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The Maurya Empire began around 321B.C.
After years of fighting, the Empire united
northern India for the first time
To hold the empire together, strict rules of
government were put in place, which included
government spies, assassination, and high taxes.
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In 269 BC, Ashoka became the ruler of India
and expanded it’s boundaries
After at first expanding the empire through
warfare, Ashoka began to rule by Buddhist
teachings:
-Toleration and non-violence
-Subjects would be treated fairly
-Religious toleration
* Ashoka created a system of roads throughout
India
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Ashoka’s rule failed to hold the empire
together
Ashoka’ Buddhists beliefs lasted long past his
reign, and spread throughout the region
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After Ashoka’s death, India fell into 500 years
of political turmoil
The Gupta Empire rose up through military
conquest and diplomacy
During the Gupta Empire arts, music,
literature, and science grew in the cities
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Hinduism:
-polytheistic religion
-reincarnation and
karma
-Not traced to one
founder
-Strengthened the caste
system through
karma
Buddhism:
-founded by Siddhartha
(Buddha)
-Path to enlightenment
-Attempt to reach
nirvana, or a release
from suffering and
worldly pain
-rejected caste system
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Buddhism attracted many
laborers and crafts people
who were at the bottom of
the caste system
Though missionaries
spread the Buddhist
religion in India, it never
took hold
Trade with other countries
and territories helped
Buddhism spread else
where (East Asia)
Hinduism remained the
main religion of India
Zhou (1027-256 BC)
-established a feudalistic
society
-built roads and canals
-coined money
-used cast iron
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Qin (241-202 BC)
-formed an autocracy
-standardized all of China
(laws, measurements,
currency)
-Great Wall built
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Confucius wanted to restore peace and harmony to
China
He developed 5 codes of relationships between,
people, and people and the government
Believed that education was important in helping
people grow, and in the running of a government
Confucianism is not a religion, but a way to live
Strict social order and discipline was the key to a
successful society
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Examination System:
-originally most
government jobs were
through appointment
-the examination system
required citizens to
pass a test to earn a
position in the
government
-In theory, it opened up
government jobs to the
masses
Mandate of Heaven:
-Royal authority came from heaven
-Only wise and just rulers kept the Mandate and
their throne
-Foolish rulers lost the Mandate and their throne
through natural disasters, upheaval, revolts,
and invasions
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Peasants and Merchants:
-Though more wealthy than peasants, merchants
were lower on the strict social ladder
-Merchants did not contribute to society and were
only after their own personal gain
-Peasants produced food, which society needed
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Mountains in the
North prevented
much trade by land
Southern India is
surrounded by
water, making the
transfer of goods
much easier