Download Week Two (Jan. 19)

Survey
yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts
no text concepts found
Transcript
Note: The Stanford Prison Experiment
For more information on this video and the experiment that made
history, go to:
http://www.prisonexp.org/
 See slides & video clips
 Look at questions for discussion
Slide 1
Sociology & Science


Testing & building theories to explain social
behavior using scientific methods
Hypothesis: What is the relationship
between two or more variables?
–
1
What is the effect of imprisonment versus
probation on recidivism among drug offenders?
Lindsey and Beach 2003
Slide 2
Theory: Deterrence (threat of
punishment) reduces criminal behavior
2

Deterrence is based on a rational calculation
of costs versus benefits of crime.

Research by Spohn & Hollaran tested this
theory.
Lindsey and Beach 2003
Slide 3
Dependent & independent variables . . .





3
Independent variables: factors that cause, change,
or affect an “outcome”
Dependent variable: presumed to be caused,
changed, or affected by the independent variable
In this case, the independent variable was prison or
probation.
Dependent variable = recidivism
Measurement: Recidivism = new criminal charges
filed
Lindsey and Beach 2003
Slide 4
Additional variables

Other variables that have an effect on the dependent variable:
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
Gender
Age
Race
Serious prior record
Employment status
Marital status
Drug use
How do we “screen” out these other factors? We “control” for them
statistically.
4
Lindsey and Beach 2003
Slide 5
Research Design




5
Examined a sample of approx. 1000 felons in
Jackson City, MO.
Method: Data from case files – examined four years
after sentence to prison or probation
Compared (statistically) new filed charges (DV) for
felons sentenced to prison (IV) or probation (IV)
Control Variables (held constant to single out the
influence of the independent variables).
Lindsey and Beach 2003
Slide 6
Findings




6
Felons sentenced to prison had significantly
higher rates of recidivism than probationers.
This was particularly true of drug offenders,
who had the highest rates of all.
There was no support for the theory that
imprisonment for drug offenders prevents
further criminal activity.
What are the implications for policy?
Lindsey and Beach 2003
Slide 7
Culture
Sociology 100 Sp. 2004
Week Two
7
Lindsey and Beach 2003
Slide 8
Culture and Society

Culture:
–
–
–

Culture has two components
–
–
8
A shared way of life
Includes values, customs, material objects &
symbols
Provides a blue-print for social life
Material culture
Non-material culture (norms, values, beliefs)
Lindsey and Beach 2003
Slide 9
The Problem of Cultural Diversity


Homogenous vs. heterogeneous societies
Ethnocentrism
–

Cultural Relativism
–
9
Claims that one’s own culture (religion, family
system) is superior to others
All cultures have worth; each culture should be
understood on its own terms
Lindsey and Beach 2003
Slide 10
Women, Human Rights, & Cultural
Relativism



10
Should the US impose its own notions of
women’s rights on other societies?
Should there be one standard set of human
rights?
If so, how does one practice cultural
relativism and when?
Lindsey and Beach 2003
Slide 11
Amina Lawal: Sentenced to death by
stoning for adultery



11
(See: http://web.amnesty.org/pages/nga010902-background-eng for details)
A Sharia court in Nigeria sentenced Lawal to
death for bearing a child out of wedlock
(adultery)
The decision was overturned in Sept. 2003
by a Sharia court
Lindsey and Beach 2003
Slide 12
Women and Islam





12
Raises questions about religion and women’s rights
Some elements contribute to women’s oppression
(men control children & are granted divorces easily)
Yet, Islamic societies (via Sharia) historically
provided for women’s property rights
Women could share in inheritance and control
capital.
Possibilities for women’s rights are “mixed” in nearly
all societies and under nearly all religions.
Lindsey and Beach 2003
Slide 13
Values & Beliefs

Values
–
–
–

Beliefs
–
–
13
Worth and desirability
Right and wrong
Cannot be tested
Shared knowledge about reality
Different from values: beliefs are about what we
know is and values are about what should be
Lindsey and Beach 2003
Slide 14
Culture American Style

Individualism
–



14
personal independence (autonomy) & self
reliance
Achievement & merit
Materialism – hard work should be rewarded
with material comfort
Equality of opportunity – freedom of choice &
equal access to society’s rewards
Lindsey and Beach 2003
Slide 15
Hawaiian vs. Western Values
Love of the land
Sacredness of nature



Sharing resources


Ohana (family) is central

15


Self and profit
Instrumental view (exploiting
nature)
Individual ownership &
benefit
Individual is central
Lindsey and Beach 2003
Slide 16
Norms & Sanctions







16
Norms – rules for behavior
Folkways (informal)
Mores – Rules that are critical to society
Laws – Codified (formalized); often related to mores
Norms are maintained through sanctions
Laws are sanctioned by the state
Folkways are sanctioned by public sentiment
Mores may be sanctioned by both law & sentiment
Lindsey and Beach 2003
Slide 17
Culture & Change


17
Cultural Integration – process by which
cultural elements become closely connected
& interdependent
Cultural lag – the gap in time between the
introduction of a practice or artifact and the
time it’s integrated into a culture’s value
system
- eg. alcohol
Lindsey and Beach 2003
Slide 18
Perspectives on Culture & Change



18
Functionalism
Conflict Theory
Symbolic Interactionism
Lindsey and Beach 2003
Slide 19
Functionalism



19
Societies have basic needs – culture is a way
of meeting these needs. Suggests there are
cultural universals.
Cultural patterns allow society to adapt to
change
Change is a threat to society; maintaining
equilibrium is important.
Lindsey and Beach 2003
Slide 20
Conflict theory


Value system reflects the ideals of the elite
Cultural system legitimizes the status quo
–
–
–
20
Example: Inequality is not resisted because of the
cultural emphasis on individualism & equality
Americans see inequality as a reflection of
differences in motivation & achievement
Culture therefore provides a “false
consciousness” about the nature of social life.
Lindsey and Beach 2003
Slide 21
Symbolic interactionism


Culture is not only explained as adaptation,
but is made up of symbols that transmit
meaning.
Culture is a social construction, Culture is
maintained or changed by everyday
interactions between people.
Example: Court room
21
Lindsey and Beach 2003