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Architecture is All Around Us
In the next few slides, you will see
examples of architecture
advancements dating from the
Prehistoric Culture to Present Day. You
may be surprised to find that many
techniques used today have roots from
several centuries past.
Prehistoric – Neolithic
Post & Lintel - A beam is placed
horizontally across the top of upright
posts. This technique is still used today.
Greek – Parthenon
These works followed strict guidelines.
Doric, Ionic, & Corinthian Orders
Colonnade – series of columns
Romans- The post & lintel technique
would not support the weight of
concrete. Romans developed the Arch
out of necessity.
The center stone in an arch is called a
Arcade – series of arches.
Dome – originating from an arch, a
rounded vault forms the roof of a building
or structure, typically with a circular base.
Barrel Vault – a series of arches that
connect and create a hall or tunnel.
Romanesque Architecture
Developments in architecture during the
Middle Ages/Gothic times include the
following: pointed arches, flying buttresses…
Stained Glass and Spirals/Spires
These techniques are seen in the construction of the
cathedrals. Gothic Cathedrals were the largest
constructions since the Egyptian Pyramids
Balcony - a platform projecting from the
wall of a building, supported by columns or
console brackets, and enclosed with a
Castles were built during Medieval
times as fortresses for the King and his
family. Towers were added to the
corners of the castles to provide added
areas of protection by providing spots
for servants to look-out over the
countryside to warn of impending
danger. Towers went from the bottom
of the castle to the top.
Turrets were shortened towers
that appeared at the top of a
building. Often they were
extensions of single rooms.
Baroque – Palace of Versailles
This style is reflected in irregular shapes and
extravagant ornamentation.
Rococo --Archbishop's Palace at Prague Castle
This movement utilized white buildings with
sweeping curves, scrolls, vines, shell-shapes, and
delicate geometric patterns.
Neoclassical – This style was
brought to the United States by
Thomas Jefferson while he served
as ambassador to France.
Neoclassical buildings were
proportioned according to the
classical orders with details from
ancient Greece and Rome.
Neoclassical – The White House
Frank Lloyd Wright – designed
Falling Water. He utilized organic
architecture which incorporated
the work into it’s surroundings in a
harmonious way. In this piece he
incorporated wood, stone, and
metal, in a way that was
aesthetically pleasing.
Art Nouveau in the United StatesFalling Water (has cantilevered balconies)
Art Nouveau in Spain –
The Criterion Collection
Art Nouveau in France –
Louvre Pyramid
Art Deco architecture is
characterized by zigzag patterns
and vertical lines that create
dramatic effects. The motifs from
this style were inspired by the
architecture of ancient Egypt.
Art Deco – Chrysler Building
Art Deco – Empire State Building
Art DecoWrought Iron
Arts & Crafts Movement
Architectural Styles of the Arts and Crafts Movement
Arts and Crafts is the movement that provided the philosophy and
the rationale for creating new art and architectural styles. The
movement was focused on five simple values:
•Find joy in work
•Create well-designed, affordable objects
•Live simply
•Stay connected to nature
•Maintain integrity
Bungalow- traditional Craftsman
Bungalows are modest homes that are made of wood siding and
brick or sometimes stone. They have broad, low gabled roofs,
usually with one or two large front dormers, and wide eaves with
exposed rafters under the eaves.
The prominent wide, open porches – sometimes screened-in
sunrooms, depending on the area – are supported by heavy
masonry or wood piers.
The windows are the most distinctive feature, often using fourover-one or six-over-one double hung windows. What this means is
that there are four or six panes in the upper sash of the window to
one pane in the lower sash. They are now commonly called
Craftsman windows.
Prairie Style
If you’ve seen a Frank Lloyd Wright home, then you can recognize Prairie Style.
These homes feature two or more stories with strong horizontal lines. Its low, flat
exterior mimics the nature surrounding the home – the flatness of the prairie and the
Prairie Style architects were the most deliberate in creating and building homes that
were entirely different from the popular Victorian design. Prairie homes have low,
horizontal lines and large open spaces compared to the Victorian’s tall, narrow space
with closed-in rooms. Rooms in the Prairie Style home are wide and divided by
leaded glass panels or low cabinets, rather than walls, to create a more natural open
This style was the only one of the Arts and Crafts movement that was able to survive
the post-WWI housing boom. Frank Lloyd Wright was a forward-thinker and he
began incorporating many Modernist elements into his homes by the 1930s. By the
late ‘40s, the technology had improved to the point that architects could develop and
evolve the style into an early Mid-Century Modernist style.
Mission Revival Style
This style of homes was inspired by the adobe structures of the
Southwest and is very closely related to the Prairie Style. Like the
Prairie, these styles feature low, horizontal lines and large open
interior spaces, but their exteriors are quite different.
They’re often asymmetrical structures covered in thick stucco with
small features made of stone or brick and tile. There are arches
above doors and windows, heavy carved wood doors and red clay
roof tiles. Mission homes often have interior courtyards as a standout feature, along with deep-set porches and extended roofs.
Inside, their homes retain some of the same qualities of a Craftsman
– built-in cabinetry, large fireplaces – but also add their own
Spanish flair with rough plastered walls, tile floors and fireplaces,
and curved wall edges and ceiling corners.
Four Square
While Craftsman and Prairie styles have roots based in architectural
history like India and Japan, it’s hard to trace the history of FourSquare homes. In 1890, there were maybe a handful of this style of
home across the country. However, by the end of 1918, there were
thousands. The likely reason for this increase was a response to the
sudden baby boom after the end of the war. People were having
larger families and required more space. Builders took the efficient
and inexpensive Craftsman bungalow style and added a second
However, the style failed to have the same architectural influence as
the Craftsman. Many designers considered it to be a chunky,
unassuming and plain curiosity with little style and no importance.
Fortunately the style has endured and today it’s considered one of
the pillars of American residential architecture.
How to Identify a Craftsman-Style Home:
The History, Types and Features