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FORCES AND WORK Vocabulary and Notes Vocabulary 1. Force: a push or pull 2. Net force: the overall force on an object when all the individual forces acting on an object are added together 3. Unbalanced forces: a nonzero net force, which changes and object’s motion 4. Balanced forces: equal forces acting on an object in opposite directions 5. Inertia: the tendency of a object to resist a change in its motion 6. Mass: the amount of matter in an object 7. Friction: the force that one surface exerts on another when the two rub against each other 8. Gravity: the force that pulls objects toward each other 9. Air resistance: the friction experienced by objects falling through the air 10. Weight: the force of gravity on an object at the surface of a planet 11. Work: Force exerted on an object that causes it to move. 12. Joule: a unit of work equal to one Newton-meter 13. Machine: a device that changes that amount of force exerted or the direction in which force is exerted 14. Fulcrum: the fixed point around which a lever rotates 15. Compound machine: a device that combines two or more simple machine (Forces) The sum of all the forces acting on an object is the net force. Unbalanced forces change the motion of an object, whereas balanced forces do not. Friction is a force that one surface exerts on another when they rub against each other. The force of gravity acts between all objects in the universe. Weight is a measure of the force of gravity on an object, and mass is the amount of matter that an object contains. (Work) Work is done on an object when a force causes that object to move a distance. The amount of work done on an object is equal to the force on the object in the direction of its motion multiplied by the distance the object moves. Work = Force X Distance A machine makes work easier by changing the direction of or the amount of force needed to accomplish a task. There are six basic kinds of simple machines: the inclined plane, the wedge, the screw, the lever, the wheel and axle, and the pulley. A compound machine is a machine that is made from two or more simple machines.