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SOUTH ASIA II
(CHAPTER 8: 387-417)
KEY CONCEPTS APPLICABLE TO THE REALM
CENTRIPETAL - CENTRIFUGAL FORCES
FORWARD CAPITAL
ISLAMABAD
IRREDENTISM
PATHANS (OR PASHTUNS) OF PAKISTAN RELATED TO PEOPLES
OF CENTRAL AFGHANISTAN
FEDERAL SYSTEM
ADOPTED BY INDIA IN 1947
PROVIDES REGIONS AND PEOPLES WITH SOME AUTONOMY AND
IDENTITY
PAKISTAN (AT PARTITION) - MAP
PAKISTAN CURRENTLY - MAP
PAKISTAN
ISLAMIC REPUBLIC OF PAKISTAN
POPULATION OF 149.6 MILLION
80% SUNNI MUSLIMS; 16% SHIA MINORITY
SUBREGIONS:
PUNJAB
SIND
BALUCHISTAN
NORTH WEST FRONTIER
ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT (PAKISTAN)
33% URBANIZED
LOW INCOME ECONOMY
ECONOMIC LIBERALIZATION BEGAN IN 1990 TO BOOST FOREIGN AND
DOMESTIC PRIVATE INVESTMENT.
COTTON-BASED TEXTILE INDUSTRY AND RICE
SUPPORTS A LARGE MILITARY ESTABLISHMENT (EMERGING REGIONAL
POWER)
KASHMIR
INDEPENDENCE & PARTITION
JAMMU
& KASHMIR FACED WITH THE CHOICE OF JOINING EITHER
HINDU INDIA OR MUSLIM PAKISTAN
KASHMIR – HINDU MAHARAJA BUT MUSLIM POPULATION
1947 – PAKISTANI TRIBESMEN INVADE
MAHARAJA FLEES TO DELHI AND ACCEDES TO INDIA
INDIAN TROOPS DEPLOY – PAKISTANI REGULARS JOIN IN THE FIGHT
JANUARY 1949 – U.N. CEASE FIRE
1980-88 MUSLIM EXTREMISTS CONTINUE INSURGENCY
INDIA - MAP
INDIA
ENCOMPASSES 3/4s OF SOUTH ASIA’S TOTAL AREA
A FEDERATION OF 28 STATES, 6 UTs, AND 1 NCT
POPULATION OF 1.086 BILLION PEOPLE
28% URBANIZED
14 MAJOR AND NUMEROUS MINOR LANGUAGES (LINGUA FRANCA?)
CENTRIPETAL VS CENTRIFUGAL FORCES?
ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT (INDIA)
GDP OF $450 PER PERSON
38% LIVE BELOW THE POVERTY LINE
A MIXTURE OF TRADITIONAL VILLAGE FARMING AND MODERN
AGRICULTURE
HANDICRAFTS, OLD AND NEW BRANCHES OF INDUSTRY
MULTITUDE OF SUPPORT SERVICES AND NUCLEAR POWER
CLOTHING INDUSTRY
INDIA - PHOTOS
GREEN REVOLUTION
THE SUCCESSFUL DEVELOPMENT OF HIGHER YIELD, FAST-GROWING
VARIETIES OF RICE AND OTHER CEREALS IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES
INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH PROGRAM-1960s
FOCUSED ON THE FOOD CRISES
INCREASED PRODUCTION PER UNIT AREA VIA:
MIRACLE CROPS
NEW IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
INTENSIVE USE OF FERTILIZERS
INDIA’S GREAT CITIES
MUMBAI (BOMBAY)- 18.3 MILLION
ACHIEVED
“PRIMACY” BASED ON ITS SITUATION (SUEZ CANAL)
KOLKATA (CALCUTTA)- 14.3 MILLION
500,000
HOMELESS
BRITISH COLONIAL CAPITAL- 1772
ADVERSELY AFFECTED BY PARTITION
DELHI (NEW AND OLD)- 15.3 MILLION
BRITISH AND INDIAN SEAT OF GOVERNMENT
FORMER
INDIA’S GREAT CITIES - MAPS
BANGLADESH - MAP
BANGLADESH
INDEPENDENT SINCE 1971
FORMERLY EAST PAKISTAN
85% MUSLIM, 12% HINDU
139.5 MILLION PEOPLE
PHYSIOLOGIC DENSITY = 3,800/sq mi
2.2% ANNUAL GROWTH RATE
PER CAPITA GNP = 350 US DOLLARS
NATURAL HAZARDS – CYCLONES
ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT (BANGLADESH)
LOW LEVELS OF DEVELOPMENT (TECHNOLOGY)
ONE OF THE WORLD’S POOREST AND LEAST DEVELOPED STATES
ECONOMY IS OVERWHELMINGLY AGRICULTURAL
CULTIVATION OF RICE IS THE SINGLE MOST IMPORTANT ACTIVITY IN
THE ECONOMY.
THE MOUNTAINOUS NORTH - MAP
THE SOUTHERN ISLANDS
MALDIVES
>1,000
ISLANDS
<115 SQ MI / 300 SQ KMS
POPULATION OF 300,000
DRAVIDIAN AND SRI LANKA SOURCES
OVERWHELMINGLY MUSLIM
HIGHEST GNP IN THE REALM
SRI LANKA
FORMERLY CEYLON
INDEPENDENT SINCE 1948
SRI LANKA
19.7 MILLION PEOPLE (70% BUDDHISTS)
PLANTATION AGRICULTURE:
TEA,
RUBBER, COCONUTS
SOUTH (MAJORITY OF POPULATION)

SINHALA (INDO-EUROPEAN)
NORTH (18% OF THE POPULATION)
DRAVIDIAN
HINDU


TAMIL LANGUAGE

SINHALESE vs TAMILS (INCLUDES MAP)
TAMILS DEMANDED EQUAL RIGHTS:
EDUCATION
EMPLOYMENT
LAND OWNERSHIP
LANGUAGE AND POLITICS
INSURGENT STATE
LTTE – LIBERATION TIGERS OF TAMIL EELAM
SRI LANKA - PHOTOS