The organizations and agencies devoted to
public health at these different levels share
many of the same functions including disease surveillance, policy development, and
provision of access to health care. To better
understand how all these agencies fit together to provide public health services, this
chapter will look at public health organizations within the United States and organizations that exist for international public
health needs. Agencies of particular interest
to pharmacists, such as the Food and Drug
Administration, will be emphasized. To
illustrate how the various agencies work, a
case study based loosely on the 2002–03
SARS pandemic will be used.
Public Health from Local to Global
The primary site of activity for most public health interventions is within individual
communities or neighborhoods. This locale is where the members of the population and
the public health practitioners interact. For issues that are unique to the community or
do not spread beyond the community, the local approach is effective. However, many
public health problems extend beyond local borders, for example toxic waste spills, infectious diseases, wars, and natural disasters. Any of these problems may require involvement of counties, states, the nation, or even other countries to fully understand the scope
of the problem and respond to it. National and global organizations can often facilitate
communication among the affected populations, provide access to expertise not available
locally, and coordinate efforts to respond. The most effective responses to public health
problems are those that involve local, state, national, and international partners.
Many international outbreaks of infectious disease often begin as a single episode of
illness or injury that quickly spread if not contained. In the case of an outbreak of a new
viral disease, public health organizations at all levels need to minimize the spread of the
disease and reduce the mortality and morbidity rates because of interdependence and
the global nature of our world today. More than at any other time in history, trade, travel,
p h a r m a c y i n p u b l i c h e a lt h 45
and communication span the globe and connect populations in ways never imagined 100
years ago. It has been said that an infectious disease outbreak in any part of the world can
be in a person’s backyard half a world away within 24 hours. Luckily, information about
an approaching virus can be transmitted even faster via web and telecommunications, so
a population can prepare if it is warned. That is where the SARS-inspired case begins—a
single patient who has an unknown respiratory illness. The case is designed to show how
this disease impacts patients and practitioners in other continents. What starts as a local
outbreak quickly becomes a global health issue.
CASE STUDY 1
How a local outbreak can become a global public health issue
Yi Chen gets a mysterious viral illness
Yi Chen is a 52-year-old male who was born and raised in the Guangdong province of southern China. His work as a shrimp salesman requires travel to many communities within his
sales region. He averages six trips a month via the local train system. During those trips, he
often stays at nice hotels where businessmen from countries also lodge. He chats with other
travelers as he enjoys his after dinner cigarette and cup of beer.
After his most recent trip, Yi Chen began to feel feverish and achy. Ming, his loving wife of
34 years, made a broth soup called qing fei jiy du tang (a soup for clearing the lungs) to help
him fight the illness. Her herbal remedies for fever did not seem to work for this illness. By the
next morning, Yi had developed a cough that was dry (no sputum or congested sound), which
compounded the diarrhea that began during the night. Ming Chen loaded Yi into a taxi and took
him to the local hospital just 8 miles away where he was admitted for treatment. Yi was placed
in a room where he could be separated from other patients, health care workers, and visitors.
The mystery illness begins to spread
When Ming returned in the morning, she found her husband quite ill. Pneumonia had developed, and his breathing was labored and painful. The physicians had called an infectious disease specialist and asked medical students to examine Yi. By noon, they decided he should
be treated at the larger regional hospital in Guangzhou and transported him via ambulance
to the large medical center. Several physicians, including Dr. Zhang, seven nurses, and four
medical students worked closely with Yi during the course of his illness that lasted almost 2
weeks. Yi Chen was their eighth case that week.
By the time Yi left the hospital, his local hospital had received another six cases, three of
which were health care workers from the hospital. The regional medical center in Guangzhou
had admitted around 45 people that week—many were transferred from smaller hospitals in
the province. In spite of the growing number of cases of this mystery illness, Dr. Zhang and
his colleagues did not have much information about the outbreak or disease. They were not
aware that the illness had begun to appear in other provinces and major cities such as Beijing
where hundreds of residents were now diagnosed with a mysterious disease (Figure 3.1).
46 c h a p t e r 3 : P u b l i c h e a lt h at t h e l o c a l , s tat e , n at i o n a l , a n d g l o b a l l e v e l s
Figure 3.1—November 2002: A cluster of mysterious atypical pneumonia cases appear in
southeastern China. Total cases: unknown.
Key Functions of Public Health Organizations and Agencies
Regardless of whether an organization is a local health department or an international
entity, several key functions are typically performed. As Table 3.1 shows, the activities
include monitoring the population’s health as well as the presence of disease, developing
policies to promote health or reduce preventable disease or death, advocating for vulnerable members of the community, and supporting programs that improve community
Table 3.1
The Ten Essential Public Health Services
General Area
Specifics
Monitor
Health status to identify and solve community health
problems
Diagnose and investigate
Health problems and health hazards in the community
Inform, educate, and empower
People about health issues
Mobilize
Community partnerships and action to identify and
solve health problems
Develop
Policies and plans that support individual and community health efforts
Enforce
Laws and requirements that protect health and ensure safety
Link
People to needed personal health services and assure the
provision of health care when otherwise unavailable
Assure
Competent public and personal health care workforce
Evaluate
Effectiveness, accessibility, and quality of personal and
population-based health services
Research
For new insights and innovative solutions to health problems
Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). National Public Health Performance Standards Program. Available
at: http://www.cdc.gov/od/ocphp/nphpsp/EssentialPHServices.htm. Accessed September 28, 2008.
p h a r m a c y i n p u b l i c h e a lt h 47
infrastructure and quality of life. Some
interventions may be directly related to
health (e.g., access to medical care and
pharmaceuticals through public insurance
and clean drinking water), while others
may be indirectly related to health (e.g.,
improved educational system and higher
wages known to positively influence
health). Because the case scenario in this
chapter is focused on an outbreak of an
infectious disease, additional information
about disease surveillance is included.
Disease surveillance
n n n
Surveillance refers to actively monitoring a population for the appearance of a
new disease or the sudden increase in
an existing disease. The disease under
surveillance may be an infectious disease,
chronic disease, or preventable injuries or
exposures. International travel has made
surveillance a global activity because of
its ability to spread disease quickly and
Disease surveillance is the process of
widely.
monitoring the number of new and existing cases, incidence and prevalence rates,
respectively, of a disease in a population.
The information can indicate whether there is a higher-than-usual number of cases of
a particular illness. Although originally used for infectious diseases, surveillance could
include any disease of interest to decision-makers in the community. Examples include
monitoring the level of substance abuse, chronic diseases like diabetes or heart disease,
and the number of medication error cases that caused death. This chapter will focus on
the use of surveillance to monitor an infectious disease outbreak.
Not all infectious diseases are monitored and reported through surveillance programs. For infectious diseases, the surveillance focuses on a limited list of diseases that
spread easily through intimate or close contact. They are called reportable diseases,
which indicate they are being monitored by public health agencies and must be reported
when they are suspected or confirmed. Historically, physicians and medical laboratories
were most likely to identify reportable diseases so they were usually the people who reported them to a local health department; however, any health care professional including pharmacists could submit the report.
Figure 3.2 shows an example of a state reporting form used to pass information
about a disease under surveillance to state and federal agencies. There is a national list of
notifiable diseases for which each state is required to report cases, but states may have
additional diseases of interest that they are tracking so their list may include more reportable diseases. The diseases on the national and state lists will fall into several general
categories: sexually transmitted infections, childhood infectious diseases, and bioterrorism-related infections. Most lists will include a catch-all category such as the “unusual
cluster of disease” category to ensure that new diseases like SARS as well as any unusual
behavior of existing diseases are also reported.
The individual reports of a reportable disease are forwarded to state and then national health departments where they are compiled, analyzed, and disseminated via the web
and publications (e.g., Weekly Morbidity & Mortality Report) to keep all health officers
informed about possible outbreak in their area and surrounding communities.
48 c h a p t e r 3 : P u b l i c h e a lt h at t h e l o c a l , s tat e , n at i o n a l , a n d g l o b a l l e v e l s
Figure 3.2—Example of Infectious Disease Reporting Form
Source: Texas Department of Public Health Services
Once a sentinel case (i.e., initial case) of an infectious disease is detected in a community, the reporting system is used to alert local health care providers who will watch
for additional cases. The general public may receive instructions about how to limit
exposure or which symptoms require medical care, and adjoining communities and the
state may be alerted about the existence of an outbreak in the area. The state health de-
p h a r m a c y i n p u b l i c h e a lt h 49
partment receives information from the local agency and forwards it to the Centers for
Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) where it becomes part of the ongoing statistics
of disease outbreak. The CDC also provides support back to the local health department via the state. In cases of outbreak where the organism is unknown or the spread of
disease is rapid, the CDC will provide additional expertise to identify cause and technical assistance for limiting spread of disease. The CDC will also alert its international
partners about outbreaks since global travel makes the spread of many diseases quick and
easy.
International travel has added a new dimension to disease surveillance and quarantine efforts. As Figure 3.3 shows, travel aids in the spread of disease in several ways. First,
a person traveling to an area where a disease outbreak exists may become infected and
bring the disease with him or her upon return home. Second, a person with a contagious
disease who is not yet experiencing illness may travel to another area and infect local residents. Third, a traveler may infect or be infected by fellow travelers who then go to their
destination or return home and inadvertently expose others. If the infecting organism
can exist outside the human body, the luggage may also be a source of infection when
handled by others. As a result of these pathways for spreading disease, many surveillance
programs include plans for screening international travelers and using quarantine for
people, pets, or luggage as needed.
Figure 3.3—How Trade and Travel Can Spread Disease and Exposures
50 c h a p t e r 3 : P u b l i c h e a lt h at t h e l o c a l , s tat e , n at i o n a l , a n d g l o b a l l e v e l s
CASE STUDY 1 (continued)
Failure of local surveillance delays response efforts
Local surveillance and communication fails
Within the Guangdong province there was a lack of communication about a new mystery
illness that was spreading among residents. The local health care providers, including Dr.
Zhang who cared for Yi Chen, did not know that they were a high-risk group for contracting
the illness due to their prolonged close contact with infected and ill patients. Although some
efforts to isolate the sick patients were made, stringent precautions to avoid exposure were
not immediately taken since the scope of the outbreak was not known.
When Dr. Zhang first noticed the fever, he had been in close contact with at least 60
patients, his colleagues at the clinics, numerous nurses, and other hospital and clinic-based
health care workers. His greatest concern was a recent flight he took to Hong Kong to attend
a medical convention—he knew enough about infectious disease to be concerned about the
other attendees, other hotel guests, and fellow travelers on the airplane. When several of his
colleagues began complaining of similar symptoms, they quickly polled their closest co-workers
to see if anyone else was potentially infected. They found four other physicians, six nurses, and
three medical students with fevers and early symptoms, so they voluntarily put themselves in
quarantine in one wing of the hospital where they planned to stay until they were sure that they
were not sick or the illness ran its course. They took these measures to protect their families
and others from exposure to the mystery illness. The loss of these health care workers from
their usual routine put a great strain on the hospital, but the severity of the illness and the sheer
mystery of it kept the accountants and CEO from complaining about the lost revenue.
The health care worker quarantine wing soon became an isolation medical wing as each
one developed the mystery illness. Of the 16 workers in the isolation wing, seven died from
the disease or its complications. The remaining nine recovered, but were not fully returned to
health for another 4 weeks. The experience of being confined to a single wing in the hospital
had been incredibly difficult, and most of the survivors found themselves facing depression
and anxiety. Access to reports of other outbreaks were limited so Dr. Zhang and his colleagues did not know that the disease had taken a toll in their province or that it was beginning to appear in other countries in southeast Asia. Provincial and national officials in China
did not notify other provinces or other countries about an outbreak of a viral pneumonia of
unknown cause for another 3 months.
Mystery illness spreads to other countries
By February 2004, Dr. Zhang had recovered sufficiently to be released from the isolation wing.
He resumed his practice and cared for more patients with the mystery illness. His own illness
had conferred active immunity, and he was one of a few medical providers who could work
with patients without fear of contracting their mystery illness. He had recently heard from
his old medical school friend, Dr. Trang, who was now practicing in Hanoi; he was treating
a patient with a pneumonia that appeared to be viral but was not a known illness. It was an
interesting case, and he wondered if Dr. Zhang had ever seen anything like it.
Dr. Trang had time to email Dr. Zhang because he had taken the day off due to a slight
fever. Before leaving work the day before, he had contacted the local health officials to report
this unusual and potentially contagious illness. This time, the health report made its way from
local officials to national agencies that contacted the World Health Organization (WHO)
where similar reports had recently arrived from Hong Kong and Singapore (Figure 3.4).
p h a r m a c y i n p u b l i c h e a lt h 51
Figure 3.4—March 31, 2003: Outbreaks of mysterious atypical pneumonia cases first appear
in other southeastern Asia countries then other continents as travelers return home. Total
cases: 1,622.
International Public Health Network
Because so many public health issues occur across borders, an international system or
network is needed to coordinate efforts and transfer information. As the SARS case will
show, the spread of a contagious, infectious disease can be worldwide. Only a global
effort to mitigate the spread of the disease will stop the outbreak before it becomes a
full-blown pandemic (a global outbreak of disease). This section will look at the various
international organizations that share information and coordinate actions across borders
as well as some of their key functions.
n n n
International organizations devoted to
public health issues depend upon the
voluntary reporting and cooperation of
nations around the globe to identify, communicate, and respond to public health
emergencies and issues.
Participation in international organizations
is voluntary; not all countries participate.
52 Voluntary collaboration instead of
mandates
A key difference between international and
national public health systems is whether
the organization has the ability to mandate
and enforce behaviors. Because international public health organizations are not
associated with a particular government,
they do not have the inherent powers
to pass or enforce laws that will protect
health. All efforts to intervene are voluntary and succeed only if each country
involved in the issue takes steps internally
to follow the recommendations of the
international organization.
c h a p t e r 3 : P u b l i c h e a lt h at t h e l o c a l , s tat e , n at i o n a l , a n d g l o b a l l e v e l s
Voluntary participation instead of required membership
Another key difference between international and national public health systems is
the voluntary nature of participation in the international public health system. Not
all countries are members of the international organizations, which creates gaps in the
global system. Because participation cannot be enforced, the international public health
organizations attract countries by providing information and expertise that they need to
keep their populations healthy.
The World Health Organization (WHO, International)
The World Health Organization (WHO) is the primary international public health
organization. The role of WHO in public health can be defined by its core functions
of providing leadership and engaging partners in issues of critical importance to health;
promoting areas of research and ensuring findings are disseminated widely; developing standards and promoting their use;
promoting the use of ethical and evidencebased options; monitoring and assessing
n n n
health and trends; and developing its own
The World Health Organization (WHO)
capacity to ensure that its efforts can be
sustained.1 In essence, WHO exists to prois the primary international, intergovernmote communication and collaboration
mental public health entity. Countries
among nations on important matters of
considered members of the United Nahealth. Its key functions are summarized
tions are WHO member countries. WHO
in Table 3.2.
cannot mandate action but it can provide
WHO was created in 1948 by the
United Nations as the global health
expertise, support, and guidance to each
authority that would coordinate and guide
country while it promotes communications
health policy, practice, research, and disand collaborations. WHO’s efforts are supease surveillance in participating countries.
ported by regional offices and non-governIt has become a respected partner in many
public health endeavors. Any nation that
mental entities.
participates in the United Nations can
Table 3.2
Functions of the World Health Organization (WHO)
• Provide leadership on important health matters
• Partner with other public or private organizations as needed
• Shape the research agenda and ensure new knowledge is disseminated
• Develop standards and set norms and monitor implementation
• Promote policy options that are ethical and evidence based
• Provide technical support and expertise
• Monitor and assess the trends in health
• Promote change and support the development of its own sustainable institutional capacity
Source: World Health Organization, International. The Role of WHO in Public Health. Available at: http://www.who.int/about/
role/en/index.html. Accessed September 23, 2008.
p h a r m a c y i n p u b l i c h e a lt h 53
Table 3.3
also be a member of WHO. The international headquarters for WHO is located in Six Regional Offices of the World
Geneva, Switzerland, a historically neutral
Health Organization (WHO)
country. The organization is headed by
African Region
the Director General who is appointed
Region of the Americas (PAHO)
by the World Health Assembly, which
is the decision-making body of WHO
South-East Asia Region
and consists of representatives from the
European Region
member nations.2
Eastern Mediterranean Region
The member countries are divided
Western Pacific Region
into six regions that span the globe.
Each region represents countries within
Source: WHO—its people and offices. Regional offices.
Available at: http://www.who.int/about/structure/en/index.
a distinct geographic area, such as the
“Region of the Americas,” which consists html. Accessed September 23, 2008.
of North, Central, and South American
countries including the United States.
Table 3.3 lists the eight regions. WHO conducts its work and communication primarily
through these regional groups. Each region is able to concentrate on public health issues
that may be unique to its geography and populations. Like its parent organization, each
region is an international entity.3
As an international entity, WHO can serve as a focal point for reporting disease
outbreaks and sharing information across many countries. Because membership and
participation in WHO and its programs are voluntary and limited to nations that are
participants in the United Nations, some gaps exist in membership and participation.
Not all countries are represented, and recommendations for practice or policy within
countries cannot be enforced.
Pan-American Health Organization (PAHO)
Another international health organization to which the United States belongs is the
Pan-American Health Organization (PAHO), which includes North, Central, and
South American countries. This regional organization was actually created about 50 years
before WHO. It came into existence as a result of coordinating regional efforts to control
the spread of infectious disease through increased sea travel.4 At the time, global air travel
did not exist, so disease outbreaks were generally contained within a continent or region.
When WHO was created in the 1940s, the PAHO assumed the role of the “Regional Office of the Americas.” The headquarters for PAHO are in Washington, DC,
where staff members focus their efforts on getting member nations to collaborate on international health issues that are found in the Americas.4 As a regional office for WHO,
PAHO has the same issues associated with voluntary membership and compliance with
policies and standards as its parent organization. Although PAHO is primarily linked
with WHO, it also serves other agencies of the United Nations (e.g., World Bank).
The mission of PAHO is to improve the health of the people in the Americas and to
strengthen health systems from local to national levels. It does this by promoting health
care programs that increase access and add efficiency to systems, promoting education
and social communications, reducing the spread of transmissible diseases and chronic
diseases, and fighting outbreaks of disease in countries in the Americas.4 Vulnerable
populations such as mothers, young children, poor, elderly, and refugees or displaced
individuals are the target groups for health improvement. Focus areas for interventions
54 c h a p t e r 3 : P u b l i c h e a lt h at t h e l o c a l , s tat e , n at i o n a l , a n d g l o b a l l e v e l s
are the safety of the blood supply, safe drinking water, sanitation, and tobacco use. To
accomplish its mission, PAHO partners with other UN and WHO agencies, national
public health agencies, and private, non-governmental organizations.
Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs)
In addition to international agencies whose membership is comprised of countries, some
private organizations are not representative of a particular country or government. These
non-governmental organizations (NGOs) frequently partner with governmental and
intergovernmental organizations to achieve a health goal. Members of NGOs may be
private citizens or businesses; the organizations may be supported by private, public, or
both types of funds. Even NGOs receiving public funds (i.e., funds from governments)
are considered non-governmental as long as their governing boards do not include
representatives from the government providing the financial support. The NGOs often
supplement services or provide programs within countries when the local public health
system lacks sufficient funds or resources, which further differentiates them from WHO
and PAHO.
Many NGOs begin as an effort to fill a specific niche that the governmental and intergovernmental organizations are unable fill. Like their public counterparts, the NGOs
grow and expand over time often making the scope of their missions broad and overlapping their work with other NGOs and government organizations. For example, CARE,
International began as a nongovernmental food relief agency after World War II when
its sole purpose was to provide packages (CARE packages) to starving families in warravaged Europe. Today, CARE’s humanitarian aid now includes fighting global poverty
and its related health issues. The organization focuses on women since they can impact
the entire family. Projects supported through CARE include efforts to improve basic
education, reduce spread of HIV, increase clean water and sanitation, grow economic
opportunities, protect natural resources, and provide emergency aid.5 Other examples of
international NGOs that focus on health and vulnerable populations are the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC), which provides emergency services in areas struck by disaster as well as basic health care services.6 Oxfam,
International is a famine-relief NGO, and
Doctors without Borders (Médecins Sans
n n n
Frontières) provides international teams of
health care providers to countries and areas
The global network of public health
where services are not available or other
organizations consists of a complex web
NGOs will not go.7
Global network of public and private
public health partners
As Figure 3.5 shows, the public and private elements of the global public health
system form a network that is designed to
improve communication and coordinate
responses to issues that extend beyond
the borders of individual countries. Over
time, the intergovernmental agencies such
as WHO and nongovernmental agencies
of governmental, intergovernmental, and
non-governmental organizations that have
formed many partnerships to address
public health issues. The NGOs are often
able to implement local services based
on national or international policies and
standards set by intergovernmental groups
such as WHO.
p h a r m a c y i n p u b l i c h e a lt h 55
such as the IFRC have expanded the scope of their missions so that they now often have
overlapping missions. This forms a complex network of partnerships and activities for
many public health concerns.
Figure 3.5—Relationships among Public and Private Participants in the Global Public Health
System
National
Public Health
Agency
Private International
Organizations
(NGOs)
National
Public Health
Agency
WHO
Regional
Organization
National
Public Health
Agency
World Health
Organization
(WHO)
Pan-American Health
Organization (PAHO)
(WHO Region of the
Americas)
U.S. Department
of Health and
Human
Services (DHHS)
Canadian
Health
Ministry
WHO
Regional
Organization
Mexican
Health
Ministry
National
Public Health
Agency
National
Public Health
Agency
CASE STUDY 1 (continued)
WHO gets the world involved in the mystery illness
WHO epidemiologist Urbani names the mystery illness SARS
Although Yi Chen had recovered from his illness, the virus that caused the disease was
spreading to other countries. During a recent trip to Hong Kong, Yi Chen had noticed people
wearing face masks. He tried to buy some masks for himself and his family, but the local pharmacies and hospitals had already sold their supplies. Like many of his neighbors, Yi asked a
distant relative living in Kansas City to send him a supply of face masks. He had just begun to
hear about the mystery illness, and it sounded like it was spreading to other towns, provinces,
and countries.
During March, the mystery illness had been named SARS for Severe Acute Respiratory
Syndrome by a physician who was investigating the outbreak for WHO. Yi was sorry to hear
that the physician, Dr. Urbani, had contracted SARS and died several weeks later. During
those early spring months, Yi had to rethink his travel plans because travel advisories and
alerts were appearing for many southeastern Asian countries. Many alerts were for other prov-
56 c h a p t e r 3 : P u b l i c h e a lt h at t h e l o c a l , s tat e , n at i o n a l , a n d g l o b a l l e v e l s
inces in China and the city of Beijing, which had reported over 400 cases of SARS. Yi also
found that his business contacts in other provinces and countries were not eager to have him
conduct business in person since he was from an outbreak area and may have had SARS.
Global collaboration to fight the spread of SARS
Yi was not aware of a concurrent international effort to isolate and identify the virus that
caused SARS. News reports about the disease and international efforts were still limited in his
hometown and did not describe the international team of 11 leading research labs that were
working on the genetic sequence of the virus. During a business trip to Singapore, he learned
that the virus was a coronavirus from the same group of viruses that also causes the common
cold. The newly identified virus had been named SARS co-V. Apparently, it was a small germ;
those face masks he had shipped from the United States could not block it. From his conversations with other businessmen, Yi learned that the disease was now appearing all around
the world. It was interesting to hear stories about how various countries were taking different
approaches to detecting and controlling the SARS outbreaks (Figure 3.6).
Figure 3.6—May 1, 2003: Clusters of SARS cases appear on six continents and spread within
China. Total cases: 5,663.
Public Health Systems within Countries
While efforts to address public health
problems at the international level are
n n n
based on the voluntary cooperation of
Public health systems within a country
countries, efforts within a country may
often have the authority to mandate and
actually be enforceable depending on how
the nation has established its public health
enforce behaviors that are deemed to be
system. Although the structure of these
in the interest of the public’s safety and
public health systems within different
welfare. This authority may be delegated
countries varies and their issues are not
to local governments or agencies.
the same, the key functions of the public
health systems remain similar. Unlike their
international counterparts, public health
p h a r m a c y i n p u b l i c h e a lt h 57
organizations or agencies with a country often have the ability to mandate behavior and
require participation. This section of the chapter will look at the U.S. public health system beginning with the federal level. After looking at the federal agencies, the state and
local levels of public health will be examined.
The U.S. Public Health System
Federal authority
The establishment of health or public health services in the United States was not specifically addressed by our founding fathers in the U.S. Constitution. In other countries,
such as Mexico, constitutional provisions establish public health services. In the United
States, public health services were established indirectly through several mechanisms.
First, the commerce clause of the Constitution gives the federal government the power
to regulate trade with other nations, including tribal nations, and between states. An
example of this type of power is seen with the regulation of the pharmaceutical industry
and the advertisement of pharmaceuticals. Second, the power to tax citizens and spend
tax dollars allows the federal government to raise funds that support national public
health programs and initiatives and allocate the monetary resource to state and local
governments that will conduct the programs.8
State and local authority
Powers not specifically given to the federal government via the U.S. Constitution were
retained by the states. This state-level authority, which is called police power, allows a
state to set laws and enforce them for the welfare of its citizens; however, these powers are
subject to limitation by the U.S. Constitution, state constitution, and a balance of
n n n
individual rights and public welfare. The
10th Amendment, which granted authorU.S. public health system funcity for each state to act on behalf of its
tions include:
citizens for matters not specified by the
• Interacting with international organizaConstitution, made this implicit authority
more explicit.8
tions;
In general, federal laws related to pub• Interacting with state and tribal public
lic health take precedence over state laws,
health systems;
which in turn take precedence over local
laws. When federal laws do not exist, the
• Delegating authority to states to care
state sets its own. As a result of the delegafor the health of their citizens;
tion of most public health authority to the
• Regulating activities that cross state
states, great variation exists in the struclines or are specifically named in the
ture and function of local and state health
agencies across the country. Tribal health
Constitution; and
authority results from negotiated trea• Determining how public funds are
ties with the federal government, and the
distributed and used.
extent to which that authority is granted
to local governing bodies is determined by
each tribe.
58 c h a p t e r 3 : P u b l i c h e a lt h at t h e l o c a l , s tat e , n at i o n a l , a n d g l o b a l l e v e l s
Structure of the U.S. Public Health System
As Figure 3.7 shows, three levels or tiers exist in the U.S. public health system: local,
state, and federal. The local agencies may be established at the county, city, or neighborhood level depending on the state system and the size of the population served. Public
health agencies may be as simple as a single health officer or as complex as a multi-state,
multi-center, complex of services provided by thousands of individuals. Tribal agencies
operate at a level that is most similar to the state level public health agencies; they are
shown at the same level in the figure.
The flow of information, funding, and policy-making between local, state, and national health departments helps to delineate the relationships among the different entities.
For example, health care, which is a component of public health, is practiced at the local
level but may be affected by state licensing laws and national policies on access. In return,
health care providers and their professional organizations may help to shape policies at
the local, state, and federal levels. Many other organizations and agencies contribute to
the public’s health, including law enforcement, environmental quality, agriculture, and
schools. Although this chapter will not focus on their contributions, remember that most
public health issues affect and can be affected by virtually every aspect of the community.
Figure 3.7—Public and Private Elements of the U.S. Public Health System
National
Private
Organizations
U.S. Department of Health
and Human Services (HHS)
State Health
Department
State Health
Department
Board of Health
Board of Health
Tribal Health
Department
Local
Health
Department
Healthcare
providers
County/City
Health
Department
County/City
Health
Department
County/City
Health
Department
County/City
Health
Department
Health Board
Health Board
Health Board
Health Board
Healthcare
providers
Healthcare
providers
Healthcare
providers
State-level
Private
Organizations
Local Private
Organizations
Healthcare
providers
Department of Health and Human Services (HHS)
Mission
The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) is the principal national
organization charged with both protecting health and providing essential human services
for Americans. As a federal program, the HHS serves more as a source of policy, guidp h a r m a c y i n p u b l i c h e a lt h 59
ance, and funding but does not directly administer the programs. Administration is delegated to state health departments or their designees. Therefore, HHS works with state
and local (i.e., county or city) governments to ensure information and services reach the
public. The support often comes in the form of financial resources, technical assistance,
education, and goals for the program. It has been estimated that almost one-fourth of
the federal budget is spent on HHS programs, which indicates the size of the department
and the focus on keeping residents healthy and productive.9
Background
The HHS was officially established in 1980 from two groups of pre-existing agencies:
those that were in the U.S. Public Health Service and those that were devoted to the
welfare of citizens. As Table 3.4 shows, HHS now consists of 11 operating divisions
or agencies that can still be roughly divided into those that focus on health and those
that focus on the welfare of vulnerable populations such as children and the elderly.9
Many divisions and departments are within each agency. For example, within the Food
and Drug Administration (FDA), six centers and three offices are devoted to various
regulatory and review functions related to food and product safety. These 11 agencies
and their departments are responsible for over 300 programs that address health and human service needs including research in health and social sciences, food and drug safety,
educational programs for children, disaster preparedness, and substance abuse prevention
or treatment.
U.S. Public Health Service (USPHS)
The U.S. Public Health Service (USPHS) is perhaps the oldest of the federal services or
departments focused on public health. USPHS began as the Marine Hospital Service,
which was dedicated to the care of sick or disabled seamen. Over time, the service expanded to include more public health duties and agencies that were eventually incorporated into the HHS.10 Table 3.4 indicates the HHS agencies that are considered part of
the USPHS. To fulfill its mission, the USPHS established its own health care staff called
the commissioned corps.
The commissioned corps of the USPHS has around 6000 health care providers and
researchers in its ranks. Pharmacists are one of a number of health professions included
in the corps. Most USPHS pharmacists work with one these four agencies: the Indian
Health Service (47%), the Food and Drug Administration (26%), Bureau of Prisons
(14%), and the National Institutes of Health (13%).10 In addition to their usual clinical
duties, PHS pharmacists are also expected to assist with responses for disasters such as
hurricanes. These positions may be located in Washington, DC, or spread throughout
the country. Most are clinical pharmacy positions, but some have additional advisory or
consultative aspects. For example, a PHS pharmacist working with the Health Resources
and Services Administration (HRSA) is required to provide medications for HIV/AIDS
to patients in an underserved population and study national pharmacy manpower requirements.11
As a federal employee, pharmacists are not required to be licensed in the state where
they are stationed as long as they have a current license in at least one of the states in the
union. With regard to the SARS outbreak, PHS pharmacists in clinical positions were
affected in the same manner as health care providers in other settings.
60 c h a p t e r 3 : P u b l i c h e a lt h at t h e l o c a l , s tat e , n at i o n a l , a n d g l o b a l l e v e l s
Table 3.4
Major Agencies of Health and Human Services (HHS) and Their Primary Roles
Primary Roles
Agency
HHS agencies for health (public health) services
AHRQ
ATSDR
CDC
FDA
Agency for Healthcare Research and
Supports research on the health system, including
Quality
quality and cost issues
Agency for Toxic Substances and
Works to prevent exposure to hazardous
Disease Registry
substances created by wastes
Centers for Disease Control and
Provides a system of disease surveillance and
Prevention
reporting
Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
Assures safety and efficacy of medications; safety of
food and cosmetics
HRSA
IHS
Health Resources and Services
Provides access to basic health care services in
Administration
underserved populations
Indian Health Service
Works with tribes to provide health services to
American Indians and Alaska Natives
NIH
National Institutes of Health
Promotes and funds biomedical research
SAMHSA
Substance Abuse and Mental Health
Works to improve availability and quality of
Services Administration
prevention and treatment programs
HHS agencies for human (welfare) services
CMS
Centers for Medicare & Medicaid
Administers the Medicare and Medicaid programs
Services
ACF
AoA
Administration for Children and
Promotes the economic and social well-being of
Families
children, families, and their communities
Administration on Aging
Provides services to the elderly to help them remain
independent
Source: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Available at: http://www.hhs.gov/about/whatwedo.html. Accessed
September 14, 2007.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), which supports surveillance of
health status and disease, maintains the related statistics and promotes disease prevention. This division of the DHHS is tasked with monitoring and preventing international
transmission of disease. The director of the CDC also leads the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), which is dedicated to reducing exposure to toxics
in the environment, particularly those found in waste sites designated as priorities by the
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).12
In the 2002–03 SARS outbreak, the CDC served as a source of information and the
group to which state health departments reported both suspected and confirmed cases
of SARS. The CDC web site has numerous resources for a variety of diseases that can be
used by practitioners as well as the general public. For pharmacists, this site can provide
just-in-time information about topics of concern for patients such as travel vaccination
p h a r m a c y i n p u b l i c h e a lt h 61
recommendations, epidemiology of diseases, and in the present case, information about
how SARS is spread, early symptoms, best treatment options, and areas where travel
restrictions or cautions exist. Information about SARS can still be found on the web site
because of concerns that it will reappear.
Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
One of the divisions in the HHS that is most familiar to pharmacists is the Food and
Drug Administration (FDA), which is deeply involved in the drug development and
production process. FDA works with the manufacturers rather than researchers to ensure
products are both safe and effective. As one might expect, pharmacists are included
among the employees of this division.13 The mission of the FDA is to protect the health
of the public by assuring medications, food, cosmetics, and products that emit radiation are safe, effective, and secure (i.e., not tampered with or contaminated). Its goal is
to do this in a speedy and efficient manner that does not compromise safety.13 Virtually
all efforts to ensure drug product safety come from the FDA with one notable exception being child safety caps, which are regulated by the U.S. Consumer Product Safety
Commission (CPSC).
The FDA is best known for its work to promote legislation that regulates pharmaceutical manufacturers and the drug approval process. The FDA has many other
roles that promote safety. It has several voluntary reporting systems for issues related to
medication including its safety reports for adverse events (MedWatch), vaccines adverse events (VAERS), counterfeit medications, and problems with online pharmacies.
Through its Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (CDER), FDA provides oversight of marketing of new medications, generics, new indications for existing products,
and post-marketing surveillance. Personnel in this center are primarily MDs and PhDs,
but some pharmacists are in key positions and on the staffs. In addition to drug approval duties, the CDER also provides counterterrorism and emergency response support
related to medication supplies and access.14
The FDA has created a Counterfeit
Drug Task Force to combat counterfeit
n n n
medications in the United States and
At the national level, public health activiabroad. Its efforts complement those of the
International Medication Products Antities focus on issues that are interstate and
Counterfeiting Taskforce (IMPACT),
international. In the United States, the
which was created by WHO. In addition,
primary federal agency for public health
it provides travelers with advice about
is the Department of Health and Human
the dangers of purchasing medications
while traveling since counterfeit medicaServices (HHS). Through its 11 agencies,
tions in some areas are more common than
HHS provides a broad array of services,
genuine products and problems can arise
support, and policy for states. Among
with buying medications via the Internet.14
those divisions are several with strong
Pharmacists are among the personnel and
consultants that work with the FDA. As
ties to pharmacy, including the FDA and
an employee, pharmacists are technically
USPHS.
hired as USPHS pharmacists who are
62 c h a p t e r 3 : P u b l i c h e a lt h at t h e l o c a l , s tat e , n at i o n a l , a n d g l o b a l l e v e l s
assigned to the FDA. In addition to being an employee of the FDA where duties reflect
standard clinical practice as well as proposal review duties, pharmacists can also be found
on the rosters of the various FDA advisory committees.15
With regard to the 2002–03 SARS outbreak, the FDA could potentially become
involved in expedited approval of a vaccine found to be effective against the virus if such
a vaccine were discovered. FDA could also be involved with approval of off-label use of
existing medications if they showed efficacy against the SARS virus. In the case as presented in this chapter, the role of the FDA is minimal.
State public health structures and functions
Basis of Authority and Ability to Delegate
The 10th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution made state governments the primary
protectors of the health of people living within their borders. A state may undertake a
myriad of activities to meet this responsibility, including the creation of an administrative agency called the health department (or public health agency). Activities conducted
by the state health department in one state may be quite different that those in another
due to differences in state priorities, politics, and ability to delegate to local governments.
State Health Departments and Boards of Health
Like their local counterparts, state health agencies are under the direction of the Health
Officer (or Medical Officer) whose work is guided by the state’s Board of Health. The
structure of the state health departments and boards vary by state. In general, the state
health departments may be organized in several different ways. The traditional public
health agency limits its oversight to just public health and primary care services. If a
health department is organized as a “super public health agency,” it also oversees mental
health and substance abuse services in the state; one that is a “super health agency” may
include supervision of Medicaid instead of mental health and substance abuse services.
The largest of all organizations, the “umbrella agency,” oversees all of the above mentioned services plus other human services
programs.16
At both the state and local levels, two
n n n
separate but related entities are the Board
Most of the authority to act on public
of Health and the health department. The
health issues on behalf of the population
Board of Health is comprised of a group
of volunteers from the community or
resides within the state health boards and
state that represent various points of view
departments. This authority, which was
including health care. The board provides
conferred upon the states by the federal
oversight and guidance for public health
government, can be and is often delagencies. These volunteers are usually
appointed by the local government and
egated to the local public health organizaselected to represent a variety of interests
tions. Tribal public health organizations are
and expertise. The duties of the health
similar to state health departments in their
board focus on oversight of the health
authority to act on behalf of their citizens.
agency’s progress towards meeting its mission and its fiduciary responsibilities.
p h a r m a c y i n p u b l i c h e a lt h 63
Health boards generally hire and evaluate the Health Officer who serves as the
director of the local health agency. The Health Officer is responsible for ensuring that
programs and services are implemented and carried out. This usually means delegating
duties to divisions within the organization where the staff members actually conduct the
work. Historically, Health Officers were physicians, but some now have other graduate
credentials such as a Master of Public Health (MPH) degree.
Some local health agencies are so small that the Health Officer is technically the
agency; most others are true health departments with several divisions, numerous
programs, and more than one person on staff. When the health agency is large enough
to employ more than one person, it is generally referred to as a health department. The
health department is the organization that does the work deemed necessary to protect
the health of the citizens.
Both health departments and Boards of Health are created by the local government
and have their authority bestowed upon them by those governments as an extension of
the same authority that was given to the state. Some municipal and county departments
are combined into a single city-county organization through agreements between the
municipal and county governments.
Local public health structures and functions
Boards and departments of health also exist at the city or county level. Larger metropolitan areas may have a city health department in addition to a county department. In rural
or frontier areas where the populations are sparse, the department may consist of a single
person. In other areas, the city and county
departments may be combined into a
n n n
single entity. The local government decides
how it will delegate the authority and the
At the local level, the policies and funds
scope of that authority.
dedicated to public health work are put
The local level is where public health
into practice. This is the level where the
really meets the population it serves. Most
governmental entity interacts directly with
programs are administered at this level,
local citizens are involved on the Boards
the populations for which it exists to serve.
to provide the community perspective,
The local level is also where much of the
and disease reports are collected case-bydisease monitoring data is collected and
case and fed to the state’s epidemiologist
sent back to state, federal, and internafor analysis before being forwarded to the
CDC for national statistics to be monitional public health entities.
tored and reported.
64 c h a p t e r 3 : P u b l i c h e a lt h at t h e l o c a l , s tat e , n at i o n a l , a n d g l o b a l l e v e l s
CASE STUDY 1 (continued)
The United States prepares for the arrival of SARS
Kansas prepares for its first case
In Kansas City, Lai Chen, a fourth-year pharmacy student, arrived at her community retail
pharmacy for a 6-week experience in clinical pharmacy activities in a retail setting. She had
a vested interest in the SARS outbreak because one of her great aunts, Ming Chen, had apparently died from the disease just last winter. Her great uncle, Yi, had been corresponding
with Lai’s mother who naturally asked Lai for information. Her first task had been to find face
masks to mail to her extended family in Guangdong province. She had been surprised to learn
that she was not the only one looking for this scarce commodity.
As Lai settled into her rotation, she became one of many health care workers preparing
for the inevitable arrival of SARS in the U.S. heartland. Recent cases in Toronto had piqued
interest in early detection of SARS cases and implementation of safety precautions for health
care providers working with SARS patients. Lai was asked to find information on the disease,
guidelines for clinicians, and treatment options. Lai began with a search of the CDC and WHO
web sites where the latest information was being posted. Her preceptor suggested that she
also look at the Canadian national health service site (Health Canada) for additional updates
and information.
Based on her search of the literature, Lai prepared a brief list of potential issues that the
retail store could face if a SARS outbreak occurred in Kansas City. Her list is shown in Table
3.5 along with possible methods for addressing them. Key components included providing information to patrons of the store without scaring them, clarifying or correcting misunderstandings of reported literature or news reports, providing patients with tangible things they can do
to reduce their risk, discouraging purchases of devices or medicines that are not effective, and
keeping the pharmacy personnel safe while working with exposed or sick patients or handling
or discarding their unused medications.17,18
Case post-mortem
By the time the SARS outbreak ended in late 2003, over 8000 probable SARS cases and 774
deaths were reported across 29 countries.19 In the United States, eight cases out of 29 were
confirmed and no deaths were reported. All the confirmed U.S. cases were tied to travel to
areas where SARS outbreaks were known to exist and were not caused by human-to-human
transmission while in the states.20 Figure 3.8 shows all countries with one or more cases of
SARS.
Fears that the following 2002–03 winter season would produce another outbreak were
largely unfounded with only few cases reported in China and no evidence of another global
SARS event. The experience from the SARS outbreak did provide valuable information for individuals who are preparing plans for responding to an avian flu pandemic, which has been
predicted to occur at any time.
p h a r m a c y i n p u b l i c h e a lt h 65
Table 3.5
Lai’s List of Potential SARS-Related Issues for a Retail Pharmacy
Prepare for:
Cause
Issues
Patient surge (increased
If local hospitals are closed or put
Increase staffing to handle
number of patients)
under quarantine, patients will
increased traffic
seek other sources of care and
Prepare information for patients
information
Sicker patients
These patients may be sicker than
Review info and help triage patients
usual but barred from hospital
Worried well
Patrons who have respiratory
Provide information and
symptoms but no history of
reassurance
exposure
Poor communication or
Health officials may change
Seek reliable information sources
information
information frequently to adjust to
Seek local info for current
evolving situation
quarantine/treatment info
Protecting workforce
Health care workers are highly likely
Use standard and respiratory
from exposure
to become infected if they work
precautions
closely with a SARS patient
Handle items for potentially
exposed SARS patients while
Need to limit exposure time and
wearing gloves
closeness
Frequent hand washing
Use face masks if counseling
coughing or feverish patients
Use telephone for counseling
Drop off prescriptions at homes
Bill via credit card numbers to avoid
handling checks or money
Monitoring pharmacy
Fever is an early sign of SARS;
Take temperature of workers once a
staff
if a family member is sick, put
shift; if fever is present, send worker
employee on sick leave
to designated SARS clinic site
Requests to dispose of
Family members of potential
Determine local health department
potentially contaminated
SARS cases may have unused
recommendations for disposing of
medications
medications they want to throw
unused medication products that
away
had been dispensed to a SARS
patient
Requests for ineffective
Remedies for self-treating SARS
Provide patients with most
prevention and
may be requested by patients even
current treatment and prevention
treatment options
though they are not effective
information
Sources: 1. Revised U.S. Surveillance Case Definition for Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and Update on
SARS Cases—United States and Worldwide, December 2003. MMWR. 2003; 52(49):1202–6. Available at: http://www.
cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5249a2.htm. Accessed September 23, 2008. 2. Centers for Disease Control and
Prevention. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS). Fact Sheet: Basic Information about SARS. Available at: http://
www.cdc.gov/ncidod/sars/factsheet.htm. Accessed September 23, 2008.
66 c h a p t e r 3 : P u b l i c h e a lt h at t h e l o c a l , s tat e , n at i o n a l , a n d g l o b a l l e v e l s
Figure 3.8—August 7, 2003: SARS cases appeared in 26 countries around the world. Total
cases: 8,422. Total cases in health care workers: 1,725 (20%).
Local to Global Roles for Pharmacy in Public Health
As the SARS case showed, many facets and levels exist in public health. Almost all are
places where pharmacists can become involved. Table 3.6 shows, local, state, national, and
international organizations offer numerous opportunities for pharmacists to participate.
It may be easiest to start close to home at the local level when the Health Board requests
nominees to fill open positions.
Table 3.6
Pharmacy Roles in Local to Global Public Health
At the local or state level
• Contact Health Boards and task forces
• Use education and awareness programs
• Report unusual sales volumes for medications or patient complaints
• Be an advocate for local citizens and keep eyes open for issues
At the federal level
• Contact task forces with professional organizations
• Serve on review panels or government committees
• Use national voluntary reporting systems
At the international level
• Participate in voluntary medical and humanitarian aid
• Raise awareness for international travelers of risks and prevention
• Donate money or supplies
p h a r m a c y i n p u b l i c h e a lt h 67
Pharmacists will be affected by and can provide interventions for global public
health issues, which include identifying and reporting new or emerging cases of resistance to antibiotics and antivirals, the quality of products purchased via the web, and
counterfeit medications obtained from supposedly reliable wholesalers and secondary
wholesalers. Pharmacists can also ensure access to medications during emergencies and
for vulnerable populations who lack sufficient resources or insurance to purchase them.
Chapter 3 Summary
To learn about the various levels of the U.S. and international public health systems, this
chapter looked at the flow of information during the 2002–03 SARS pandemic. Local
health departments are the point of contact with the individual residents, and care and
data collection occur primarily at that level. State departments of health provide support to local department as well as a conduit for information to federal agencies. At the
national level, policy, guidance, funding, and interaction with international partners
become the primary activities. Globally, the public health system is a voluntary network
of countries and private organizations that work to facilitate the flow of information and
expertise to parts of the world where it is most needed. These systems are interdependent, and pharmacists have the potential to be involved at any level of the public health
system.
References
1. World Health Organization, International. The Role of WHO in Public Health. Available at: http://
www.who.int/about/role/en/index.html. Accessed September 23, 2008.
2. World Health Organization Basic Documents, 46th ed. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO Press; 2007. Available at: http://www.who.int/gb/bd/PDF/bd46/e-bd46.pdf. Accessed September 23, 2008.
3. WHO—its people and offices. Regional offices. Available at: http://www.who.int/about/structure/en/
index.html. Accessed September 23, 2008.
4. Basic Documents of the Pan American Health Organization, 17th ed. Official Document No.325.
Washington, DC: PAHO/WHO Regional Office; 2007. Available at: http://www.paho.org/English/D/
OD_325.pdf. Accessed September 23, 2008.
5. CARE, International. About CARE. Available at: http://www.care.org/about/index.asp. Accessed September 23, 2008.
6. International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies. Available at: http://www.ifrc.org/
index.asp. Accessed September 23, 2008.
7. The Role of Nongovernmental Organizations. International Information Programs U.S. Department of
State. Available at: http://usinfo.state.gov/products/pubs/principles/ngos.htm. Accessed September 23,
2008.
8. Gostin LO. Public health law in a new century: Part II: Public health powers and limits. JAMA. 2000;
283(22):2979–86.
9. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Available at: http://www.hhs.gov/about/whatwedo.
html. Accessed September 14, 2007.
10. U.S. Public Health Service Commissioned Corps. Available at: http://www.usphs.gov/default.aspx. Accessed September 23, 2008.
11. Department of Health and Human Services. Agencies with Pharmacists. Available at: http://www.hhs.
gov/pharmacy/agencies.html. Accessed September 28, 2008.
12. CDC Organization webpage on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Available at: http://
www.cdc.gov/about/organization/cio.htm. Accessed September 23, 2008.
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13. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Available at: http://www.fda.gov/default.htm. Accessed September 23, 2008.
14. Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (CDER). Available at: http://www.fda.gov/cder/index.html.
Accessed September 28, 2008.
15. Food and Drug Administration. FDA Advisory Committees: Human Drugs. Available at: http://www.
fda.gov/oc/advisory/drugscommlist.html. Accessed September 28, 2008.
16. Association of State and Territorial Health Officials (ASTHO). Innovations in Public Health: Understanding State Public Health. PUB-0703004. April 2007. Washington, DC: ASTHO. Available at:
http://www.astho.org/pubs/UnderstandingPHASTHO.pdf. Accessed October 3, 2008.
17. Austin Z, Martin JC, Gregory P. Pharmacy practice in times of civil crisis: The experience of SARS and
“the blackout” in Ontario, Canada. Res Soc Admin Pharm. 2007; 3:320–35.
18. Chin TW. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS): the pharmacist’s role. Pharmacotherapy. 2004;
24(6):705–12.
19. Revised U.S. Surveillance Case Definition for Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and Update
on SARS Cases—United States and Worldwide, December 2003. MMWR. 2003; 52(49):1202–6. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5249a2.htm. Accessed September 23, 2008.
20. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS). Fact Sheet:
Basic Information about SARS. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/sars/factsheet.htm. Accessed
September 23, 2008.
Chapter 3 Review Questions
1. Explain why an outbreak of poliomyelitis in Mexico may be a concern to the
citizens of Canada.
Polio is caused by a virus that may be transmitted to others who have not been vaccinated or have had acquired immunity from a prior infection. An outbreak of polio
in Mexico could easily travel to any part of the globe via international air travel, so all
countries, not just Canada, should be concerned about a large outbreak of the disease.
2. Which of the following best describes a key function of WHO?
(a) Monitor health and disease trends
(b) Provide technical support
(c) Set standards
(d) All of these
The answer is (d).
3. Explain the role of surveillance in mitigating the spread of disease.
Surveillance should allow for early detection of an outbreak so that steps can be taken
to slow or stop its spread before it becomes an epidemic. Surveillance also provides information about the level of disease in the community; therefore, it can be monitored
to determine when an outbreak is over.
4. Describe how the U.S. public health system is structured at the national, state,
and local levels.
The national or federal level of the U.S. public health system is anchored by the large
HHS department that includes key agencies such as the FDA, CDC, and PHS. The
Public Health Service is the medical or health care corporation of the HHS, which
employs pharmacists for clinical pharmacy and dispensing roles. The FDA ensures
products are safe and effective, while the CDC serves as the surveillance and reporting
sector of HHS.
p h a r m a c y i n p u b l i c h e a lt h 69
At the state level, Boards of Health and departments of health are given authority to
act on behalf of their residents by the federal government. The health departments are
usually large and complex, while the health boards are relatively simple in composition and small in size. Boards of Health provide oversight of the department.
At the local level, the city or county health department is headed by a Health Officer
who is hired by the local health board. Local health departments may be small (one
person) or larger multi-divisions departments that administer programs to the local
populace.
Tribal health departments work at a level similar to the state health departments in
regard to their relationship with the federal government.
5. Describe the roles of the World Health Organization (WHO), Pan-American
Health Organization (PAHO), and non-governmental organizations such as the
Red Cross, International in addressing public health issues.
The WHO is the primary organization for the international public health network. It
does much of its work through its regional offices, which includes PAHO. Nongovernmental organizations such as the Red Cross, International often provide
supplementary support at the local level when local systems cannot.
Applying Your Knowledge
1. Describe how pharmacists can become involved in disease surveillance.
2. Using the CDC web site, determine the prevalence of malaria, polio, and pertussis (whooping cough) in the United States and in your home state. Using the
WHO web site, determine the prevalence of these diseases in Somalia. Find the
country with the highest prevalence of HIV/AIDS.
3. Look for information about West Nile virus on the CDC web site. When did it
arrive in the United States and how did it get here?
4. Think about a recent food recall or warning. How was the FDA involved? Why
was it so difficult to determine the source?
5. What are WHO, CDC, and FDA doing to reduce the problem of counterfeit
medications? Where is this problem especially bad and what types of medications are being counterfeited?
70 c h a p t e r 3 : P u b l i c h e a lt h at t h e l o c a l , s tat e , n at i o n a l , a n d g l o b a l l e v e l s