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The Apache Indians (Apache means "enemy" in the language of their Zuni neighbors.) Southwest North America Late 1300s to Present Note-taking Directions Throughout their history, the Apache effectively used and adapted their unique environment and its natural resources in order to survive. As you watch this PowerPoint, list examples of the ways they Used natural resources to help them survive Changed their environment to help them survive Developed technologies to help them survive Early Apache Indians Athapascans (The Apache and Navajo Indian Tribes) are generally believed to have been among the last peoples to have crossed the land bridge between Siberia and Alaska. Exactly when the Apaches and Navajos began their migration southward is not known, but it is clear that they had not arrived in the Southwest before the late 1300’s. Where are the Apache? The Apache Indians are perhaps one of the best-known tribes in America. The Grand Apacheria, as it was known, the homeland of the Apaches, was a vast region stretching across much of modern day central Arizona, New Mexico, southwestern and central Texas, and northern Mexico, and the high plains of Colorado. This region was divided between Eastern and Western Apaches Eastern Apaches were Plains Apaches Western Apaches lived primarily on the western side of the Continental Divide in the mountains Much of the area inhabited by the Apache was arid, with few trees and more limited resources than areas further north or in coastal regions. Everyday Life The Apaches were typically nomadic, meaning they traveled around, never quite settling in one place. Note meat drying in background. The dry climate and available resources of the SW dictated the clothing that the Apache wore. Women wore buckskin skirts, men wore breechcloths. In the winter, added animal skins were applied as needed. Knee length moccasins were worn. Eventually skin clothing was replaced with European style cotton clothing. Everyday Life Apache men hunted buffalo, deer, antelope, and small game, while women gathered nuts, seeds, and fruit from the environment around them. Meat was boiled in skin pouches with hot stones dropped in as the heat source, baked in clayformed vessels, or roasted over a fire. Mass kills of buffalo allowed them to preserve the meat by drying, for use in the winter when less game was available. They cured hides with the brain of the animal, and utilized every part of the BUFFALO for shelter, utensils, weapons, clothing, glue, bowbacking, saddle frames, etc. In war, the Apache men used bows and arrows. or fought with long spears and buffalo-hide shields. Everyday Life The Apache probably made and ate “pemmican,” which was a combination of dried, chipped particles of meat; dried, flaked berries or fruit; and fat or tallow. Once dried these were stored in bags until needed. Later, they also ate corn, which they got by trading with the Pueblo tribes and the Spanish, or by capturing it during raids. Making Pemmican The buffalo was essential to Apache survival. It was most essential as meat for food, hides for clothing and for shelter. But how else did the Apache use the buffalo? BUFFALO RAWHIDE: Containers – Shields – Buckets – Moccasins – Drum Heads – Splints – Mortars; Cinches – Ropes – Sheaths/Quivers - Bull Boats – Masks – Parfleche – Ornaments – Lariats; Straps – Head Coverings – Quirts – Tipis – Snowshoes - Shrouds BUFFALO CHIN BEARD: Ornamentations (everyday and spiritual) – Dolls - Mittens BUFFALO TEETH: Ornamentation (everyday/spiritual) – game pieces BUFFALO TONGUE: Meat - Combs BUFFALO BLADDER: Pouches - Medicine Bags – Water Bags BUFFALO TENDONS: Sinews – Sewing – Bowstrings – Bindings BUFFALO GALL: Yellow Paints BUFFALO HIND LEG SKIN: Moccasins Wait—We’re not done! BUFFALO HORNS: Arrow Points– Headdresses– Cups- Fire Carrier – Powderhorn – Spoons; Ladles – Signal Horns – Toys Medication BUFFALO BUCKSKIN (treated leather): Cradles – Moccasins – Robes – Bedding – Shirts; Belts – Leggings – Dresses – Bags – Quivers - Tipi Covers - Tipis Liners – Reins/Halters; Backrests – Tapestries – Sweat Lodge Covers BUFFALO BLOOD: Soups – Puddings - Paints BUFFALO FAT: Tallow–Soaps - Hair Grease - Cosmetic Aids BUFFALO TAIL: Medicine Switch-Fly Brush–Decorations– Whips BUFFALO HAIR: Headdresses – Pad/Pillow Stuffing – Ropes – Ornaments - Hair Pieces; Halters – Bracelets - Medicine Balls Moccasin Lining - Doll Stuffing BUFFALO MEAT: Sausages – Roasts - Cached Meat - Jerky – Pemmican ingredient Still some more! BUFFALO BONES: Fleshing Tools – Pipes – Knives – Arrowheads – Shovels – Splints; Sleds - War Clubs – Scrapers – Quirts – Awls – Paintbrushes - Game Dice - Tableware BUFFALO HOOFS, FEET & DEWCLAWS: Glue – Rattles - Spoons BUFFALO LIVER: Tanning Agents – Food – Medicine BUFFALO STOMACH CONTENTS: Medicines – Paints BUFFALO STOMACH LINER: Water Containers - Cooking Pots BUFFALO PAUNCH LINER: Wrappings – Buckets - Collapsible Cups – Basins – Canteens BUFFALO SCROTUM: Rattles - Containers BUFFALO SKULL: Spiritual significance in Sun Dances - Medicine Prayers - Other Rituals BUFFALO BRAIN: Hide Preparation (Tanning) - Food BUFFALO MUSCLES: Glue Preparation – Bows – Thread – Arrow Ties Cinches BUFFALO CHIPS (EXCREMENT): Fuel - Diaper Powder – Toys Jewelry The Apache Housing The Eastern Apache lived in Tipis made of buffalo hides. Most of the Apache lived in wickiups. These were oval huts made of brush, with earthen floors scooped out to enlarge the living area. As the season changed so did the covering of the wickiups. In the summer, leafy branches were draped over the branch frame. In the winter, animal hides provided insulation. Some believe that the Apache were one of the first tribes to learn how to ride and use horses. Technology & Art They used willow shoots, and yucca fibers to make baskets. Sometimes they lined their baskets with clay. They made hide bags and pouches used for storage and cooking – some were decorated with beadwork. They used clay to make pottery which they fired to harden. Conflicts Apaches lives have been disrupted by conflicts, first with the Spanish, then with the Comanche, and later with the U. S. government. Trouble with the Spanish By 1598 that Apaches had to adjust to the presence of Europeans within their homeland. The Spanish began to confiscate their trade surpluses, thereby disrupting their trade. The Apaches were enslaved by Spanish explorers and settlers from Mexico in the 1700s. They were forced to work on ranches and in mines. Migration of the Comanche Nation The southward migration of the Comanche Nation, beginning around 1700, was devastating for the Eastern Apaches. By about 1725 the Comanche's had established authority throughout the whole of the Southern Plains region, pushing the Eastern Apaches into the mountains of the front range of the Rockies in New Mexico. Denied access to the buffalo herds, the Apaches turned to Spanish cattle and horses for food. Conflict with the United States The start of the Mexican War with the United States in 1846 disrupted the peace of the Apache Nation. By the time the United States moved into the Southwest at the conclusion of the Mexican War in 1848, the Apaches posed an almost unsolvable problem. Americans defeat the Apache The Americans, lacking both Spanish diplomatic skills and Spanish understanding of the Apaches decided to handle the Apache by military means. The United States finally achieved victory after the final surrender of Geronimo's band in 1886 . Some Apaches became prisoners of war, shipped first to Florida, then to Alabama, and finally to Oklahoma. Others entered a period of difficult reservation life in the Southwest. Apaches Today There are still several Apache tribes today. The Apache tribes: include the Plains Apache (Oklahoma), the Lipan Apache (Texas), Western Apache (Arizona), Chiricahua Apache (Arizona/New Mexico), Jicarilla Apache (New Mexico), and the Mescalero Apache (New Mexico). As of 1990, the U.S. Census Bureau reported that 53,330 people identified themselves as Apache, up from 35,861 in 1980. Apache Acculturation Today Apache are holding on to their culture, while being adaptable at the same time. Approximately 70 percent of the modern Apaches still practice the traditional Apache religion. In 1978, at least one-half of the residents of the reservation still spoke Jicarilla (Native Apache Language), and onethird of the households used it regularly. Jicarilla children in the 1990s, however, prefer English. Today Jicarilla's are demonstrating a new pride in traditional crafts. Basketry and pottery making, which had nearly died out during the 1950s, are now valued skills once again. Many Apaches say they are trying to have the best of both worlds, attempting to survive in the dominant culture while still remaining Apache. A Strong People •For the Apaches, the family is the primary unit of political and cultural life •The Apache are one of the most well known tribes throughout history. Even though they are remembered for their conflicts with others, today they are thriving in our modern world without compromising their priceless culture.