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IMPERIALISM IN AFRICA
WHY HAD EUROPEANS ORIGINALLY BEEN INTERESTED IN AFRICA?
WHAT WAS THE STATE OF AFRICA BY THE 19TH CENTURY?
EUROPEANS HAD ESTABLISHED POSTS ON BOTH COASTS, BUT KNEW OR CARED
LITTLE OF AFRICA'S INTERIOR. THAT WOULD CHANGE...BY THE EARLY 20TH
CENTURY, ONLY LIBERIA AND ETHIOPIA WERE NOT CONTROLLED BY EUROPEAN
NATIONS! SOME 90 OF IT (COMPARED TO 10 IN 1800).
OTTOMAN EMPIRE WAS IN DECLINE;
1805 - MOHAMMED ALI LED EGYPT'S BREAK AWAY FROM OTTOMAN EMPIRE
HE MADE IMPROVEMENTS, MADE OTHERS MORE INTERESTED IN THE NILE VALLEY
(COTTON). BY MID-CENTURY, EGYPT BEGAN MODERNIZING, WHICH MEANT
BORROWING MONEY FROM EUROPE
1859 - MEHEMET ALI DID SO IN ONE SUCH PROJECT, THE JOINT VENTURE WITH
FRANCE TO BUILD THE SUEZ CANAL (1859 TO 1869).
FRANCE, FIRST, BECAME INTERESTED IN NORTH AFRICA.
BARBARY PIRATES RAIDED SHIPPING IN THE MEDITERRANEAN.
1830 - ALGERIA, MADE IT A FRENCH COLONY, TOOK THE BEST, THEN EXPANDED
EASTWARD.
1859 - SUEZ CANAL - FERDINAND DE LESSEPS 1869 (1/2 STOCK TO FR. 1/2 TO EGYPTIANS) SPHERE OF INFLUENCE.
1881-TUNISIA
1904 - MOROCCO (CONFLICT WITH GERMANY), AND THE SUDAN (CONFLICT WITH
BRITISH).
GREAT BRITAIN
BRITISH FELT THEY NEEDED CONTROL OF THE SUEZ CANAL LIFELINE TO INDIA
SPHERE OF INFLUENCE.
1881 - WHEN VIOLENCE ERUPTED GREAT BRITAIN SENT TROOPS, AND MADE EGYPT
A PROTECTORATE, BEGINNING "ENGLANDIZATION".
THEN, TO APPEASE EGYPT, IT SOUGHT CONTROL OF SUDAN, WHICH HAD
RECENTLY BROKEN AWAY FROM EGYPTS CONTROL.
TO BUILD DAMS TO BETTER CONTROL THE NILE, WHOSE HEADWATERS WERE IN
THE SUDAN BRITISH HAD TO OVERCOME SUDANESE AND FRENCH RESISTANCE
BRITISH WANTED TO BUILD A NORTH-SOUTH RR FROM THE CAPE TO CAIRO
FRANCE WANTED TO EXPAND CONTROL EAST-WEST ACROSS AFRICA
1885 - SUDANESE MUSLIMS DEFEATED A BRITISH ARMY LED BY CHARLES GORDON
AT KHARTOUM.
FEBRUARY 1896 - CAPTAIN MARCHAND – SENT BY FRENCH MILITARY.
JULY 10,1898 - MARCHAND REACHED FASHODA.
SEPTEMBER 2,1898 - BATTLE OF OMDURMAN BRITISH LORD KITCHENER
SUDANESE MAHDIST FORCES OUTNUMBERED BRITISH 2-1.
A SLAUGHTER! 11,000 TO 28 KILLED!
NEW MAXIM MACHINE GUNS FIRST USED IN BATTLE.
SEPTEMBER 19, 1898 - FASHODA INCIDENT
KITCHENER - MARCHAND (FRENCH) STANDOFF
FLAG FLAP-AGREED TO FLY BOTH FLAGS.
NEARLY CAUSED A WAR IN NORTH AFRICA BETWEEN ENGLAND AND FRANCE.
NOVEMBER 3, 1898 FRENCH GOVERNMENT ORDERED MARCHAND TO WITHDRAW
FROM THE NILE.
MARCH 21,1899 THE ANGLO- FRENCH AGREEMENT RECOGNIZED THE UPPER NILE
AS A BRITISH SPHERE OF INFLUENCE. IN FACT, IN NORTH AFRICA, DISPUTES WERE
USUALLY SETTLED PEACEFULLY BRITISH GOT SUDAN,
FRENCH GIVEN GREEN LIGHT IN WEST AFRICA - MOROCCO
LED TO TRIPLE ENTENTE -1904
ITALY
1911 - DECLARED WAR ON OTTOMAN EMPIRE
TOOK TRIPOLI RENAMED IT LIBYA
BY 1914 - ALL OF NORTH AFRICA UNDER EUROPEAN INFLUENCE (CASABLANCA TO
CAIRO)
B. SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA
UNDER THE NEW IMPERIALISM, IT WOULD SOON FALL INTO THE HANDS OF THE
EUROPEANS
700 ETHNIC GROUPS, HOPELESSLY DIVIDED.
MISSIONARIES, EXPLORERS, ADVENTURERS MADE THE WORLD AWARE OF THE
-DARK CONTINENT"
1640 - DR. LIVINGSTONE MISSIONARY SENT DETAILED REPORTS BACK TO
ENGLAND
1871 . HENRY STANLEY NEW YORK HERALD NEWSPAPERMAN WENT IN SEARCH
OF LIVINGSTONE SENT BACK DETAILED REPORTS AS WELL
HENRY STANLEY WOULD CHANGE THE HISTORY OF SUB-SAHARA AFRICA
ALLOWED BR. GOVERNMENT TO COLONIZE; NO INTEREST, THEN... CONVINCED
KING LEOPOLD II OF BELGIUM TO FOUND COLONIES 1876 CARVED OUT THE BELGIAN CONGO REPRESENTED THE WORST ASPECTS OF
THE NEW IMPERIALISM PROFIT OVER PROGRESS EXTRACTION AND EXPLOITATION
RIVALRIES INTENSIFIED (PORTUGUESE, BRITISH, GERMANS, ITALIANS, FRENCH)
MAD SCRAMBLE FOR CONTROL OF AFRICA OCCURRED BETWEEN 1880 AND 1914
DISCOVERY OF QUININE TO FIGHT MALARIA MADE THE INTERIOR MORE
ATTRACTIVE.
INVENTION OF STEAMSHIPS MADE RIVERS EASIER TO NAVIGATE.
1885 - BERLIN CONFERENCE 14 NATIONS MEET - NO AFRICAN DELEGATES
RULES ESTABLISHED FOR DIVIDING UP AFRICA (THE REAL WHY OF THE BERLIN
CONFERENCE).
FIRST NOTIFY OF INTENTIONS, THEN OCCUPY MAINTAIN AN "OPEN DOOR" THOUGH.
HOWEVER. WITHIN 15 YEARS, ALL OF CENTRAL AFRICA WAS CONTROLLED BY
EUROPEANS!
EAST AFRICA SAME STORY!
GREAT BRITAIN, GERMANY MAJOR PLAYERS, ALSO PORTUGAL, BELGIUM
ONLY ETHIOPIA REMAINED INDEPENDENT.
1898 - MENELIK II DEFEATED ITALY FOR CONTROL
VICTORY WAS SO COMPLETE THAT NOBODY ELSE TRIED
WEST AFRICA
IN THE EARLY 1800’S, THE SLAVE TRADE DRIED UP EUROPE BEGAN TO OUTLAW
SLAVERY.
THE BRITISH FOUNDED SIERRA LEONE FOR FORMER SLAVES.
AFRICA HAD OTHER RICHES: GOLD, IVORY, AND OTHER NATURAL RESOURCES.
FRENCH AND BRITISH LED THE WAY. DUTCH, PORTUGUESE, SPANISH, AND
GERMANS ALL BECAME INTERESTED IN ITS RICH COAST.
EUROPEANS OVERCAME NATIVE RESISTANCE (BRITISH OVER THE ASHANTI).
ONLY LIBERIA (SETTLED BY FORMER U.S. SLAVES IN 1822) DID NOT COME UNDER
THEIR CONTROL. ITS CAPITAL, MONROVIA – WAS SUPPORTED BY PRESIDENT
MONROE KEEPING EUROPE FROM TAKING IT OVER. IT BECAME A REPUBLIC IN 1847.
SOUTH AFRICA
CONFLICT BETWEEN BRITISH AND DUTCH LED TO AN IMPERIALISTIC WAR
1652 - THE DUTCH SETTLED SOUTH AFRICA, FOUNDED CAPE COLONY.
GREAT BRITAIN TOOK IT DURING THE NAPOLEONIC WARS. BEFORE THE
CONSTRUCTION OF THE SUEZ CANAL THIS WAS A STRATEGIC LOCATION.
1830S -10.000 DUTCH AFRIKANERS OR BOERS BEGAN THE "GREAT TREK* INLAND
OVERCAME NATIVE RESISTANCE (MOSTLY ZULU) ZULU - LED BY SHAKA ZULU.
FOUNDED THE COLONIES OF NATAL, TRANSVAAL.AND ORANGE FREE STATE
IN THE 1860S, DIAMONDS DISCOVERED THERE GOLD IN THE 1880S.
1899 - 1902 THE BOER WAR
CECIL RHODES - BRITISH PRIME MINISTER OF CAPE COLONY AND FOUNDER OF
RHODESIA BECAME WEALTHY OFF OF GOLD AND DIAMONDS - WANTED TO TAKE
BOER TERRITORY. GOAL - A "CAPE TO CAIRO" RAILROAD CONNECTING BRITISH
EMPIRE IN AFRICA. HE WAS FORCED TO RESIGN FOR ATTEMPTING TO TAKE THIS
OVER THROUGH WAR - WAR STARTED ANYWAY. BOERS AND THE BRITISH WENT TO
WAR... TOOK FOUR YEARS - BRITISH WON.
BRITISH FOUND THEMSELVES ISOLATED.
1910 - CREATED THE UNION OF SOUTH AFRICA. HOWEVER, AFTER THE MINES
PLAYED OUT. BRITISH MOSTLY LEFT BOERS REMAINED KEPT THE BEST INITIATED
PRACTICE OF APARTHEID - RULE OF WHITE MINORITY.
1912 - SANNC FOUNDED - IT BECAME THE ANC - AFRICAN NATIONAL CONGRESS IN
1923 LED THE BATTLE FOR LIBERALISM IN SOUTH AFRICA
IMPACT OF IMPERIALISM IN AFRICA
POSITIVE?
NEGATIVE?
PRACTICED EITHER DIRECT (PATERNALISM) RULE OR INDIRECT RULE (EITHER
REQUIRED ASSIMILATION OR ALLOWED LOCAL RULE).
IMPERIALISM WAS MOSTLY EXPLOITATION..A WAGE SYSTEM. MADE NATIVES
SECOND-CLASS CITIZENS, STRIPPED THEM OF THEIR CULTURE.
SOME GOOD ASPECTS TOO SCHOOLS, CHURCHES.