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Transcript
CERTIFICATION
The undersigned certify that he has read the project: DYNAMO BASED
CHARGING SYSTEM IN RURAL AREA in the fulfillment of the requirements for
Bachelor Degree of Electronics and Telecommunication Engineering at Dar es
salaam Institute of Technology (DIT) in Tanzania.
Name of supervisor: Dr. KENEDY GREYSON Signature:................Date…………
i
DECLARATION
I, FATUMA S. BAKARI, declare to the best of my knowledge that the project
presented here as a partial fulfillment of bachelor degree of engineering in
electronics and telecommunications course is my original work and has not been
copied from anywhere or presented elsewhere except where explicitly indicated
otherwise as all sources of knowledge have been acknowledged.
Name of student: FATUMA S.BAKARI
Signature:................Date…………
ii
ABSTRACT
Many people living in rural areas in Tanzania uses the mobile phones for
communication and other related services. The mobile phone plays vital rule in the
present communication, but most of the villagers does not have grid power, the
absence of this power leads them to have no access of charging their mobile phone.
The system aims to help rural people to charge their phones. The system will
minimize the cost and enable people to have continuous communication. In this
project there are two existing systems. The first is charging by using generator and
the second existing system is charging by solar. The existing systems are very
expensive.
The proposed system also aims to help rural people to minimize the cost of charging
by means of dynamo. Data collections used are preliminary data and secondary data.
Preliminary data were collected by means of questionnaire to know how many
villages in Mondo Division, Chemba district in Dodoma region do not have grid
power. How do they charge their phones and the cost involved. Another data is
technical data where the study of components, models and specifications are done in
this data analysis.
Data analysis and design were done in each part as well as simulation. The system
was tested and the result obtained successful to accomplish the goals.
iii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
I do appreciate the support I get from my family. Special thanks to my husband
Omar Mnimbo. He has been encouraging me to work hard in my studies. He takes
care of me since the first year of my study up to the stage I am. I would like to give
my great thanks to my family for better assistance they offered to me.
I would like to express my deep gratitude, to my project supervisor, DR. GREYSON
KENEDY for his assistance. I thank him for his time and great supports, May GOD
bless his effort towards achievement.
I also thank the Head and all staff members of Electronics and Telecommunications
engineering department for their thorough assistance which has enabled me
throughout all three years. I do appreciate their effort and expertise knowledge in
their fields of education.
In my life I have never studied in a class/school that teaches only a single student.
This means that I do appreciate the charity of my fellow students whom through their
collaboration I acquired much competence and confidence on academics and social
prospects.
iv
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Certification........................................................................................................................ I
Declaration ....................................................................................................................... II
Abstract ........................................................................................................................... III
Acknowledgement........................................................................................................... IV
Table of Contents ............................................................................................................. V
List of Figures .................................................................................................................. X
List of Tables................................................................................................................... XI
List of Abbreviation ...................................................................................................... XII
Chapter One ...................................................................................................................... 1
1.0 Introduction ................................................................................................................. 1
1.1 Background Information ............................................................................................. 1
1.2 Problem Statements..................................................................................................... 1
1.3 Objectives .................................................................................................................... 2
1.3.1 Main Objectives ....................................................................................................... 2
1.3.2 Specific Objectives................................................................................................... 2
1.4 Significance of the Project .......................................................................................... 2
1.5 Chapter Summary........................................................................................................ 2
v
Chapter Two ...................................................................................................................... 3
2.0 Methodology ............................................................................................................... 3
2.1 Literature Review ........................................................................................................ 3
2.2 Data Collection............................................................................................................ 3
2.3 Data Analysis .............................................................................................................. 3
2.4 Circuit Design ............................................................................................................. 3
2.5 Implementation ........................................................................................................... 3
2.6 Report Writing ............................................................................................................ 4
2.7 Chapter Summary........................................................................................................ 4
Chapter Three .................................................................................................................... 5
3.0 Literature Review ........................................................................................................ 5
3.1 The Existing System ................................................................................................... 5
3.2 Generator Charging System ........................................................................................ 5
3.3 Components of Generator Charging System............................................................... 5
3.4 Limitation of Generator Charging System .................................................................. 6
3.5 Solar Charging System................................................................................................ 6
3.6 Components of Solar Charging System ...................................................................... 6
3.6 Disadvantage f Solar Charging System ...................................................................... 7
3.7 Chapter Summary........................................................................................................ 8
Chapter Four ..................................................................................................................... 9
vi
4.0 Proposed System ......................................................................................................... 9
4.1 Principle of Dynamo ................................................................................................... 9
4.2 Proposed System Block Diagram................................................................................ 9
4.3 Components of Proposed System ............................................................................. 10
4.4 Chapter Summary...................................................................................................... 12
Chapter Five .................................................................................................................... 13
5.0 Data Collection.......................................................................................................... 13
5.1 Preliminary Data Collection ...................................................................................... 13
5.1.1 Power Consumption in Mobile Phones .................................................................. 13
5.2 Secondary Data Collection ........................................................................................ 16
5.2.1 Control Unit ........................................................................................................... 16
5.2.2 LED Unit ................................................................................................................ 17
5.2.3 Dynamo Specifications. ......................................................................................... 17
5.2.4 Battery Specification. ............................................................................................. 18
Chapter Six ...................................................................................................................... 19
6.0 System Design and Analysis ................................................................................... 19
6.1 Dynamo ..................................................................................................................... 19
6.2 Power Harvesting Circuit .......................................................................................... 20
6.3 Bridge Rectifier Circuit Analysis .............................................................................. 20
vii
6.4 Charging Controller .................................................................................................. 21
6.5 Control Unit .............................................................................................................. 22
6.6 Dynamo Power Server .............................................................................................. 23
6.7 Chapter Summary...................................................................................................... 24
Chapter Seven ................................................................................................................. 25
7.0 Simulation and Results.............................................................................................. 25
7.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................... 25
7.2 Software Description ................................................................................................. 25
7.3 Proteus Professional 7.8 ............................................................................................ 25
7.4 Simulation Results Captured ..................................................................................... 25
7.6 Chapter Summary...................................................................................................... 26
Chapter Eight .................................................................................................................. 27
8.0 Prototype Implementation ......................................................................................... 27
8.1introduction ................................................................................................................ 27
8.2 Printed Circuit Boards Construction ......................................................................... 27
8.3 Component Mounting and Connections.................................................................... 27
8.4 Prototype Performance .............................................................................................. 28
8.5 Chapter Summary...................................................................................................... 29
Chapter Nine ................................................................................................................... 30
viii
9.0 Conclusions and Recommendations ......................................................................... 30
9.1 Conclusions ............................................................................................................... 30
9.2 Recommendations ..................................................................................................... 30
References ....................................................................................................................... 31
Appendices ...................................................................................................................... 35
Appendix A ..................................................................................................................... 35
Appendix B ..................................................................................................................... 37
ix
LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 3.1 Block diagram of generator charging system .................................................. 5
Figure 3.2 Block diagram of solar charging system ......................................................... 6
Figure 4.1 Principle of dynamo . ....................................................................................... 9
Figure 4.2 Block diagram of proposed system ............................................................... 10
Figure 4.3 Dynamo . ....................................................................................................... 11
Figure 4.4 Dynamo features ........................................................................................... 11
x
LIST OF TABLES
Table 5. 1 Power consumption in mobile phones. ......................................................... 14
Table 5. 2 Number of villages connected and not connected with grid power. .............. 14
Table 5. 3 Price of charging in mondo division .............................................................. 16
Table 5. 4 Control unit features. ..................................................................................... 17
Table 5. 5 Display unit features. ..................................................................................... 17
Table 5. 6 Dynamo specifications ................................................................................... 18
Table 5. 7 Battery specification. ..................................................................................... 18
xi
LIST OF ABBREVIATION
ABBREVIATION
MEANING
LED
Light Emitting Diode
PCB
Printed circuit board
PIC
Programmable Interface Controller
xii
CHAPTER ONE
1.0 INTRODUCTION
This chapter presents the introductory part of the project work.
1.1 Background Information
National grid is a network of power lines, which allows distribution of electricity
throughout the country. The grid can be connected to a single power source or
electricity generating plant but is usually linked with other plant provide a more
flexible and reliable network. However, in many rural areas there is absence of
national grid which results in finding other means of power to support people in rural
areas e.g. generator and solar energy.
With regarding to our economic status many people in rural areas are not capable of
buying, these alternative means of providing power supply. Therefore, there are
required to find place where they can find where there is electricity or these
alternative means of power supply to charge their mobile phone. Due to absence of
power, people consume a lot of time going far from their home to charge their
mobile phones and sometimes lost their phones. Based on this weakness existing
and knowledge acquired from the existing system, a new system has to be designed
in order to alleviate this problem
1.2 Problem Statements
Many people living in rural areas in Tanzania uses the mobile phones for
communication and other related services. Although the mobile phone plays vital
role in the present communication, but most of the villagers do not have grid power.
The absence of this power leads them to have no access of charging their mobile
phone that lead to absence of continuous communication. Due to absence of power,
villagers consumes a lot of time going far from their home to charge their mobile
phones.
1
1.3 Objectives
The objective of this project is divided into two parts namely general and specific
objectives.
1.3.1 Main objectives
The main objective is to design a dynamo based charging system for rural area.
1.3.2 Specific objectives
The following are the specific objectives of the project
i.
To establish design specification.
ii.
To design the system to harvest power produced by dynamo.
iii.
To design phone charging system.
iv.
To implement dynamo power server.
v.
To implement and test the system.
1.4 Significance of the Project
The following are the significance of the project
i.
Minimizing the cost of charging the phone.
ii.
Facilitating continuous communication among people.
1.5 Chapter Summary
Chapter one deals with introduction, problem statement, objectives and the
significant of the project.
2
CHAPTER TWO
2.0 METHODOLOGY
This chapter presents the expected steps and methods to be used in order to achieve
the goals of project which includes:
i.
Literature review.
ii.
Data collection
iii.
Data analysis.
iv.
The circuit design.
v.
Implementation of the proposed circuit.
vi.
Report writing.
2.1 Literature Review
This section contains explanation on the existing system in detail, disadvantages of
existing system and advantages of proposed system.
2.2 Data Collection
This chapter covers all data collected from the study area and other data from related
sources for the aim of improving the existing system.
2.3 Data Analysis
This part contains the evaluation, organization and the analysis of information based
on the objective of the projects
2.4 Circuit Design
This presents designing and simulation of the circuit in computer software to ensure
proper working of the design.
2.5 Implementation
This part contains the information on the way circuit was implemented on the board
and tested for demonstration.
3
2.6 Report Writing
After completing this project, a brief report about the design and a product was
provided.
2.7 Chapter Summary
Chapter two explains the steps taken to achieve the goals of the project.
4
CHAPTER THREE
3.0 LITERATURE REVIEW
This chapter involves the study of existing system and related system or works.
3.1 The Existing System
The existing system uses the generator as the source of power to generate electricity
for charging the mobile phone while another existing system uses solar as the source
of power to generate electricity for charging the mobile phone.
3.2 Generator Charging System
This system used to charge the phone whereby the source of power was generator.
Figure 3.2 shows generator charging system.
Figure 3. 1: Block diagram of generator charging system
3.3 Components of Generator Charging System
The following are the components of generator charging system
i.
Alternator
Is a generator driven by rotation of engine crack shaft, this produces electrical
output when the engine is running, then produces (AC) voltage [10].
ii.
Rectifier
Convert AC voltage produced by alternator to DC voltage, the voltage will be
used by battery to charge the phone [2].
iii.
Regulator
Maintain the value of voltage which is suitable to be stored in the battery for
charging the phone.
iv.
Battery
5
After the rectification and regulation of converted voltages, the storage of DC
voltage was done in the battery.
3.4 Limitation of generator charging System
The following are the limitation of generator charging system
i.
Charging with generator can blow off the battery and damage the phone
when there is high voltage pitch.
ii.
When charged with generators, the battery runs down very quickly.
iii.
It is very expensive.
3.5 Solar Charging System
This system will be using solar as the source of energy for charging the phone as
shown in Figure 3.5.
Figure 3. 2: Block diagram of solar charging system
3.6 Components of Solar Charging System
The following are components of solar charging system
i.
Solar panel
Solar panel designed to absorb the sun’s rays as a source of energy for
generating electricity.
ii.
Charge Controller
This limits the rate at which electric current is added or drawn from electric
battery.
iii.
Battery
Is a rechargeable battery that integrates a solar cell with battery power
storage [2].
iv.
Inverter
Convert variable DC out of photovoltaic solar panel into utility AC.
6
3.6 Disadvantage of Solar Charging System
The following are disadvantages of solar charging system
i.
Cost
The initial cost for purchasing a solar system is fairly high. This includes paying for
solar panels, inverter, batteries, and wiring and for the installation [1].
ii.
Weather Dependent
Although solar energy can still be collected during cloudy and rainy days, the
efficiency of the solar system drops. Solar panels depend on sunlight to effectively
gather solar energy. Therefore, a few cloudy, rainy days can have a noticeable effect
on the energy system. Moreover, solar energy cannot be collected during the night
[1].
iii.
Solar Energy Storage is Expensive
Solar energy has to be used right away, or it can be stored in large batteries. These
batteries, used in off-the-grid solar systems, can be charged during the day so that the
energy is used at night. This is good solution for using solar energy all day long but
it is also quite expensive. In most cases it is smarter to just use solar energy during
the day and take energy from the grid during the night (you can only do this if your
system is connected to the grid). Luckily our energy demand is usually higher during
the day so we can meet most of it with solar energy [1].
iv.
Uses a Lot of Space
The more electricity you want to produce, the more solar panels you will need,
because you want to collect as much sunlight as possible. Solar panels require a lot
of space and some roofs are not big enough to fit the number of solar panels that you
would like to have. An alternative is to install some of the panels in your yard but
they need to have access to sunlight. Anyways, if you don’t have the space for all the
panels that you wanted, you can just get a fewer and they will still be satisfying some
of your energy needs [1].
v.
Associated with Pollution
Although pollution related to solar energy systems is far less compared to other
sources of energy, solar energy can be associated with pollution. Transportation and
installation of solar systems have been associated with the emission of greenhouse
7
gases. There are also some toxic materials and hazardous products used during the
manufacturing process of solar photovoltaic, which can indirectly affect the
environment [1].
3.7 Chapter Summary
This chapter explains the literature review, existing system which are solar and
generator charging system and the design of new system which are dynamo charging
system.
8
CHAPTER FOUR
4.0 PROPOSED SYSTEM
The proposed system used the dynamo as the source of energy to charge the phone.
4.1 Principle of Dynamo
The generation of electricity by a dynamo is based on a principle of magnetism
called induction. When the lines of force that pass from the north to the south pole of
a magnet are cut by a wire there is produced or induced in the wire a current of
electricity. That is, if we take a loop or coil of wire which has no current in it and a
magnet which also has no current, and move the loop or coil between the poles. If a
series of loops or coils are used instead of one loop, a current may be generated
continuously. This method of generating electric current is called induction [5].The
Figure 4.1shows the principle of dynamo.
Figure 4. 1: Principle of dynamo [5].
4.2 Proposed System Block Diagram
The block diagram Figure 4.2 explains dynamo charging system.
9
Figure 4. 2: Block diagram of proposed system
4.3 Components of Proposed System
The following are the components of proposed system:
i.
Dynamo
Dynamo converting mechanical motion of rotating wheel into electrical
motion with the use of magnet, the magnet wound with the coil of insulated
wire, when the magnet rotates it creates a charging magnetic field, which
generates electricity in the wire as shown in Figure 4.3 and Figure 4.4.
10
Figure 4. 3: dynamo [4].
Figure 4. 4: dynamo features [4].
ii.
Controller
The control unit is for checking the level of voltages stored in dynamo power
saver
iii.
to be used for charging the phone.
Power harvesting circuit
Power harvesting circuit consisting of the following
a) Rectifier
This takes the AC voltages from a dynamo and convert it from AC to DC to be
used by the battery [7].
b) Filter
11
This takes the converted voltage from rectifier and allow the amount which
needed
by the battery to charge the phone.
c) Regulator
It has the function of managing or maintaining a range of voltages from the
filter.Eliminate ripple by setting DC output to a fixed voltage, power converters
that provide voltage control capabilities. They accept a voltage that varies over a
given range and generate an output voltage that does not vary [15].
d) Battery charging system
The battery charger keeps the battery charged by supplying voltage. If voltage is
very low, the battery remains undercharged. If the voltage very high, it shorten
the life of the battery.
iv.
Charging controller
This protects the battery from overcharging and over discharging. This means
protects the damage of battery when the voltage is very low or very high.
v.
Display
The LED is useful for indicating if the battery is full or not when charging.
vi.
Dynamo power Sarver
This is a battery for storing charge prodused by dynamo .After the whole
process the charge was be stored here to be used later for charging the phone.
vii.
Phone charging system
The system allowed to charge the phone through the power stored in the dynamo
power saver after produced by dynamo.
viii.
Phone
Is a telephone that transmit and receive calls after charging.
4.4 Chapter Summary
This chapter comprises of proposed system block diagram as well as the components
of the proposed system.
12
CHAPTER FIVE
5.0 DATA COLLECTION
This chapter concentrates on collection of necessary information related to this
Project. The data collected were categorized into two groups, the preliminary data
and secondary data.
5.1 Preliminary Data Collection
This data involves the power consumption in mobile phones, data collected through
questionnaire to examine how many villages in Chemba District specifically in
Mondo Division do not have grid power. How are they charging the phone and cost
of charging the phone.
5.1.1 Power consumption in mobile phones
Samples of several mobile phones of different specifications were taken for
evaluation. The average of power consumption for each sample brand of mobile
Phone was obtained and then each mean was used to find the mean of sample means.
The summary of average use of charge of mobile phone batteries is shown in the
Table 5.1.
13
Table 5. 1 : Power consumption in mobile phones [14]
Mobile Phone
Average
Average
battery rating
time(hrs)
Average power
to consumed(w)
discharge
bettery
the
when
used
Nokia
3.7V 38Wh
38
0.191
Sumsung
3.8V 5.7Wh
21
0.420
Techno
3.7V 5.4Wh
53
0.307
Itel
3.7V 4.7Wh
18
0.329
Ideos
3.7V 4.6Wh
22
0.344
Sony
3.7V 4.2Wh
15
0.266
Huawei
3.7V 5.3Wh
12
0.534
The Table 5.2 shows the total number of villages,connected with grid power and
those which are not connected.
Table 5. 2: Number of villages connected and not connected with grid power.
Total villages
26
Connected
with
grid Not connected with grid
power
power
11
15
The Figure 5.1 and Figure 5.2 shows the charging with solar and generator
respectively.
14
Figure 5. 1: Charging with solar [2]
Figure 5. 2: Charging with generator [7]
Table 5.1 shows the amount of charging in Mondo Division.
15
Table 5. 3: Price of charging in Mondo Division
Charging system
Price
of
charging
per
phone(in Tsh)
Solar
300
Generator
500
5.2 Secondary Data Collection
The secondary data was collected as a guide towards the designing of the system.
The data collection is very important as far as the designing and implementation of
the system is concerned.
5.2.1 Control Unit
The design requirements of control unit are as follows:
A programmable device which do not need large amount of data and program
memory but faster and more reliable with a low-power consumption and highperformance [8].
16
Table 5. 4: Control unit features [16]
FEATURES
8K Bytes of In-System Reprogrammable Flash 256 x 8-bit Internal RAM
Memory
Fully Static Operation: 0 Hz to 33 MHz
4.0V to 5.5V Operating Range
Three-level Program Memory Lock
32 Programmable I/O Lines
Programmable Serial Channel
Three 16-bit Timer/Counters
Compatible with MCS-51 Products
Eight Interrupt Sources
Low-power Idle and Power-down Modes
Watchdog Timer
Full Duplex UART Serial Channel
Dual Data Pointer
Interrupt Recovery from Power-down Mode
Power-off Flag
Flexible ISP Programming (Byte and Page Mode)
Fast Programming Time
5.2.2 LED unit
Features of LED is shown in Table 5.2.2
Table 5.5: Display unit features [6]
FEATURES
LED unit
3.6V dc, current rate 30mA, and power dissipation
of 100mW
5.2.3 Dynamo specifications.
Dynamo models and specification is shown in Table 5.2.3.
17
Table 5. 5: Dynamo specifications [4][7]
DYNAMO MODEL
VOLTAGE(V)
POWER(W)
Hub
6
3
Sidewall/Nordlicht
12
6
5.2.4 Battery specification.
The type and specifications of battery is shown in the Table 5.7
Table 5. 6: Battery specification [3][11][12][13]
Types
Voltage(V)
Power(W/kg)
Self
discharge(%/Month)
Nickel-metal hydride
1.2
1000
30%
Lead-acid
2.1
180
3-4%
Nickel Iron
1.2
100
20-40%
Lithium-cobalt
3.6
1800
5-10%
1.5
50
<0.3%
Oxide
Alkaline
18
CHAPTER SIX
6.0 SYSTEM DESIGN AND ANALYSIS
This chapter explains in detail how different design parameters were obtained,
numbers of calculations have been done so far in order to come up with circuits
which together used to make a complete system.
6.1 Dynamo
Dynamo are arranged in parallel since one produces 12VAC,6W,then due to its
arrangement the output was the same as its inputs[18]. To predict the output of
dynamo under various conditions we need a mathematical model of the system, i.e.
an equivalent circuit. Figure 6.1 shows a voltage source Vs, an internal resistance
Rint, an internal inductance Lint and a load resistance Rload
connected
in
series[17,26].
Figure 6.1: Simple model
To keep things simple, several assumptions were made:
1.
The load resistance is constant.
2.
The voltage source is sinusoidal.
3.
The internal resistance and inductance are constant.
As the cycle speed increases, the voltage Vs and the frequency f of the source also
increases:
Vs αf
19
The reactance Xint of the internal inductance Lint is also proportional to frequency f:
Xint = 2π f Lint
The resistance and reactance form two sides of a right angled triangle. To compute
the overall impedance z of the circuit we use Pythagoras' theorem.
…………………………………………………6.0[30]
The current I is now
I = V/Z…………………………………………………………………….……6.1[30]
Where, V is voltage, I is current, Z is impedance, Rint is internal resistance, Rload is
load resistance, Xint is internal reactance
This is where the notion that dynamos produce a constant current comes from. If Xint
is much larger than (Rint + Rload), both Z and Vs are proportional to speed.
6.2 Power Harvesting Circuit
The output produced by dynamo is AC so should be converted from AC to DC [25].
6.3 Bridge rectifier circuit analysis
In a bridge rectifier circuit two diodes conduct during each half cycle and the
forward resistance become double (2R)[27].
20
Figure 6.3: Bridge rectifier circuit [19]
Average value of voltage across the load is given by
Vdc
……………………………………………………………………6.2[19]
Where, Vdc is direct current voltage, Idc is direct current, Rl is load resistance
6.4 Charging controller
The positive voltage V+ is related to the output voltage Vo by the simple voltage
divider formed by resistors R1 and R2 [28] .
Figure 6.4: Comparator circuit [20]
………………………………………………………………..6.3[21]
Where, V+ is Positive voltage, Vo is Output voltage, R1,R2 are Resistors
Note that positive voltage V+ depends on the output voltage Vo
The key to analyzing these positive feedback circuits is to assume an initial
condition. The possible values that output voltage Vo can take are high voltage VH
and low voltage VL where VH >VL , also assume that VL < 0 .
By assuming that the initial state of output voltage Vo = VH then,
……………………………………………………………….6.4[21]
21
and the output is
…………………………………………………...6.5[21]
Where, VH is High voltage, Vo is Output voltage, A is gain, Vin is Input voltage,
R1,R2 are Resistors
6.5 Control unit
In this project, the PIC 16F648A was used in the control function due to its highest
score as well as flexibility in terms of clock frequency[22].
PIC16F648A microcontroller has Inbuilt analog to digital AD converter and low
power consumption. It also has enough digital channels to connect the digital
components such as LEDs and the onboard LCD. Good support from the
manufacturers such as detailed data sheet side and free development environment
such as compiler [29].
22
Start
Read input
Is V>5V
NO
YES
Stop
charging
Allow
charging
End
Figure 6.5: Flow chart
6.6 Dynamo power server
Nickel cadmium used as power server in this project. The following are the
advantages of Nickel cadmium (NiCd) .
i.
Only battery that can be ultra-fast charged with little stress.
ii.
Good load performance; forgiving if abused.
iii.
Long shelf life; can be stored in a discharged state, needs priming before use.
iv.
Simple storage and transportation; not subject to regulatory control.
v.
Good low-temperature performance.
vi.
Economically priced; NiCd is the lowest in terms of cost per cycle.
vii.
Available in a wide range of sizes and performance options.
23
6.7 Chapter Summary
This chapter comprises of system design and analysis and describe how different
system parts have been designed and integrated to form overall system.
24
CHAPTER SEVEN
7.0 SIMULATION AND RESULTS
7.1 Introduction
This chapter involves simulation results and prototype testing. Different software
were used for simulation and testing of the prototype
7.2 Software Description
This part describes different software used to complete this project and result
achieved in the simulation and prototype
7.3 Proteus Professional 7.8
This is designing and simulation software that is mainly used for designing process
of this project. There are so many designing and simulation software of electronics
circuit design, but in this project the Proteus Professional 7.8 is used due to the
nature of the project and its capabilities in simulation efficiency. It can also simplify
a lot of task since it has a library for reviews. This software is applied for schematic
as well as simulation.
7.4 simulation results captured
When the switch is on, it allows the capacitor bank to charge up to 12V.Then the
battery will be charged and once reaches 5V and above the system would be ready
for charging the phone as shown in Figure 7.4.
25
Figure 7.4: Simulation results
7.6 Chapter summary
This chapter gives description about the simulation of the designed system includes
descriptions about simulation tools used, simulation constraints, performance testing
parameters and performance testing procedures. It also presents the results and
discussions.
26
CHAPTER EIGHT
8.0 PROTOTYPE IMPLEMENTATION
8.1Introduction
This chapter gives the details about the implementation from the design to realization
of the prototype. It also describes about performance testing parameters, testing
procedures, results and discussions of the overall performance of the prototype itself.
8.2 Printed circuit boards Construction
The layouts of the printed circuit boards for the designed system were prepared.
Figure 8.2 Illustrate the PCB layout for the designed system.
Figure 8.2:PCB layout for the designed system
8.3 Component mounting and Connections
After the preparations of the PCB the components are mounted to their respective
places. Figure 8.3 shows component mounted on PCB.
27
Figure 8.3:Component mounting on PCB
8.4 Prototype performance
The design consists of a wheel that is rotated by hand that is connected to a Pedal.
The Pedal is connected to the dynamo and when the wheel spins it provides
electricity to charge the battery. The amount of current and voltage through the
circuit is proportional to the rotating speed of the wheel.
Figure 8.4:Prototype
Figure 8.4 shows the prototype performance, show that the implemented prototype
performance is quite good as the objectives has been achieved.
28
8.5 Chapter summary
This chapter gives explanation on the prototype implementation and testing. The
results from prototype show that all the objectives have been achieved. This implies
that the prototype implemented is expected to perform well.
29
CHAPTER NINE
9.0 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
This is the last chapter in this report that gives out the overall summary of the project
done including conclusion and recommendations about the project.
9.1 Conclusions
This report has provided all basic information concerning with the existence of the
problem and the procedures towards solving it. Using these procedures, the system
has been designed and realized. Moreover, the system has been tested and appeared
to give the expected results. Considering these results obtained after prototype
testing, the overall performance of the designed system was good. Therefore, it can
be concluded that the designed system is expected to solve the existing problem.
The success in the design of this system would help people in rural area to charge
their phone. The designed system is expected to eliminate the problems such as
travelling far away looking for charging system and wastage of time.
9.2 Recommendations
The goal of the project was accomplished.Through designing another system, any
one can take and improve the project in advance.
30
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charging
IADIS
International
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34
APPENDICES
APPENDIX A
Questionnaire
Form of questionnaire used to collect preliminary data
DAR ES SALAAM INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
DEPARTIMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND TELECOMMUNICATIONS
PRELIMINARY DATA COLLECTION
Questionnaire 1.
A:Introduction.
DYNAMO BASED CHARGING IN RURAL AREA.
This project aims to charge the mobile phone in rural area by using dynamo as the
source of energy.
B:Respondents particulars.
Region name.................................................
District name..................................................
Division name.................................................
Title of respondent...........................................
C:Questions.
1.How many villages do you have?...................................
2.How many villages do not have grid power?........................
35
3.What means of charging do they use?....................................................
4.How much do they contributing for charging their phone...............................
36
APPENDIX B
Gantt Chart For Project Schedule
Table A: Senior project 1
ACTIVITIES DURATION OF PROJECT IN WEEK(S)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 11 12 13 14 15 16
A
B
C
D
E
KEY:
A. Selection of project title
B. Title defending
C. Problem statement, methodology and literature review
D. Data collection
E. Proof reading and submission of project proposal for marking.
37
Table B: Senior project 2
ACTIVITIES
DURATION OF PROJECT IN WEEK(S)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
A
B
C
D
KEY:
A: Data analysis
B: Design the circuit and simulation of the design circuit
C: Building of circuit and testing of prototype
D: Project report writing
38
10
11
12
13
14
15
16