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Supplemental Table 1. Bacterial VLPs.
Virus
Expression system
VLP properties
Application
References
bacterial; E.coli,
tryptophan promoter
icosahedral or tubular
particles 25 nm in diameter
demonstration of tubular
VLP formation after AA
exchange in CP sequence
Cielens et al., 2000
yeast, S. cerevisiae or
Pichia pastoris; Gal7
or AOX1 promoter
icosahedral particles
demonstration of VLP
production in yeast
Freivalds et al.,, 2006
cell free system
T7 promoter
icosahedral particles
production of cytotoxic
A2-containing VLPs
Smith et al., 2012
different vaccine
applications
reviews:
Bachmann, Jennings, 2011,
Maurer, Bachmann, 2007
Leviviridae ssRNA(+)
Alloleviviruses
Enterobacteria phage
Qbeta (Qβ)
Leviviruses
Bacteriophage
MS2
bacterial; E.coli;
lac promoter
indistinguishable from
intact MS2 in EM analysis
translational studies of
bacteriophage MS2
Peabody, 1990
yeast, S. cerevisiae;
Gal10 promoter
icosahedral particles
27 nm in diameter
potential gene delivery
agent
Legendre, Fastrez, 2005
cell-free synthesis
T7 promoter
icosahedral particles
27 nm in diameter
demonstration of high yield
VLP production
Bundy et al., 2008
Pseudomonas phage
PP7
bacterial; E.coli;
T7 promoter
not described
translational studies
Lim et al., 2001
Enterobacteria phage
fr
bacterial; E.coli
tryptophan promoter
icosahedral particles
25 nm in diameter
demonstration of high yield
VLP production
Kozlovskaia et al., 1986
Pushko et al., 1993
Enterobacteria phage
GA
bacterial; E.coli;
tryptophan promoter
indistinguishable from
native phage
construction of hybrid
VLPs
Rumnieks et al., 2009
yeast, S. cerevisiae or
Pichia pastoris;
Gal or AOX1 promoter
icosahedral particles
demonstration of VLP production
in yeast expression systems
Freivalds et al., 2008
Acinetobacter phage
AP205
bacterial; E.coli;
tryptophan promoter
icosahedral particles
VLP carrier for epitope
presentation
Tissot et al., 2010
Caulobacter phage
phiCb5
bacterial; E.coli;
T7 promoter
icosahedral particles
24 nm in diameter
phiCb5 3D structural
studies
Plevka et al., 2009
Pseudomonas phage
PRR1
bacterial; E.coli;
araBAD promoter
icosahedral particles
PRR1 3D structural
studies
Perssonet al., 2008
Supplemental Table 2. Plant VLPs.
Virus
Expression system
VLP properties
Application
References
rod-shaped particles;
50 nm in length
VLP assembly studies
Tremblay et al., 2006
epitope presentation
Denis et al., 2007
rod-shaped particles
after in vitro assembly
RNA binding studies
Kwon et al., 2005
T=1 empty icosahedral particles,
average diameter - 19 nm
crystallization and X-ray analysis
of empty particles
Yusibov et al., 1996
plants; transgenic N. tabacum,
Western blot positive
Spinacea oleracea; AlMV and TMV
vectors, subgenomic promoters
experimental rabies vaccine
Yusibov et al., 2002
yeast; strain YPH500
GAL1 promoter
VLP cryoelectronmicroscopy
structure studies
Krol et al., 1999
Alphaflexiviridae ssRNA(+)
Potexviruses
Papaya mosaic virus
(PapMV)
Potato virus X
(PVX)
bacterial; E. coli, T7 promoter
bacterial; E. coli, T7 promoter
Bromoviridae ssRNA(+)
Alfamoviruses
Alfalfa mosaic virus
(AlMV)
bacterial; E.coli,
trc (trp-lac) promoter
Bromoviruses
Brome mosaic virus
(BMV)
120- and 180-subunit capsids,
25 and 28 nm in diameter
plant; TMV vector
icosahedral particles
22-28 nm in diameter
nucleic acid packaging
studies
Choi et al, 2000
icosahedral particles
after refolding
studies of the role of CP domains
Zhao et al., 1995
bacterial; Pseudomonas
fluorescens, tac promoter
icosahedral particles
production of T=3 particles,
demonstration of host
nucleic acid encapsidation;
Phelps et al., 2007
yeast; P. pastoris
AOX1 promoter
icosahedral particles,
28, 24 and 18 nm
in diameter
production of T=3, psaudo-T2
and T1 particles
Brumfield et al., 2004
different nanotechnological
applications
Review:
Soto, Ratna, 2010
Cowpea chlorotic mottle bacterial; E.coli, T7 promoter,
virus (CCMV)
inclusion bodies
Cucumoviruses
Cucumber mosaic
virus (CMV)
bacterial; E. coli, T7 promoter,
inclusion bodies
tubular VLPs after refolding,
several micrometers in lenght
nucleic acid encapsidation
Xu et al., 2008
plant; N. bentamiana
PVX based vector
isometric particles
13-60 nm in diameter
epitope presentation
Natilla et al., 2006
isometric particles
about 20 nm in diameter
production of His-tagged VLPs
Lamb et al., 1996
Luteoviridae ssRNA(+)
Poleroviruses
Potato leafroll virus
(PLRV)
insect; S. frugiperda cells;
baculovirus vector
Potyviridae ssRNA(+)
Potyviruses
Johnsongrass mosaic
virus (JGMV)
bacterial; E. coli, tac promoter,
yeast; S. cerevisiae
flexous particles,
13 nm in diameter,
different lengths
bacterial; E. coli, T7 promoter
demonstration of VLP
production in E.coli and S. cerevisiae
Jagadish et al., 1991
epitope presentation
Saini, Vrati, 2003
mammalian; human osteomyeloma cells, vaccinia vector
bundles of flexous
particles
demonstration of VLP
formation in mammalian cells
Hammond et al., 1998
Plum pox virus
(PPV)
bacterial; E. coli, T5 promoter
flexous particles
VLP assembly studies
Jacquet et al., 1998
Potato virus A
(PVA)
bacterial; E. coli
flexous particles
epitope presentation
Pokorna et al., 2005
Potato virus Y
(PVY)
bacterial; E. coli, T7 promoter
flexous particles,
11 x 30-2000 nm
epitope and protein domain
presentation
Kalnciema et al., 2011
Sugarcane streak mosaic bacterial; E. coli, T7 promoter
virus (SCSMV)
flexous particles,
different lengths
nucleic acid packaging
studies
Hema et al., 2008
Tobacco etch virus
(TEV)
bacterial; E. coli, T7 promoter
flexous particles
12-15 x 90-750 nm
VLP assembly studies
Voloudakis et al., 2004
plant; transgenic rice,
isometric doubleshelled particles
demonstration of VLP
production in trangenic plants
Zheng et al., 2000
insect, S. frugiperda cells;
baculovirus vector
isometric doubleshelled particles
demonstration of VLP
production in insect cells
Miyazaki et al., 2010
Reoviridae dsRNA
Phytoreoviruses
Rice dwarf virus
(RDV)
Secoviridae ssRNA(+)
Comoviruses
Cowpea mosaic virus
(CPMV)
insect; S. frugiperda cells;
baculovirus vector
icosahedral particles
production of VLPs in insect cells
Shanks, Lomonossoff, 2000
plant; N. benthamiana
Agrobacterium vector
indistinguishable from
wild-type CPMV
VLP formation studies
in different expression systems
Saunders et al., 2009
different immunological
and nanotechnological applications
reviews:
Montague et al. 2011,
Soto, Ratna, 2010
Nepoviruses
Arabis mosaic virus
(ArMV)
insect; S. frugiperda cells;
baculovirus vector
plant; transgenic N. tabacum
isometric particles
demonstration of VLP
production in insect cells
Bertioli et al., 1991
Tobacco Ringspot Virus
(TobRV)
insect; S. frugiperda cells;
baculovirus vector
isometric particles
19-30 nm in diameter
VLP cryoelectronmicroscopy
structure studies
Singh et al., 1995
isometric T=1 particles
20 nm in diameter
VLP 3D structure analysis
Lane et al., 2011
icosahedral particles,
27, 22 and 17 nm in diameter
production of T=3, psaudo-T2
and T1 particles
Lokesh et al., 2002
VLP 3D structural studies
review:
Savithri, Murthy 2010
Satellite viruses
Satellite tobacco necrosis bacterial; E. coli, T7 promoter
virus (STNV)
Sobemoviruses ssRNA(+)
Sesbania mosaic virus
(SeMV)
bacterial; E. coli, T7 promoter
Tombusviridae ssRNA(+)
Tombusviruses
Tomato bushy stunt
virus (TBSV)
insect; S. frugiperda cells;
baculovirus vector
icosahedral particles,
approx. 35 nm in diameter
display of epitopes on VLP surface
Kumar et al., 2009
30 nm spherical particles
RNA encapsidation studies
Hammond, Hammond, 2010
plant; PVX vector based transient 30 nm spherical particles
expression in N. bentamiana
VLPs as peptide carrier
Natilla, Hammond, 2011
Physalis mottle virus
(PhMV)
bacterial; E. coli, T7 promoter
icosahedral particles,
29 nm, T=3 symmetry
VLP formation studies
Sastri et al., 1997
Turnip yellow mosaic
virus (TYMV)
bacterial; E. coli, T7 promoter
icosahedral particles,
28–30 nm in diameter
VLP formation and
virus infection studies
Powell et al., 2012
rod-shaped particles
10-140 nm in lenght (bacteria)
10-330 nm (plants)
RNA encapsidation studies
Bragard et al., 2000
Tymoviridae ssRNA(+)
Marafiviruses
Maize rayado fino virus
(MRFV)
bacterial; E. coli, T7 promoter
Tymoviruses
Virgaviridae ssRNA(+)
Pecluviruses
Indian peanut clump
virus (IPCV)
bacterial; E. coli, T7 promoter
plant; transgenic N. bentamiana
Tobamoviruses
Tobacco mosaic
virus (TMV)
bacterial; E. coli, T7 promoter
helical particles
of different length
VLP formation studies
in presence of specific RNA
Hwang et al., 1994
different nanotechnological
and immunological applications
Reviews: Soto, Ratna, 2010;
Plummer, Manchester, 2010
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Supplemental Table 3. Mammalian VLPs.
Virus
Expression system
VLP properties
Application
References
insect; S. frugiperda, T. ni,
baculovirus vector
dodecahedral VLPs
49 nm between tips
gene delivery studies
Fender et al., 1997
enveloped VLPs
100 - 250 nm in diameter
immunological studies
Branco et al., 2010
insect; S. frugiperda,
baculovirus vector
spherical particles
38 nm in diameter
foreign protein carrier,
assembly studies
Caballero et al., 2004
mammalian; monkey kidney
cells, vaccinia virus vector
spherical particles
similar to the authentic HAstV
demonstration of VLP formation
Dalton et al., 2003
Adenoviridae dsDNA
Mastadenoviruses
Human adenovirus B
(type 3) (Ad3)
Arenaviridae ssRNA(-)
Arenaviruses
Lassa virus (LASV)
mammalian, human cell line
HEK-293T/17
Astroviridae ssRNA(+)
Mamastroviruses
human astrovirus
serotype 1 (HAstV-1)
Birnaviridae dsRNA
Avibirnaviruses
Infectious bursal disease bacterial; E. coli, T7 promoter
virus IBDV
similar to the authentic
IBDV
demonstration of VLP formation
after polyprotein expression
Rogel et al., 2003
insect; S. frugiperda cells;
baculovirus vector
immunologically
similar to authenthic IBDV
neutralizing antibody
formation after immunizations
Vakharia et al., 1993
yeast; S. cerevisiae;
Gal1 promoter
spherical particles
20 nm in diameter
recombinant VP2 antigen-based
ELISA kit
Dey et al., 2009
demonstration of VLP formation
Fernández et al., 1998
mammalian; monkey BSC-1 cells, spherical particles
Vaccinia virus vector
approx. 60 nm in diameter
Bunyaviridae ssRNA(-)
Phleboviruses
Rift valley fever virus
(RVFV)
insect; S. frugiperda
baculovirus vector
nucleocapsid like-particles
demonstration of VLP formation
Liu et al., 2008
mammalian; hamster
CHO cells
round particles
approx.100 nm in diameter
immunological studies
Li et al., 2010
similar in size to
the authentic RHDV
VLP production for
immunological studies
Boga et al., 1997
Hantaviruses
Hantaan virus
(HTNV)
Caliciviridae ssRNA(+)
Lagoviruses
Rabbit hemorrhagic
disease virus (RHDV)
yeast; S. cerevisiae ;
PGK promoter
yeast; P.pastoris,
AOX1 promoter
spherical particles,
approx. 30 nm in diameter
high-level production
for animal vaccinations
Farnós et al., 2009
insect; S. frugiperda cells;
baculovirus vector
similar in size to the
authentic RHDV
VLP production for
immunological studies
Laurent et al., 1994
insect; S. frugiperda cells;
baculovirus vector
icosahedral particles,
40 nm in diameter
structural and
immunological studies
Koho et al., 2012
insect; S. frugiperda
baculovirus vector
empty particles
35 nm in diameter
candidate vaccine against
FCV infections
Di Martino et al., 2007
bacterial, E. coli, T7 promoter
particles similar to authentic
demonstration of VLP formation
Yin et al., 2010
Severe acute respiratory insect; S. frugiperda,
syndrome-related corona baculovirus vector
virus (SARS-CoV)
spherical VLPs
approx.100 nm in diameter
immunological studies
Lu et al., 2007
Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV)
spherical VLPs
100-120 nm in diameter
physiological studies
Baudoux et al., 1998
Noroviruses
Norovirus GII.4
NoV
Vesiviruses
Feline calicivirus (FCV)
Circoviridae ssDNA
Circoviruses
Porcine circovirus
(PCV)
Coronaviridae ssRNA(+)
Betacoronaviruses
mammalian; rabbit cell line,
vaccinia virus vector
Filoviridae ssRNA(-)
Ebolaviruses
Ebola virus (EBOV)
mammalian; human kidney
cells, pWRG 7077 vector
similar to the authentic
Ebola virus
protective immunity
after vaccination with VLPs
Warfield, et al., 2003
mammalian; human kidney
cells, pWRG 7077 vector
similar to the authentic
Marburg virus
protective immunity
after vaccination with VLPs
Warfield et al., 2004
bacterial; E. coli, T5 promoter
spherical nucleocapsid particles
approx. 31 nm in diameter
demonstration of VLP formation
after in vitro assembly
López et al., 2009
yeast; P.pastoris
AOX1 promoter
spherical particles
30-55 nm in diameter
vaccine candidate
against Dengue virus
Liu et al., 2010
mammalian; human kidney
cells, pcDNA5/FRT vector
spherical particles
45-55 nm in diameter
subunit vaccine candidate
Zhang et al., 2011
mammalian; hamster
CHO-K1 cells
spherical VLPs
40–50 nm in diameter
immunological studies of
WNV vaccine candidate
Ohtaki et al.,, 2010
yeast; P.pastoris;
spherical particles
20-30 nm in diameter
demonstration of VLP formation
in yeast cells
Falcón et al., 1999
insect; S. frugiperda
baculovirus vector
spherical particles
40-60 nm in diameter
demonstration of VLP formation
in insect cells
Baumert et al., 1998
Marburgviruses
Marburg virus (MARV)
Flaviviridae ssRNA(+)
Flaviviruses
Dengue virus
West Nile virus (WNV)
Hepaciviruses
Hepatitis C virus (HCV)
Hepadnaviridae partially dsDNA
Orthohepadnaviruses
Hepatitis B virus
bacterial; E. coli,
core HBcAg
tryptophan promoter
surface antigen HBsAg
recombinant protein
in aggregated state
demonstration of
virus-like structure
Cohen, Richmond
1982
bacterial; S.typhimurium
immunologically active
oral vaccine candidate
Schödel et al., 1990
yeast; S. cerevisiae
GAP491 promoter
icosahedral particles
28 nm in diameter
demonstration of high-level
production
Kniskern et al., 1986
yeast; P.pastoris,
icosahedral T = 3 and T = 4
demonstration of
Freivalds et al., 2011
AOX1 promoter
phosphorylated particles
VLP production
insect; S. frugiperda cells,
baculovirus vector
icosahedral particles
approx. 30 nm in diameter
VLP production for
radioimmunoassays
Takehara et al., 1988
plant; N. benthamiana,
virus-based Magnifection system
empty VLPs
approx. 30 nm in diameter
plant-derived VLP production
for immunological studies
Huang et al., 2006
plant; transgenic N. tabacum
Agrobacterium vector
spherical particles,
25-30 nm in diameter
production of reagents
for serologic testing
Tsuda et al., 1998
cell-free synthesis
T7 promoter
icosahedral particles
30 nm in diameter
demonstration of high yield
VLP production
Bundy et al., 2011
different vaccine applications
Pumpens et al., 2009
Pumpens, Grens, 2002
demonstration of
HBsAg production
Valenzuela et al., 1982
yeast; S. cerevisiae
ADH promoter
22 nm particles
Woodchuck hepatitis
virus core WHcAg
yeast; P.pastoris
AOX1 promoter
spherical particles
28-30 nm in diameter
reagent for HBsAb detection
Bo et al., 2005
yeast; H. polymorpha
mammalian; hamster CHO
22-nm subviral particles
comparison of HBsAg produced
in yeast and mammalian cells
Diminsky et al., 1997
insect; S. frugiperda cells,
baculovirus vector
22 nm particles
demonstration of HBsAg
production and secretion
Kang et al., 1987
plant; transgenic N. tabacum
Agrobacterium vector
16-28 nm particles
demonstration of HBsAg
production in tobacco plants
Mason et al., 1992
different vaccine applications
reviews: Shepard et al., 2006,
Pumpens et al., 2009
bacterial; E.coli;
tac promoter
spherical particles
34 nm in diameter
immunological studies
Zhang et al., 2006
bacterial; S.typhimurium;
trc promoter
spherical particles
26 nm in diameter
influenza epitope carrier,
whole cell oral vaccine candidate
Ameiss et al., 2010
empty spherical particles
23.7 nm in diameter
antigenicity studies
Li et al., 1997
round particles
100-150 nm in diameter
EBV vaccine candidate
Ruiss et al., 2011
Hepeviridae ssRNA(+)
Hepeviruses
Hepatitis E virus
HEV
insect; S. frugiperda
baculovirus vector
Herpesviridae dsDNA
Lymphocryptoviruses
Epstein-Barr virus, EBV mammalian; human kidney
cells
Simplexviruses
Human herpesvirus 1
(HSV-1)
insect; S. frugiperda
baculovirus vector
spherical procapsids
126 nm in diameter
demonstration of VLP formation
after in vitro assembly
Newcomb et al., 1999
H1N1 swine influenza
virus
insect; S. frugiperda
baculovirus vector
enveloped filamentous
particles
veterinary vaccine
candidate
Pyo et al., 2012
H3N2 avian influenza
virus
insect; S. frugiperda
baculovirus vector
spherical particles
Western blot positive
influenza vaccine
candidate
Bright et al., 2007
H3N2 influenza virus
strain A/Victoria/3/75
mammalian; monkey kidney
cells, plasmid vectors
pleomorphic particles
80–120 nm in diameter
VLP assembly and release
studies
Mena et al., 1996
H5N1 avian influenza
virus
insect; S. frugiperda
baculovirus vector
spherical particles
80–120 nm in diameter
influenza vaccine
candidate
Tao et al., 2009
H9N2 avian influenza
virus
insect; S. frugiperda
baculovirus vector
spherical particles
80–120 nm in diameter
influenza vaccine
candidate
Pushko et al., 2005
influenza vaccines
review:
Pushko et al.,2009
Orthomyxoviridae
Influenzaviruses A
Papillomaviridae dsDNA
Alphapapillomaviruses
Human papillomavirus
HPV
bacterial; E. coli,
T7 promoter
capsid-like structures,
55 nm in diameter
assembly and DNA
binding studies
Li et al., 1997
bacterial; S .typhimurium,
tac promoter
spherical particles
40-55 nm in diameter
immunization studies
Nardelli-Haefliger et al., 1997
bacterial; L .lactis,
PnisA promoter
spherical particles
30–50 nm in diameter
demonstration of VLP
production in Lactobacillus
Cortes-Perez et al., 2009
bacterial; B.subtilis,
xylose-inducible promoter
spherical particles
20–40 nm in diameter
whole cell vaccine
candidate
Baek et al., 2012
yeast; S.cerevisiae
Gal1 promoter
spherical particles
40–55 nm in diameter
demonstration of VLP
production in S.cerevisiae
Hofmann et al., 1995
insect; S. frugiperda
baculovirus vector
spherical particles
approx. 50 nm in diameter
immunogenicity studies
Kirnbauer et al., 1992
plant; transgenic potatoes
2x35S promoter
spherical capsids
55nm in diameter
oral vaccine candidate
Warzecha et al., 2003
cervical cancer vaccines
reviews: zur Hausen, 2002
Fernández et al., 2010
Deltapapillomaviruses
Bovine papillomavirus
BPV
yeast; S. cerevisiae
BPV episomal DNA
spherical particles
50-60 nm in diameter
DNA packaging studies
Zhao et al., 2002
plant; N. benthamiana
Agrobacterium vector
icosahedral particles
30 nm in diameter
high yield VLP production
for immunological studies
Love et al., 2012
mammalian; monkey CV-1 cells
Vaccinia virus vector
icosahedral particles
50 nm in diameter
in vitro assembly of
infectious BPV particles
Zhou et al., 1993
Cottontail rabbit
papillomavirus CRPV
yeast; S. cerevisiae
Gal1/Gal10 promoter
spherical particles
50-55 nm in diameter
neutralizing antibody
formation after immunizations
Jansen et al., 1995
Coxsackievirus B
(CVB3)
insect; S. frugiperda
baculovirus vector
empty capsids
27–30 nm in diameter
protective immunity
after vaccination with VLPs
Zhang et al., 2012
Kappapapillomaviruses
Paramyxoviridae ssRNA(-)
Avulaviruses
Newcastle disease virus
(NDV)
avian; chicken fibroblast
cell line
similar to authentic virus
Assembly and release studies of
VLPs
Pantua et al., 2006
yeast, S. cerevisiae,
GAL7 promoter
nucleocapsid-like
structures
potential diagnostic tool
Juozapaitis et al., 2007
mammalian, human cell line
HEK-293T
spherical VLPs
40–500 nm in diameter
structural and immunological
studies
Walpita et al., 2011
yeast; S. cerevisiae
(Gal7 promoter) or
P.pastoris (AOX1 promoter)
rod -shaped structures
20-22 nm in diameter
demonstration of nucleocapsid-like
particle formation in yeast cells
Slibinskas et al., 2004
mammalian, human cell lines
immune electron microscopy
positive
structural studies
Pohl et al., 2007
Sendai virus
yeast; S. cerevisiae
Gal7 promoter
rod-shaped VLPs
20x20-300 nm in length
demonstration of VLP formation
in yeast cells
Juozapaitis et al., 2005
Human parainfluenza
virus 1 and 3
yeast; S. cerevisiae
Gal7 promoter
rod-shaped VLPs
120-200 nm in length
demonstration of VLP formation
in yeast cells
Juozapaitis et al., 2008
yeast; S. cerevisiae
Gal7 promoter
nucleocapsid-like rod structures
and rings
coating antigen for virus
detection
Juozapaitis et al., 2007
Henipaviruses
Nipah virus (NiV)
Morbilliviruses
Measles virus (MV)
Respiroviruses
Rubulaviruses
Menangle virus (MeV)
Mumps virus (MuV)
yeast; P.pastoris
AOX1 promoter
flexible rods of 18–20 nm
in diameter, different lengths
demonstration of nucleocapsid-like
particle formation in yeast cells
Slibinskas et al., 2003
mammalian, human cell line
HEK-293T
spherical VLPs
100-200 nm in diameter
VLP formation
studies
Li et al., 2009
Simian virus 5 (SV5)
mammalian, human cell line
HEK-293T
spherical VLPs
100-200 nm in diameter
VLP formation and release
studies
Schmitt et al., 2002
Tioman virus (TioV)
yeast; S. cerevisiae
Gal7 promoter
nucleocapsid-like rod structures
and rings
production of polyclonal
antibodies against Tioman VLPs
Petraityte et al., 2009
Human metapneumovirus yeast; S. cerevisiae
(hMPV)
Gal7 promoter
nucleocapsid-like rod structures
20 nm in diameter
production of monoclonal
antibodies against hMPV
Petraitytė-Burneikienė et al.,
2011
yeast; S. cerevisiae
(Gal7 promoter ) or
P.pastoris (AOX1 promoter)
nucleocapsid-like rod structures
20-22 nm in diameter
demonstration of VLP formation
in yeast cells
Slibinskas et al., 2004
insect; baculovirus vector in
Spodoptera frugiperda cells
indistinguishable from the
wild-type empty particles
VLP formation studies
Hoque et al., 1999
spherical particles
22 nm in diameter
veterinary vaccine
candidate
Ju et al., 2011
Metapneumoviruses
Morbilliviruses
Measles virus (MV)
Parvoviridae dsDNA
Dependoviruses
Adeno-associated virus
(AAV)
Goose parvovirus (GPV) insect; S. frugiperda cells
baculovirus vector
Erythroviruses
Parvovirus B19
bacterial; E. coli, T7 promoter
spherical particles
19-25 nm in diameter
after inclusion body refolding
B19 assembly studies
Sánchez-Rodríguez et al.,
2012
yeast; S. cerevisiae,
Gal1 promoter
spherical particles
22 nm in diameter
demonstration of VLP formation
in yeast cells
Lowin et al., 2005
insect; baculovirus vector in
S. frugiperda cells
Western blot positive
antigens for potential
immunological test system
Brown et al., 1990
mammalian cells;
SV40 promoter
VLP density similar to
empty intact virions
potential parvovirus
vaccine
Kajigaya et al., 1989
veterinary vaccine
Saliki et al.,1992
CHO,
Parvoviruses
Canine parvovirus
(CPV)
insect; S. frugiperda cells
baculovirus vector
spherical particles
21-25 nm in diameter
Porcine parvovirus
(PPV)
insect; S. frugiperda cells,
baculovirus vector
structurally and antigenically
vaccine candidate
indistinguishable from native PPV
Martinez et al., 1992
bacterial, E. coli, T7 promoter
spherical VLPs
25 nm in diameter
demonstration of VLP formation
after fusion protein cleavage
Lee et al., 2009
insect; S. frugiperda,
baculovirus vector
similar to authentic
virus
demonstration of VLP formation
in insect cells
Cao et al., 2010
mammalian; monkey kidney
cells, Herpes simplex virus
(HSV-1) based vector
empty VLPs
approx. 30 nm in diameter
HSV-1 based genetic vaccine
prototype against FDMV
D’Antuono et al., 2010
Picornaviridae ssRNA(+)
Aphthoviruses
Foot-and-mouth disease
virus (FMDV)
Cardiovirus
Porcine encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV)
insect; S. frugiperda,
baculovirus vector
spherical VLPs
30-40 nm in diameter
veterinary vaccine
candidate
Jeoung et al. 2011
insect; S. frugiperda,
baculovirus vector
similar to the authentic
EV71
vaccine candidate
against EV71
Lin et al., 2012
bacterial; E. coli,
tac promoter, GST fusion
spherical particles
40-50 nm in diameter
VLP assembly in vitro;
immunological studies
Middelberg et al., 2011
yeast; S. cerevisiae
Gal7 promoter
spherical particles
40-50 nm in diameter
demonstration of high-level
VLP production
Sasnauskas et al.,2002
insect; S. frugiperda cells;
baculovirus vector
similar to the authentic
MuPyV
VLP preparation for
competition experiments
An et al., 1999
Hamster polyomavirus
yeast; S. cerevisiae
Gal7 promoter
spherical particles
40-50 nm in diameter
demonstration of high-level
VLP production
Sasnauskas et al., 2002
Simian virus 40 (SV40)
yeast; S. cerevisiae
Gal7 promoter
spherical particles
40-50 nm in diameter
demonstration of high-level
VLP production
Sasnauskas, et al., 2002
insect; S. frugiperda cells
baculovirus vector
spherical VLPs
about 45 nm in diameter
foreign protein packaging
Inoue et al., 2008
bacterial; E. coli,
spherical VLPs
about 40 nm in diameter
DNA packaging system
Chen et al., 2010
Enteroviruses
Enterovirus type 71
(EV71)
Polyomaviridae dsDNA
Polyomaviruses
Murine polyomavirus
(MuPyV)
JC polyomavirus
yeast; S. cerevisiae,
hybrid GAL10-PYK1 promoter
spherical VLPs
50–55 nm in diameter
VLP production for
immunological studies
Hale et al., 2002
insect; S. frugiperda cells;
baculovirus vector
spherical VLPs
55 to 60 nm in diameter
immunological and
DNA packaging studies
Goldmann et al., 1999
African horse sickness
virus (AHSV)
insect; S. frugiperda
baculovirus vector
spherical particles
72 nm in diameter
demonstration of VLP formation
Maree et al., 1998
Bluetongue Virus BTV
insect; S. frugiperda
baculovirus vector
double-shelled particles
65 nm in diameter
demonstration of VLP formation,
coexpression of four BTV genes
French et al., 1990
yeast; S. cerevisiae
PKG and TEF1 promoters
multilayered VLPs
vaccine candidate obtained
from yeast system
Rodríguez-Limas et al.,
2011
insect; S. frugiperda
baculovirus vector
double- and triplelayered VLPs
demonstration of VLP formation
Crawford et al., 1994
plant; transgenic tomatoes,
35S promoter
spherical particles
70 nm in diameter
demonstration of VLP formation
in transgenic tomatoes
Saldaña et al., 2006
mammalian; monkey CV-1 cells
Vaccinia virus vector
double-layered VLPs
demonstration of VLP formation
in mammalian cells
González, Affranchino, 1995
spherical
or tubular VLPs
studies on the role of gag domains
in VLP foemation
Joshi, Vogt, 2000
Reoviridae dsRNA
Orbiviruses
Rotaviruses
Rotavirus
Retroviridae ssRNA(+) reverse transcribing
Alpharetroviruses
Rous sarcoma virus
(RSV)
bacteria; E. coli, T7 promoter
insect; silkworm
larvae
spherical VLPs
50–100 nm in diameter
demonstration of large-scale
VLP production in larvae
Deo et al., 2011
mammalian; human kidney
cells
spherical particles
100 nm in diameter
T-cell receptor carrier,
immunological studies
Derdak et al., 2006
Human immunomammalian; monkey CV-1 cells
deficiency virus (HIV-1) Vaccinia virus vector
bar- or cone-shaped
particles
demonstration of VLP formation
Karacostas et al., 1989
Human immunoinsect; S. frugiperda
deficiency virus 2 (HIV-2) baculovirus vector
spherical particles
100 nm in diameter
immunological studies
Luo et al., 1990
Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)
typical morphology of
immature particles
studies of envelope protein
incorporation into VLP
Yamschikov et al., 1995
Gammaretrovirus
Murine leukemia virus
(MoMLV)
Lentiviruses
insect; S. frugiperda
baculovirus vector
Togaviridae ssRNA(+)
Alphaviruses
Sindbis virus
(SINV)
bacterial; E. coli, T7 promoter
similar to the authentic
SINV cores
VLP assembly studies,
in vitro assembly
Tellinghuisen et al., 1999
Ross river virus (RRV)
(RRV)
bacterial; E. coli, T7 promoter
unstable VLPs
42 nm in diameter
cryo-EM studies of VLPs
after in vitro assembly
Mukhopadhyay et al., 2002
Cheng, Mukhopadhyay 2011
Salmonid alphavirus
(SAV)
insect; S. frugiperda
baculovirus vector
spherical particles
65–70 nm in diameter
demonstration of temperaturedependent VLP formation
Metz et al., 2011
Chikungunya virus
(CHIKV)
mammalian; human kidney
cells, lentiviral vector
T=4 VLPs, 65 nm in diameter,
core diameter of 40nm
neutralizing antibody
formation after immunizations
Akahata et al., 2010
Supplemental Table. 4. Other VLPs.
Virus
Expression system
VLP properties
Application
References
insect; S. frugiperda cells,
baculovirus vector
morphologically similar
to the authentic viral particles
antigenicity studies
Jiang et al., 1992
plant; N. benthamiana,
plant virus-based vector
spherical particles
38 nm in diameter
oral immunization
studies
Santi et al., 2008
vaccine applications
review:
Herbst-Kralovetz et al., 2010
Caliciviridae ssRNA(+)
Norovirus
Norwalk virus
(NV)
Nodaviridae ssRNA(+)
Alphanodaviruses
Flock house virus
(FHV)
insect; S. frugiperda cells,
baculovirus vector
indistinguishable from
intact FHV in EM analysis
production of VLPs
for 3D structural studies
Schneemann et al., 1993
bacteria ; E. coli, T7 promoter
immunologically active
after inclusion body refolding
epitope presentation
Lorenzi, Burrone, 1999
Malabaricus grouper
nervous necrosis virus
(MGNNV)
insect; S. frugiperda cells,
baculovirus vector
spherical particles
31 nm in diameter
structural studies
Lin et al., 2001
Dragon grouper
nervous necrosis virus
(DGNNV)
bacteria ; E. coli, T5 promoter
spherical particles
30 nm in diameter
infection competition studies
Lu et al., 2003
Betanodaviruses
Macrobrachium
rosenbergii
nodavirus (MrNv)
bacteria ; E. coli, trc promoter
icosahedral particles
approx. 30 nm in diameter
demonstration of VLP
formation in bacteria
Goh et al., 2011
insect; S. frugiperda cells,
baculovirus vector
icosahedral particles
38 nm in diameter
VLP formation
studies
Pringle et al., 2001
insect; S. frugiperda cells,
baculovirus vector
icosahedral particles
T=4 symmetry
nucleic acid packaging
studies
Routh et al., 2012
bacterial; E. coli, T7 promoter
spherical particles
Ty1 assembly studies
Luschnig et al., 1995
yeast; strain BJ2168
PGK promoter
spherical particles
Ty1 structural studies
Burns et al., 1992
spherical particles
22 nm in diameter
VLP stability studies,
generation of antibodies
Hou et al., 2009
Tetraviridae ssRNA(+)
Betatetraviruses
Thosea asigna virus
(TaV)
Omegatetraviruses
Nudaurelia capensis
omega virus (NωV)
Retrotransposons
Yeast retrotransposon
Ty1
Parvoviridae ssDNA
Densoviruses
Infectious hypodermal
bacterial; E. coli, T7 promoter
and hematopoietic necrosis
virus (IHHNV)
Totiviridae dsRNA
Totiviruses
Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast; S. cerevisiae,
virus L-A
spherical particles
40 nm in diameter
packaging system for foreign
peptides and proteins
Powilleit et al., 2007
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