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Alphabetical List of Named Radiographic Projections
A
ADAMS (MODIFICATION OF HERMODSSON'S VIEW)
The same as Hermodsson's view but with internal rotation increased from 70 degrees to
100 degrees. See Hermodsson’s view.
Ref:Rockwood and Green's Fractures in Adults, Lippincott.
AHLBACK METHOD
Weight-bearing AP view of the knee in full extension.
ALBERS-SCHONBERG
Demonstrates the TMJs.
Head in the lateral position, then rotate the head 20 degrees towards the film. Centre to
the TMJ in contact with the film, with the tube angled 20 degrees upwards.
ALEXANDER METHOD
View of the optic canal in cross section.
Both sides for comparison.
Patient sat with the back of head against the skull table. Upper border of the skull table
angled backward 15 degrees . Position the patients head so that the midsagittal plane
makes an angle of 40 degrees to the plane of the bucky. Head extended so that the
acanthomeatal line is at right angles to the plane of the bucky. Centre to the lower outer
margin of the orbit away from the film.
ALEXANDER METHOD (ACJ)
Routine lateral oblique view of the acromio-clavicular joint.
Ref: K.Clarke. Positioning in Radiography, 11th Ed
ALEXANDER STRESS VIEW
View of the acromio-clavicular joint.
Position as for lateral scapula. Patient then asked to thrust the affected shoulder forward.
Ref: Alexander, O.M.Radiography of ACJ articulation, Med. Radiogra. 30:34-39, 1954.
ALTSCHUL
Position as for Townes (half-axial skull view) view but angle 35 degrees rather than 30
degrees.
ANTHONSON'S VIEW
Subtalar joint view.
Foot in the lateral position. Dorsi-flex the foot. Angle the vertical central ray 25 degrees
towards the foot and, 30 degrees towards the toes. Centre immediately below the medial
malleolus.
ARCELIN
Demonstrates the petrous temporal region.
Head in the AP position and rotate 45 degrees away from the side being examined with
the radiographic baseline at right angles to the film. Centre to the baseline at a point
2.5cm in front of the EAM, with the tube angled 10 degrees to the feet.
Ref: Goldman and Cope. A Radiographic Index. Wright
B
BALL CATCHERS VIEW
See Norgaads view.
BALL’S METHOD (AP)
Pelvimetry view.
Patient erect, centre the horizontal beam to the midline at the level of the superior border
of the symphysis pubis.
BALL’S METHOD (LATERAL)
Pelvimetry view.
Patient erect in the lateral position. Centre horizontal central ray to the level of the
superior border of the acetabulum.
BECLERE METHOD
View of the intercondyloid fossa in profile.
Patient supine. Knee flexed so that the long axis of the femur is at 120 degrees to the long
axis of the tibia. Direct the central ray at right angles to the long axis of the tibia and
centre to the knee joint.
BERQUIST VIEW
See Capitellum view
BERTEL
Demonstrates the orbital floors and the infra-orbital fissure.
Head in the PA position with radiographic baseline at right angles to the film. Centre to
the nasion with the tube angled 20 degrees towards the head
Ref: Goldman and Cope. A Radiographic Index. Wright Publishing, Bristol.
BETT'S VIEW
View to demonstrate the trapezium. Shows the trapezium without the overlapping of
other carpal bones.
Gedda / Betts or Clements view. It’s basically an offsetview where you externally rotate
the wrist and hand obliquly it to the image plate at about 45 degrees, and angle cranially
about 5 degrees It not only gives you a full view of the trapezium, but it gives you a good
CMC view and then isolates the STT and TT joints. It helps to stage arthritic disease and
in the selection of surgical technique
BIGLIANI'S VIEW (Y VIEW)
Hip projection.
Pelvis in the AP position. Flex, abduct and externally rotate the hip. Centre to the hip
joint.
BLACKETT-HEALY METHODS
Shoulder views
1. A tangential projection of the insertion of the teres minor.
Patient prone. Internally rotate the arm, flex the elbow and place the hand on the back.
Centre to the head of the humerus.
2. A tangential projection of the insertion of the subscapularis.
Patient supine. Abduct the arm, flex the elbow, and pronate the hand. Centre to the
shoulder joint.
BLONDEAU
OM facial bones overtilted by 5 degree
BLOOM AND OBATA
See Velpeau.
BRATTSTROM METHOD
Skyline patella.
BREWERTON'S VIEW
To show erosions of the metacarpal heads and the bases of the phalanges.
Hand in the AP position i.e. palm facing upwards. The metacarpal-phalangeal joints are
flexed to 45 degrees with the phalanges in contact with the film. Tube angled 20 degrees
(from ulnar side) to the head of the third metacarpal.
BRIDGEMAN VIEW
See Stecher Method, point 1.
BRODEN I
Subtalar joint view.
Foot positioned as for AP ankle, then rotate the foot 45 degrees medially. Angled the tube
cranially between 10 degrees and 40 degrees .
BRODEN II
Subtalar joint view.
Foot positioned as for AP ankle, then rotate the foot 45 degrees externally. Angle the tube
cranially 15 degrees.
Ref: Hansen and Swiontkowski, ORTHOPAEDIC TRAUMA PROTOCOLS, Raven
Press.
BUTTERFLY VIEWS
Elongated views of the rectosigmoid segments of large intestine.
AP BUTTERFLY
Centre 5cm inferior to the anterior-superior iliac spine (ASIS) and angle the vertical
central ray 40 degrees towards the head.
LPO BUTTERFLY
Centre 5cm inferior to and 5cm medial to the right ASIS. Angle the vertical central ray
40 degrees towards the head.
PA BUTTERFLY
Centre to the ASIS and angle the vertical central ray 40 degrees towards the feet.
RAO BUTTERFLY
Centre to the level of the ASIS and 5cm to the left of the lumbar spinous processes.
Angle the vertical central ray 40 degrees towards the feet.
C
CAHOON
View to demonstrate the styloid processes of the skull.
Position as for Bertel's view and angle the tube 25 degrees cranially.
Ref: Goldman and Cope. A Radiographic Index. Wright Publishing, Bristol..
CALDWELL
Routine OF 20 view of the skull.
Ref: K.Clarke. Positioning in Radiography. 11th Ed.
CAMP COVENTRY METHOD
View of the intercondylar notch.
Patient prone. The tibia is elevated by 40-50 degrees. The central ray is directed to the
knee joint so that it makes a right angle with the long axis of the tibia.
CAPITELLUM VIEW (BERQUIST VIEW)
View to demonstrate fractures of the radial head.
Patient positioned as for lateral elbow. The tube is angled 45 degrees to the forearm along
the humeral axis. Centre to the radial headwards.
Ref: Berquist, T. (1993). Diagnostic Radiographic Techniques in the Elbow. The Elbow
and its Disorders, 2nd ed. WB Saunders, Philadelphia 98-119.
CARPEL BOSS
Demonstrates bony protuberance on the dorsum of the wrist at the level of the second and
third carpo-metacarpal joints.Wrist slightly ulnar deviated with the ulnar side to the
cassette. 30 degree supination of the wrist to place the dorsal prominence at the
dorsoradial aspect of the second to third carpo-metacarpal joints and at a tangent to the
vertical central ray. Centre to pass through the dorsal prominence.
Ref: Gilula and Yin. Imaging of the Wrist and Hand, Saunders.
CARPAL BRIDGE VIEW
A tangential projection of the carpus. Demonstrates fractures of the scaphoid, lunate
dislocations, and foreign bodies in the dorsum of the wrist.
The back of the hand rests on the cassette with the forearm at right angles to the hand.
Direct the central ray 4cm proximal to the wrist joint with a 45 degree angle towards the
fingers.
Ref: Lentino, W. et al (1957). The carpal bridge view, J. Bone Joint Surg. 39-A:88-90.
CARPAL CANAL
Routine carpal tunnel view.
Ref: K.Clarke. Positioning in Radiography. 11th Ed.
CAUSTON METHOD
Oblique foot projection to demonstrate the sesamoids.
Foot lateral with the medial side against the cassette. Angle the central ray 40 degrees
towards the ankle and centre to the first metatarsophalangeal sesamoids.
Ref: Causton, J. (1943):Projection of the sesamoid bones in the region of the first
metatarsophalangeal joint, Radiology 9:39.
CHASSARD'S VIEW
View to show the sigmoid colon.
Patient sits with both legs over the side of the table and leans forward slightly. Centre
fairly high up the patients back.
CHAUSSE II
Oblique transoral view of the foramen jugulare.
The patient is positioned as for an AP skull with the mouth wide open. Rotate the head 10
degrees away from the side in question. Direct the central ray up through the open mouth
so that it makes an angle of 35 degrees to a line joining the superior border of the EAM
and the anterior nasal spine.
Ref: Chausse, C. (1950).Trois incidences pour l'exam du rocher, Acta Radiol. 34:274287.
CHAUSSE III
Head in the PA position then rotate the head 5-10 degrees towards the unaffected side.
Centre along the radiographic baseline midway between the outer canthus and the EAM.
CHAUSSE IV
See Stenvers view (C-Ear).
CINCINATTI VIEW
Supine chest x-ray coned to the mediastinum, a high kV filter is used.
The filter consists of 0.5mm copper and 0.4mm tin inserted so that the copper layer is
nearest the tube. A CT scoutview (topogram) is an alternative.
CLEAVES METHOD (HIP)
Axial projection of the femoral heads, necks, and trochanteric areas projected onto one
film. Position as a frog-leg lateral and centre to the symphysis pubis with the central ray
angled to be parallel with the long axes of the femoral shafts.
CLEAVES METHOD (SHOULDER)
An axial projection of the shoulder.
This technique requires non-cassette film.
Ref: Cleaves, E.N.(1941).A new film holder for roentgen examination of the shoulder,
A.J.R. 45:288-290.
CLEMENTS view. It’s basically an offsetview where you externally rotate the wrist and
hand obliquly it to the image plate at about 45 degrees, and angle cranially about 5
degrees It not only gives you a full view of the trapezium, but it gives you a good CMC
view and then isolates the STT and TT joints. It helps to stage arthritic disease and in the
selection of surgical technique
CLEMENTS NAKAYAMA METHOD
Lateral view of acetabulum and femoral head.
This method can be used where the opposite hip cannot be raised for a horizontal beam
lateral hip.
COALITION VIEW
Demonstrates a calcaneotalar coalition.
Patient standing with the cassette under the long axis the calcaneum. Angle the central
ray 45 degrees and direct it through the posterior surface of the flexed ankle to the level
of the base of the fifth metatarsal.
COBEYS VIEW
is a weight bearing AP ankle projection used to demonstrate
the angulation between the long axix of the calcaneum and the tibia
(some call
it a Buckview)
It is a PA projection done on a special radiolucent platform. The patient stands on the
platform equal weight on both feet with the toes on the side of interest against a 7 X 17
IR. (no grid, 40 SID) The platform holds the IR at a 20 degree tilt from vertical (away
from the patient)
The CR is angled caudal at 20 degree centered at the level of the ankle joint. (The tube
and IR will be parallel to eachother.) Collimate to include as much of the tib/fib possible.
A radiopaque marker is placed just behind the heel for measuring purposes when
analizing alignment.e tibia, radiographically imaging the coronal plane alignment of the
hindfoot.
COLCHER-SUSSMAN PROJECTION (AP)
Pelvimetry view.
Metal ruler engraved at cm intervals (Colcher-Sussman pelvimeter) is required.
Patient supine with the knees flexed and the thighs abducted so that the ruler can be
placed horizontally, centred to the gluteal fold at the level of the ischial tuberosities.
Centre the vertical central beam 2.5cm above the symphysis pubis.
COLCHER-SUSSMAN PROJECTION (LATERAL)
Pelvimetry view.
Metal ruler engraved at cm intervals (Colcher-Sussman pelvimeter) is required.
Patient lies in the lateral position thighs extended so that they do not obscure the
symphysis pubis.The ruler is horizontal at the height of and against the mid sacrum.
Centre horizontal beam to the greater trochanter.
COYLE TRAUMA METHODS
Projections of the radial head and/or the coronoid process of the ulna
Radial head view Elbow flexed 90 degrees and hand pronated. Vertical central ray angled
45 degrees towards the shoulder. Centre to the radial head.
Coronoid process view
Elbow flexed 80 degrees from extended position with the hand pronated. Vertical central
ray angled 45 degrees away from the shoulder and directed to the elbow joint.
Ref: Coyle, George F.(1980).Radiographing Immobile Trauma Patients, Unit 7, Special
Angled Views of Joints - Elbow, Knee, Ankle. Multi-Media Publishing, Inc., Denver.
CRANIODORSAL HEADVIEW
Hip view.Supine hip with the knees extended and legs internally rotated. Central ray
angled 30 degrees caudally, centre over the hip.
Ref: Schneider (1964).
CRANIOVENTRAL HEADVIEW
Hip view.
Supine hip centred on the femoral head with the leg raised 45 degrees.
Ref:Schneider (1964).
D
DANELIUS-MILLER METHOD
Routine horizontal beam view of the hip.
DANELIUS-MILLER MODIFICATION OF LORENZ METHOD
See Danelius-Miller Method.
DENEER METHOD
See Dunlop Method.
DIDIEE VIEW
Shoulder view.
Patient prone with cassette under the shoulder. Arm parallel to the table top with a 7.5cm
pad under the elbow. Dorsum of hand on the hip with the thumb directed upward. Beam
angled 45 degrees.
DUNCAN-HOEW METHOD
Flexion and extension views of the lumbar spine (PA and lateral).
DUNLAP, SWANSON, AND PENNER METHOD
Projection to show the acetabula in profile.
The patient is sat upright on the bucky table with their legs over the side. The vertical
central ray is directed 30 degrees towards the lateral aspect of the pelvis towards the
acetabulum.
Ref: Dunlap et al (1956).Studies of the hip joint by means of lateral acetabular
roentgenograms, J.Bone Joint Surg. 38-A:1218-1230
DUTT'S VIEW (JOHNSON AND DUTT)
PA oblique of the cribiform plate.
Head in the PA position. The head is then rotated towards the affected side until the
median-sagittal plane is 40 degrees to the perpendicular. Raise the chin until the
radiographic baseline is 30 degrees to the perpendicular. Centre through the orbit in
contact with the film, with the tube angled 10 degrees towards the feet.
E
ERASO METHOD
Projection of the jugular foramina.
The patient is positioned as for an AP skull. The chin is then raised and the central ray is
angled upwards to make an angle of 65 degrees to the OM line. Centre to the midline at
the level of the EAM.
Ref: Eraso, S.T. (1961). Roentgen and clinical diagnosis of glomus jugulare tumors,
Radiology 77:252-256.
F
FALSE PROFILE VIEW (click here for a good article)
See Le Quesne method.
FEIST-MANKIN METHOD
See Isherwood method.
FERGUSON'S VIEW
View of the sacro-iliac joints.
The patient is supine and the tube is angled 25-30 degrees cranially. With this projection,
the symphysis pubis overlaps the sacrum.
Ferguson view, the patient is in the same position as for the AP Pelvis. The tube in angled
30-35 degrees cephalic and is centered to the midportion of the pelvis. It shows the SI
joints more clearly and helps in evaluating injury to the sacral bone, the pubis, and the
ischial rami
Ref: Positioning in Radiography, K.Clarke, 11th Ed. p139.
FISK METHOD
A projection of the bicipital groove.
Patient erect. Flex the elbow, rest the forearm on the cassette and supinate the hand.
Centre to the bicipital groove.
Ref: Fisk, C. (1965).Adaption of the technique for radiography of the bicipital groove,
Radiol. Technol. 37:47-50.
FLAMINGO VIEWS
Stress views of the symphysis pubis.
Two views. Patient stands on each leg in turn. Centre to the symphysis pubis.
FLYING ANGEL
Routine lateral thoracic inlet view.
Ref: K.Clarke. Positioning in Radiography. 11th Ed.
FRIEDMAN METHOD
An axiolateral projection of the femoral head, femoral neck and upper femur.
Position as for turned lateral hip but angle the vertical central ray 35 degrees cephalad.
Kisch recommends the central ray be angled 20 degrees cephalad.
FROG-LEG POSITION (MODIFIED LAUENSTEIN AND HICKEY METHOD)
Lateral projection of both hips.
Patient supine with the knees flexed and legs abducted so the soles of the feet are in
contact.
Ref: K. Clarke, Positioning in Radiography, 11th Ed.
FUCHS METHOD
Projection of the temporal styloid process.
Position the patient as for a lateral skull view. Angle the central ray cranially 10 degrees
and anteriorly 10 degrees and centre to the styloid process against the film. Both sides for
comparison.
FURMAIER METHOD
Skyline patella.
Ref: The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery (1974). 56-A, NO.7, OCTOBER
G
GARTH'S VIEW
Apical axial oblique view of the shoulder - useful for trauma dislocation cases
Centre to the head of the humorous.
Patient erect or Supine rotated 45 degrees to the affected side, central ray angled 45
degrees caudaly.
Ref: Merrill Volune 1 page 145
Discussion:
- used in the instability patient to visulaize the anterior/inferior glenoid
rim for fractures or calcification following dislocation;
- Technique:
- patient is seated with the arm at the side;
- cassette is placed posterior, parallel to the spine of the scapula
- beam is directed thru the glenohumeral joint toward the cassette
at angle of 45 deg degrees to the plane of the thorax, and
directed 45 deg caudally;
Roentgenographic demonstration of instability of the shoulder: the apical
oblique projection. A technical note.
JBJS. 66-A: 1450-1453, Dec. 1984.
GAYNOR-HART METHOD
Inferosuperior carpal tunnel projection.
Ref: K.Clarke. Positioning in Radiography. 11th Ed.
See also Templeton and Zim method.
GEDDA / Betts or Clements view. It’s basically an offsetview where you externally
rotate the wrist and hand obliquly it to the image plate at about 45 degrees, and angle
cranially about 5 degrees It not only gives you a full view of the trapezium, but it gives
you a good CMC view and then isolates the STT and TT joints. It helps to stage arthritic
disease and in the selection of surgical technique
GRANDY METHOD
Routine lateral cervical spine.
GRASHEY METHOD (SHOULDER)
Routine view of the shoulder to demonstrate the glenohumeral joint space (shoulder
turned through 45 degrees).
Ref: K.Clarke. Positioning in Radiography. 11th Ed.
GRASHEY METHOD (SKULL)
Demonstrates ?
Patient positioned as for AP skull with the OM baseline horizontal. Angle the horizontal
central ray down 30 degrees and centre between the upper borders of the EAMs.
GRASHEY METHODS (FOOT)
Oblique plantodorsal projections of the foot.
Patient prone, dorsal surface of foot in contact with cassette. Centre to the base of the
third metatarsal.
1. To demonstrate the space between the first and second metatarsals, rotate the heel
medially 30 degrees.
2. To demonstrate the spaces between the second and third, the third and fourth, and the
fourth and fifth metatarsals, adjust the foot so that the heel is rotated laterally 20 degrees.
H
HAAS
Demonstrates the petrous temporal region, foraman magnum, and dorsum sellae.
Head in the PA position with the radiographic baseline at right-angles to the film. Centre
in the midline to the external occipital protuberance with the central ray angled 25
degrees cranially.
Ref: Haas, L.(1927).Verfahren zur sagittalen Aufnahme der Sellage gend, Fortscr.
Roentgenstr. 36:1198-1203.
HARRIS
Axial projection of the heel. Useful for demonstrating talo-calcaneal bars.
Patient stands with both feet on the film. The patient leans forward slightly. The tube is
positioned behind the patient and the central ray is angled 45 degrees towards the heels
and is centred between the medial malleolus.
HARRIS AND BEAM (SKI JUMP)
Three axial projections of the calcaneum (both sides).
Patient standing, central ray central ray centred between the feet and the angled 35
degrees, 40 degrees and 45 degrees.
HAYES VIEW
To demonstrate the superior-inferior sacro-iliac joints.
Patient sat upright on the bucky table with their legs over the side. The vertical central
ray is directed along the plane of the sacro-iliac joint in question.
HENKELTOPF
Routine infero-superior view of the zygomatic arches (jug handles).
HENSCHEN
Demonstrates the petrous temporal region.
Head in the lateral position. Centre 5cm above the EAM away from the film, with the
tube angled 15 degrees towards the feet.
HERMODSSON'S VIEW (INTERNAL ROTATION VIEW)
Shoulder view. Patient supine with the humerus horizontal to the top of the table. Arm
adducted to the side of the patient, the humerus is internally rotated 45 degrees, and the
forearm lies across the anterior trunk. Vertical central ray is angled 15 degrees towards
the feet and centred over the humeral head.
Ref: Rockwood and Green's Fractures in Adults, Lippincott.
HERMODSSON'S VIEW (TANGENTIAL)
Shoulder view
Patient prone. The elbow is flexed 90 degrees and the dorsum of the hand is placed
behind the trunk, over the upper lumbar spine. The thumb points upward. The film is
placed superior to the adducted arm. The x-ray tube is placed posterior, lateral and
inferior to the elbow joint, making a 30 degree angle with the humeral axis.
HICKEY (skull)
The profile view of the mastoid region.
HICKEY (HIP)
See Lauenstein and Hickey Methods.
HILL-SACHS VIEW
AP shoulder with arm in marked internal rotation.
HIRTZ
The routine SMV projection.
Some cases overtilt by 15 degrees
HOBB'S VIEW
View of the sterno-clavicular joints.
Centre to the midline at the level of the sterno-clavicular joints.
HOLMBLAD METHOD
View of the knee.
HOUGH METHOD
Projection of the sphenoid strut.
Patient positioned as for a PA skull with the radiographic baseline horizontal. Turn the
head 20 degrees towards the side being examined. The horizontal central ray is angled
downwards by 7 degrees so that is emerges through the orbit on the side being examined.
Ref: Hough, J.E.(1968).Sphenoid strut: parieto-orbital projection, Radiol. Technol.
39:197-209.
HSIEH METHOD
PA oblique projections of the hip. Demonstrates posterior dislocations of the femoral
head.
Patient prone with the unaffected side raised by 45 degrees. Direct the vertical central ray
between the posterior surface of the iliac blade and the femoral head.
Hsieh, C.K.(1936). Posterior dislocation of the hip, Radiology 27:450-455.
HUGHSTON
Patella view.
Ref:: Hughston (1968). Subluxation of the Patella, J. Bone and Joint Surg., 50-A:100326.
I
INLET AND OUTLET VIEWS (PELVIS)
See Pennal's views.
ISHERWOOD METHODS (subtalar region)
1. Projection to demonstrate the anterior subtalar articulation.
Medial border of the foot at a 45 degree angle to the cassette. Centre 2.5cm distal and
2.5cm anterior to the lateral malleolus.
2. Projection to demonstrate the middle articulation of the subtalar joint and give an endon view of the sinus tarsi.
Foot in the AP ankle position. Rotate the ankle 30 degrees medially. Centre to a point
2.5cm distal and 2.5cm anterior to the lateral malleolus with a 10 degree cephalad
angulation.
3. Projection to demonstrate the posterior articulation of the subtalar joint in profile.
Foot in the AP ankle position. Rotate the ankle 30 degrees laterally. Centre to a point
2.5cm distal to the medial malleolus with a 10 degree cephalad angulation.
J
JAROSCHY METHOD
See Hugheston.
JOHNER VIEW
Tangential shoulder view.
Patient supine with the elbow flexed and the forearm resting on the abdomen. Film
placed vertically against the superior aspect of the shoulder. Angle the central ray 20
degrees medially and 20 degrees below the horizontal. Centre to the head of the humerus.
JOHNSON METHOD
An axiolateral projection of the femoral head and neck.
Patient in the AP pelvis position. Place the cassette vertically against the lateral aspect of
the hip of interest. Tilt the cassette backward 25 degrees. Direct the horizontal central ray
25 degrees cephalad and 25 degrees downwards and centre to the femoral neck.
Ref: Johnson,C.R (1932).A new method for roentgenographic examination of the upper
end of the femur, J. Bone Joint Surg. 30:859-866,
JOHNSON AND DUTT
See Dutt's view.
JONES POSITION
View of the elbow in flexion. Demonstrates the olecranon process in profile and the distal
humerus. Place the humerus on the cassette and flex the arm.
Two projections taken, one with the central ray angled at right angles to the forearm (for
olecranon) and another with the central ray angled at right angles to the humerous (for
distal humerus).
JUDET VIEWS
Oblique views of the acetabulum.
1. Raise the affected side by 45 degrees and centre to the affected hip.
2. Raise the unaffected side by 45 degrees and centre to the affected hip.
Ref: K.Clarke. Positioning in Radiography. 11th Ed.
JUG HANDLE VIEW
SMV projection of the zygomatic arches.
K
KANDEL METHOD
Suroplantar projection to demonstrate clubfoot.
The patient stands on the cassette. The vertical central ray is angled 40 degrees and
directed to the heel so that it emerges from the midfoot.
Ref: Kandel, B. (1952). The suroplantar projection in the congenital clubfoot of the
infant, Acta Orthop. Scand. 22:161-173.
KASABACH METHOD
Oblique projection of the odontoid process.
Patient supine. Rotate the head 45 degrees away from the side being examined. Angle the
vertical central ray 10 degrees caudal and centre to a point midway between the outer
canthus and the EAM.
Ref: Kasabach, H.H. (1939). A roentgenographic method for the study of the second
cervical vertebrae, A.J.R 42:782-785.
KEMP-HARPER METHOD
SMV projection of the jugular foramina.
Patient with back to the vertical bucky.
Chin elevated until the OM line is vertical. Angle the horizontal central ray 20 degrees
downwards. Centre below the chin so that the central ray passes between and through the
EAM on the side in question.
Ref: Kemp Harper, R.A.(1957). Glomus jugulare tumors of the temporal bone, J.Fac.
Radiologists 8:325-334.
KISCH METHOD
See Friedman method.
KITE METHODS
Projections to demonstrate clubfoot.
True lateral and dorsoplantar projections of the foot.
KNUTSSON METHOD
Skyline patella.
Ref: The Journal of Bone and Joint Surger (1974). 56-A, NO.7, October
KOVACS METHOD
Profile image of the lowermost lumbar intervertebral foramen.
Patient lies on the affected side and then rotate the pelvis 30 degrees anteriorly. Centre
along a straight line extending from the superior edge of the uppermost iliac crest through
the fifth lumbar segment to the inguinal region of the dependent side.
Ref: Kovacs, A. (1950) .X-ray examination of the exit of the lowermost lumbar root,
Radiol. Clin. 19:6-13.
KUCHENDORF METHOD
Oblique PA projection of the patella.
Patient prone, elevate the hip on the affected side and slightly flex the knee. Centre to the
joint space between the patella and the femoral condyles at an angle of 30 degrees caudal.
KURZBAUER METHOD
Unobstructed lateral projection of the sterno-clavicular articulation.
Patient lies on the affected side with the arm of that side next to the head. Vertical central
ray directed 15 degrees caudal and centred to the lowermost sterno-clavicular
articulation.
L
LAQUERRIERE AND PIERQUIN METHOD
Ulnar groove projection.
Ref: K.Clarke. Positioning in Radiography. 11th Ed.
LAUENSTEIN AND HICKEY METHODS
Lateral hip projection demonstrating the acetabulum and upper end of femur.
LAUENSTEIN
Routine turned lateral hip projection.
LAUENSTEIN AND HICKEY METHOD
As for turned lateral hip but angle the vertical central, ray 20 degrees cephalad.
LAURINS VIEW
View of the patella.
LAW
Demonstrate the petrous temporal region.
Head in the lateral position, then rotate the head 15 degrees towards the film. Centre 5cm
above and 5cm behind the EAM away from the film with the tube angled 15 degrees
towards the feet.
LAW METHOD (FACIAL BONES)
Projection to demonstrate the floor and posterior wall of the antrum.
Patient sitting PA with the head fully extended so that the chin and zygoma of the side of
interest, and the nose, are in contact with the cassette. Angle the central ray upward 30
degrees from the horizontal and centre to the lower antrum.
Ref: Law, F.M.(1933). Nasal accessory sinuses, Ann. Roentgenol. 15:32-51, 53-76.
LAWRENCE METHOD
Lateral view of the proximal humerus.
Supine, horizontal beam axial shoulder.
LAWRENCE METHOD
Transthoracic lateral humerus.
LENTINO METHOD
See carpal bridge view.
LEONARD-GEORGE METHOD
Demonstrates the femoral head and neck.
Patient supine. A curved cassette is placed on the medial aspect of the leg of interest
(between the thighs). Direct the central ray perpendicular to the femoral neck.
LEQUESNE METHOD (FALSE PROFILE VIEW)
View of the acetabulum in profile.
Patient standing with their back against the vertical bucky. Move the unaffected hip
forward so that the pelvis makes an angle of 60 degrees with the bucky. Central the
horizontal central ray the affected hip. See also Urist's view.
LETOURNEL VIEW
Iliac wing view.
LEWIS METHOD
The routine view of the sesamoid bones of the first metatarsal.
Ref: K.Clarke. Positioning in Radiography. 11th Ed.
LILIENFELD (CALCANEUM)
See coalition view.
LILIENFELD (HIP)
A posterolateral projection of the ileum and acetabulum.
Patient prone then raise the unaffected side by 75 degrees. Centre at the level of the
greater trochanter of the hip in contact with the film.
LILIENFELD (SYMPHYSIS PUBIS)
An superoinferior projection of the pubic and ischial bones and symphysis pubis.
Position as for AP pelvis then raise the body by 45 degrees. Centre in the midline at the
level of the greater trochanter. See also Staunig Method.
LINDBOLM
AP lordotic chest.
Patient leans back 30+ dgerees, centre to mid sternum.
LODGE-MOOR PROJECTIONS
Lateral oblique projections to demonstrate the cervical articular facets (four views in
total). Patient supine with the X-ray tube on the right hand side. First projection with the
patients right side elevated by 20 degrees. Second projection with patients left side
elevated by 20 degrees. For both views, centre the horizontal central ray to C5. When the
raised side is nearest to the tube then angle 5 degrees cephalad. When the raised side is
away from the tube then angle 5 degrees caudal. Repeat the two projections from the left
side.
LORENTZ METHOD (MODIFICATION)
See Danellus-Miller method.
LOW-BEER METHOD
Parietotemporal projection.
Position the head in the lateral position. Angle the horizontal central ray upward 10
degrees and anteriorly 33 degrees. Centre to the back of the head so that the beam enters
at the level of the lower orbital margin and passes through the foraman magnum.
Similar appearances to Stenvers view.
LOWENSTEIN'S VIEW
Routine frog lateral hips.
LYSHOLM METHOD
Profile view of the petrosa, IAM, and the mastoid cells. Head in the lateral position then
rotate 15 degrees towards the affected side. Angle the central ray 30 degrees from the
vertical and centre through the foraman magnum.
M
MAY View
View to demonstrate the zygomatic arch.
Head in the PA position with the chin raised as far as possible. The head is then rotated
15 degrees away from the side being examined. Centre through the zygomatic arch, with
the tube angled towards the feet so that the central ray is at right-angles to the
radiographic baseline.
MACNAB'S VIEW
View of the patella.
MACQUEEN-DELL
Transpharyngeal view of the head of the mandibular condyle.
The film is parallel to the median sagittal plane and centred to the EAM of the affected
side. The central ray is angled 5 degrees cranially and 5 degrees posteriorly towards the
condyle to be examined.
MARTZ AND TAYLOR
Two AP projections of the pelvis to demonstrate the relationship of the femoral head to
the acetabulum in patients with CDH.
First projection with the central ray at right angles to the symphysis pubis.
Second projection with the central ray directed 45 degrees towards the head and centred
to the symphysis pubis. This casts an anteroirly displaced femoral head above the
acetabulum. A posteriorly displaced head is cast below the acetabulum.
Ref: Martz and Taylor (1954). The 45 degree angle roentgenographic study of the pelvis
in congenital dislocation of the hip, J.Bone Joint Surg. 36-A:528-532.
MAYER
To demonstrate the petrous temporal region.
Patient in the AP position with the radiographic baseline at right-angles to the film.
Rotate the head 45 degrees towards the side being examined, and centre through the
EAM nearest the film, with the tube angled 45 degrees towards the feet.
MERCEDES VIEW
Routine superior-inferior axial shoulder view, or lateral scapula view
MERCHANT'S VIEW
View of the patella. Patient supine. Knees flexed 45 degrees over the end of the table.
Position femora so that they are parallel to the table top. Place knees and feet together.
Angle the central ray 30 degrees from the horizontal ( 30 degrees to femora). Centre
midway between patellae.
Ref: Merchant, A, et al (1975). Reontgenographic Analysis of Patellofemoral
Congruance, J. Bone and Joint Surg., 56-A: 1391-96, Oct.
MILLER METHOD
Projection of the hypoglossal canal.
Patient positioned as for an AP skull with the radiographic baseline horizontal. Rotate the
head 45 degrees towards the side in question. The horizontal central ray is angled
downwards an unknown number of degrees so that it passes through the foraman
magnum.
MILLER'S VIEW
To demonstrate anterior or posterior dislocation of the shoulder.
The patient is positioned as for the routine trauma shoulder view. The tube is then angled
45 degrees towards the feet and centred to the glenoid.
If the head of the humerus is projected below the glenoid then the dislocation is anterior.
If the head of the humerus is projected above the glenoid then the dislocation is posterior.
MODIFIED CLEAVES
Hip view. Frog view with the thighs abducted to approx. 40 degrees. Centre 2.5cm above
the symphysis pubis.
MODIFIED FUCHS METHOD
Projection of the temporal styloid process. Details not known.
MORTISE VIEW
True AP ankle.
N
NOLKE METHOD
Projection of the upper sacral canal.
Patient sits upright on the bucky table with the feet over the side of the table and leans
forward. Centre to the sacrum.
NORGAADS VIEW (BALL CATCHERS VIEW)
Projection of both hands. Supination of each hand to an angle of 35 degrees . Centre
midway between the heads of the fifth metacarpals.
O
OPPENHEIM'S VIEW
Cephaloscapular projection.
X-ray beam passed from superior to inferior across the glenoid face to a cassette behind
the patient who is leaning forward.
OUTLET VIEW
See supraspinatus outlet view.
P
PAWLOW METHOD
Swimmer's view with the patient on their side.
PEARSON METHOD
A bilateral AP projection of the acromoclavicular joints. Both joints taken in one expose
on a wide film.
PENNAL'S VIEWS (TILE'S VIEW)
Trauma views to show the pelvic inlet and outlet.
VIEW 1
Patient positioned as for an AP pelvis. Angle the central ray 40 degrees caudally and
centre midway between the ASIS.
VIEW 2
Patient positioned as for an AP pelvis. Angle the central ray 40 degrees cranially and
centre in the midline 4cm below the upper border of the symphysis pubis.
Ref: Tile M. and Pennal G. Fractures of the Pelvis. Chapter 15.
PILLAR VIEWS
Cervical spine views to demonstrate the posterior intervertebral joints.
Position as for AP cervical spine. Take two exposures, one with the head rotated at rightangles to the left and one with the head rotated at right-angles to the to the right. Angle
the vertical central ray 30 degrees towards the feet. Centre just behind the angle of the
mandible with the top of the cassette at the level of the EAM.
Ref: K.Clarke. Positioning in Radiography, 11th Ed, p157.
PIRIE
This is the routine OM 30 sinus view with the mouth open.
Ref: Goldman and Cope. A Radiographic Index. Wright Publishing, Bristol..
PORCHER-POROT
Oblique transmaxillary view of the foramen jugulare.
The radiographic baseline is vertical. The tube is angled 55 degrees cranially. The head is
then rotated 40 degrees away from the affected side. Centre midway between the EAM
and the angle of the mouth on the affected side.
PRAYER POSITION
Lateral calcanei.
Legs abducted and the planar surfaces of the feet placed together. Centre between the
heels.
Q
QUESADA METHOD
Projections of the clavicle. Patient prone.
1. Centre to the midpoint of the clavicle at an angle of 45 degrees caudal.
2. Centre to the midpoint of the clavicle at an angle of 45 degrees cephalad.
Ref: Quesada, F (1926). Technique for the roentgen diagnosis of fractures of the clavicle,
Surg. Gynecol. Obstet. 42:424-428.
R
REVERSE TOWNES
Demonstrates the condyles, condylar heads and condylar hypo/hyperplasia.
PA Townes ( half-axial skull) with 30 degree angulation.
REVERSE WATERS
Method (AP) facial bones.
RHESE METHOD
The routine PA oblique of the optic foramen
Ref: K. Clarke. Positioning in Radiography, 10th ed.
RIPPSTEIN METHOD
Foreshortened view of the femurs and femoral neck.
Requires a Rippstein leg support.
Patient supine with the hips flexed 90 degrees and abducted 20 degrees. The legs are
parallel in a Rippstein leg support. Vertical central ray centred to the symphysis pubis.
Ref: Rippstein, J. (1955). On Assesment of the Neck of the Femur by Means of Two Xrays. Z. Orthop. 86; 345-360.
RISSER METHOD
Demonstrates both iliac crests and epiphysis.
Patient supine. Centre to the iliac crests.
Ref: Risser, J.C.(1958). The Iliac Apophysis: An invaluable sign in the management of
scoliosis, Clin. Orthop. 11: 111-119.
ROCHER
AP Skull centred through orbits
ROBERT'S VIEW
True AP thumb.
ROSENBERG METHOD
45 degree posteroanterior flexion weight-bearing view of the knee.
Ref: Rosenburg T. et al. The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery
S
SANSREGRET MODIFICATION OF CHAUSSE III METHOD
Slight oblique projection of the petrosa and attic wall.
Patient supine. Rotate the head 10 degrees away from the side of interest. Adjust the
infraorbitomeatal line so that it is 30 degrees from the vertical. Centre to a point 2.5 cm
medial to the EAM at the level of the upper orbital margin on the affected side.
Ref: Sansgret, A.(1963), Technique for the study of the middle ear, A.J.R. 90:1156-1166.
SCHNEIDER METHOD
Demonstrates the upper contour of the femoral head.
1. Patient supine with the femour flexed 60 degrees.
2. Patient supine with the femour flexed 30 degrees.
Vertical central ray centred to the hip joint.
SCHULLER
Lateral view of the petrous temporal region.
SERENDIPITY VIEW
View of the sterno-clavicular joints.
Patient supine. Angle the horizontal central ray 40 degrees towards the head. Centre
midway between the sterno-clavicular joints.
SETTEGAST METHOD
Tangential projection of the patella.
Patient prone. Knee flexed to at least 90 degrees . Centre to the patellofemoral joint
space. The degree of angle is dependent on the amount of knee flexion but should be 1520 degrees towards the joint space.
SIMMONS VIEWS
To demonstrate congenital talipes equinovarus.
1.AP of both feet with the x-ray tube angled 30 degrees to the hindfoot.
2.AP of each foot with the foot held in the position of fullest correction. The x-ray tube is
angled 30 degrees to the hindfoot.
3.Lateral of each foot. The film is placed against the medial aspect of the foot and a
horizontal beam is used.
Ref: Simmons G.W (1977), Analytical radiographs of club foot. Journal of bone and joint
surgery. 59B(4): 485-9.
STAUNIG METHOD
An inferosuperior projection of the pubic and ischial bones and symphysis pubis.
Patient prone. Centre to the symphysis pubis with the central ray angled 35 degrees
cephalad.
See also Lilienfeld Method.
STECHER METHODS
Projections of the scaphoid.
1. PA wrist position with the cassette inclined by 20 degrees so that the hand is higher
than the wrist. Centre to the scaphoid.
Bridgeman view has the wrist in ulnar flexion.
2. PA wrist position with the forearm horizontal and the central ray angled 20 degrees
towards the elbow. Similar projection to 1.
3. PA wrist position with the fist clenched. This position tends to widen the fracture line.
Ref: Stecher, W.R. (1937). Roentgenography of the carpal navicular bone, A.J.R. 37:704705.
STENVER
Oblique view of the petrous temporal region.
Ref: K. Clark, Positioning in Radiography, 11th Ed.
STOCKHOLM C
Similar to Stenver's view but designed for use with a skull unit.
Head in the lateral position, with the centre of the bucky 2.5cm in front of the EAM and
1cm above the orbitimeatal line. The tube is angled 10 degrees towards the head, and 30
degrees towards the face. The grid must be rotated accordingly.
Ref: Goldman and Cope. A Radiographic Index. Wright Publishing, Bristol..
STORK METHOD
See Flamingo view.
STRYKER'S VIEW
Technique:
- the patient is supine;
- a cassette is placed under the involved shoulder
- the palm of the hand of the affected extremity is placed on top
of the head with the fingers toward the back of the head;
- the beam is centered over the occur;
- coracoid process and tilted 10 deg cephalad;
Demonstrates defects in the posterolateral aspect of the humeral head
Ref: K.Clarke. Positioning in Radiography. 11th Ed.
SUPRASPINATUS OUTLET VIEW
Modification of the scapular Y (transscapular) view. Demonstrates the anterior third of
the acromion.
Patient standing and position 30-40 degrees posterior obliquely or 40-60 degrees anteriorobliquely, and the horizontal central ray is angled 10-15 degrees caudally.
Demonstrates Shoulder Impingment.
SWANSON METHOD
See Dunlop method.
T
TALAR NECK VIEW
Foot view.
Patient lies supine. The knee is flexed so that the sole of the foot is in contact with the
cassette then internally rotate the foot by 15 degrees. The vertical central ray is angled 15
degrees towards and centred to the midfoot.
TARRANT METHOD
A method to demonstrate the clavicle projected above the thoracic cage.
Patient sitting with the cassette on the lap. Central ray directed from behind the patient to
the clavicle. The central ray is at right angles to the coronal plane of the clavicle.
Ref: Tarrant, R.M. 91950). The axial view of the clavicle, X-ray Techn. 21:358-359.
TAYLOR METHOD (MASTOID)
SMV projection to demonstrate the mastoid processes,IAM ,EAM and inferior petrosal
sinuses.
Patient sitting, OM line vertical. Centre to the midline 2.5cm anterior to the level of the
EAM at an upward angle of 20 degrees.
Ref: Taylor, H.K. (1931). The roentgen findings in suppuration of the petrous apex, Ann
Otol. Rhinol. Laryngol 40:367-395.
TAYLOR METHOD (PELVIS)
An inferosuperior projection of the pubic and ischial rami.
Position as for AP pelvis. Centre 5cm distal to the upper border of the symphysis pubis
with a 25 degree cephalad angulation (male) or a 40 degree cephalad angulation (female).
TEMPLETON AND ZIM METHOD
Superoinferior carpal tunnel projection.
The forearm is placed at right angles to the cassette with the hand in contact with the
cassette. Direct the vertical central ray through the carpal tunnel at an angle of 40 degrees
towards the fingers.
Ref: Templeton, A.W., and Zim, I.D.(1964). The carpal tunnel view, Mo. Med. 61:443444.
See also Gaynor-Hart method.
TEUFEL METHOD
Acetabulum and femoral head margin including the fovea capitis.
Patient in 35-40 degrees anterior oblique position. Centre 2.5cm superior to the level of
the greater trochanter. Central ray angled 12 degrees cephalic.
THOMS’ METHOD (AP, PELVIC INLET)
Pelvimetry view.
Requires the use of the Thoms’ positioning device (patient positioning platform with
backrest).
The patient is seated on the positioning device at an angle of 50 degrees. The backrest is
then adjusted to bring the plane of the pelvic inlet parallel to the plane of the film. Abduct
legs and place posterior indicator arm of device against the area of L4/L5. Anterior
indicator arm is positioned between the legs against the pelvis, 1 cm below the symphysis
pubis.
Centre vertical central ray 6cm posterior to the symphysis pubis.
THOMS’ METHOD (LATERAL)
Pelvimetry view.
Patient standing in the lateral position. Metal centimetre marked ruler is placed between
the buttocks against the sacrum. Horizontal central ray directed to a point between the
symphysis pubis and the depressed area located inferior to L5.
TIEGE'S VIEW
Trauma axillary view.
Patient supine with the cassette above the shoulder. The forearm is brought across the
chest and the horizontal central ray is centred to the shoulder joint.
TILE
See Pennal’s view.
TITTERINGTON
The routine OM 30 view.
TOWNES
The routine half-axial view of the skull.
Ref: K.Clarke. Positioning in Radiography. 11th Ed.
TUBEROSITY VIEW
View of the elbow.
Elbow AP, angle 20 degrees towards the olecranon. Various degrees of rotation are used.
TWINNING METHOD
Swimmer's view for C7/T1
U
URIST'S VIEW
View of the acetabular rim in profile. Patient supine, injured side elevated 60 degrees.
See also Lequesne method.
V
VEIHWEGER METHOD
Ulnar groove projection.
Ref: Positioning in Radiography , K.Clarke, 11th ed.
VALDINI
Demonstrates the squamous portion of the occipital bone and the foramen magnum.
Head in the PA position with the chin tucked in as far as possible and the frontal region
resting on the film, with the radiographic base-line tilted 45-50 degrees downwards.
Centre in the midline at the level of the EAM.
Ref: Goldman and Cope. A Radiographic Index. Wright Publishing, Bristol..
VELPEAU VIEW
Axillary lateral view of the shoulder.
Patient stands with their back against the table and leads backwards. Centre the vertical
central ray to the shoulder joint.
Ref: Rockwood and Green's Fractures in Adults, Lippincott.
VOGT BONE-FREE PROJECTIONS
AP and lateral views of the eye using dental film.
W
WALLACE-HELLIER VIEW
View of the shoulder.
The patient sits with their back to the table and the affected shoulder is turned towards the
table so that the blade of the scapula is parallel to the table side. The vertical central ray is
angled 30 degrees towards the anterior aspect of the shoulder. Centre to the shoulder
joint.
Ref: Wallace H A and Hellier M, Improving radiographs of the injured shoulder,
Radiography, 1983, 49, 229-233.
WATERS
The routine OM view of the sinuses.
Ref: K.Clarke. Positioning in Radiography. 11th Ed.
WEST POINT SHOULDER (WEST POINT AXILLARY LATERAL)
Patient prone. Shoulder raised on a pad. Head turned away from affected side. Cassette
against superior aspect of shoulder. Centre to the axilla. Angle 25 degrees downward
from the horizontal and 25 degrees medially. This gives a tangential view of the
anteroinferior rim of the glenoid.
WIGBY-TAYLOR METHOD
Open mouth oblique projection of the styloid process of the skull.
Position the patient as for an AP skull then rotate the head 78 degrees to the affected side.
Angle the central ray cranially 8 degrees and centre to the styloid process nearest the
film.
Both sides for comparison.
WILLIAMS METHOD
Projection to demonstrate the costovertebral and costotransverse joints.
Patient supine. Angle the central ray 20 degrees cephalad and centre to the sixth thoracic
vertebrae.
WINDOW VIEW
Demonstrates the kidneys during an IVP in an infant.
Child positioned as for an AP abdomen. Angle the vertical central ray 35 degrees towards
the feet. This projects the kidneys through the liver on the right and the stomach on the
left.
Ref: RADIOGRAPHY; XLV:538.
WORMS
AP skull
25 degree angle between OM baseline and central ray
Y
Y VIEW
Axial shoulder or lateral scapula.
Z
ZANCA'S VIEW
As for the routine view of the ACJ but with a 10-15 degree cephalic tilt of the x-ray
beam.
ZANELLI METHOD
Projection to demonstrate the TMJs in the open and closed positions.Patient lateral with
the head 30 degrees away from the vertical i.e. top of head against the cassette. Centre
2.5cm anterior to the EAM.
ZIMMERS VIEW
Transorbital TMJ view.
Patient holds cassette behind TMJ. Mouth open wide. Position the tube at the outer
canthus of the opposite eye and aim downwards and backwards across the orbit to the
condyle under investigation.
Ref: Eric Whaites , Essentials of Dental Radiography and Radiology Churchill
Livingston.
ZITER'S VIEW
Scaphoid view.
Wrist PA with ulnar deviation. Angle the tube 25 degrees up towards the elbow. Centre
between the styloid processes.
Ref: Radiography (1983), 49, 229-233.
Adapted from a list by A.J.Watkins LLB(Hons), DCR(R), SRR, BSc(Hons), FGS