Question Dissection – Part IX US History/Napp Name: _________________ Introduction to Review: Some things just go together. Like Or A multiple-choice question also has parts that naturally go together. In this review, I will present multiple-choice questions and answers. I will explain what the question is asking and provide its answer. I will also reveal why these two parts of the question must go together. Yes, some things just naturally go together. The Question Dissection: A. In the period from 1865 to 1900, the United States Government aided the development of the West by (1) maintaining free and unlimited coinage of silver (2) offering low-interest loans to businesses (3) granting land to railroad companies (4) providing price supports for farm products What the question is asking: How did the United States Government help settlers move to the West and develop farms and businesses in the West? Answer: Oh, settlers wanted to move west. There was the promise of gold in California and there was the possibility of acquiring acres and acres of farmland. However, it was difficult to get to the West. A person could cross the Rocky Mountains or the Great American Desert but that was difficult. A person could journey across the Isthmus of Panama (there was no Panama Canal yet!) but that was difficult. A person could journey around South America but that took a very long time. Well, the government knew that the best way to help Americans move west was to build a transcontinental railroad and the best way to build a transcontinental railroad was to give businessmen free federal land if they would build the railroad. After all, to build railroad is expensive even with free government land. Yes, a transcontinental railroad made it easier for Americans to move west. Thus, the answer must be 3. B. In the United States, the main purpose of antitrust legislation is to (1) protect the environment (2) increase competition in business (3) encourage the growth of monopolies (4) strengthen the rights of workers What the question is asking? What is the purpose of antitrust law? The term antitrust means anti-monopolies. A monopoly is a single seller controlling a market. In a monopoly, there is no competition. This means that the seller or the monopolist can sell goods at very high prices and often inferior quality. Monopolies do not benefit or help consumers or buyers. Monopolies only benefit monopolists. Therefore, antitrust legislation is law that prevents monopolies from forming. Antitrust legislation is anti-monopoly legislation. It prevents monopolies from forming and this benefits consumers. For when there are no monopolies, there is more competition in the market. Thus, the answer must be 2. “Prices and wages should be determined by the marketplace.” C. The author of this statement would most probably support (1) government ownership of utilities (2) minimum-wage laws (3) wage and price controls (4) laissez-faire capitalism What is the question asking? In what type of economic system are prices and wages determined by the market? There are four economic systems: a traditional economy, a free market economy, a command economy, and a mixed economy. In a traditional economy, traditions and the ways of the ancestors determine what jobs the people perform. In a free market economy, individuals are free to buy and sell without government intervention. Thus, the price of a good is determined by the number of individuals interested in buying the good (demand) and the amount of the good that exists in the market (supply). This system is also sometimes referred to as laissez-faire capitalism. The term laissez-faire means that the government does not intervene in the market and therefore the market is free – free of government involvement. Thus, the answer is 4. P.S. In a command or centrally planned economy, the government makes all economic decisions. A communist society has a command economy. The government determines what goods are produced, how these goods are produced, and who consumes these goods. D. Business leaders John D. Rockefeller, J. P. Morgan, and Cornelius Vanderbilt were referred to as robber barons primarily because they (1) bought titles of nobility from foreign governments (2) were ruthless in dealing with competitors (3) stole money from state and local governments (4) gained all of their wealth by illegal means What is the question asking? Who was a robber baron? Robber baron is an insulting term for a business owner that engages in ruthless (showing no compassion for others) business practices, practices that can lead to the formation of a monopoly. Thus, a robber baron is usually a monopolist who gained control of the market in ways that were not particularly fair. Ultimately, the robber baron – in forming a monopoly – eliminates competition. He destroys his competition. Thus, the answer is 2. “…This, then, is held to be the duty of the man of Wealth: First, to set an example of modest, unostentatious living, shunning display or extravagance; to provide moderately for the legitimate wants of those dependent upon him; and after doing so to consider all surplus revenues which come to him simply as trust funds, which he is called upon to administer, and strictly bound as a matter of duty to administer in the manner which, in his judgment, is best calculated to produce the most beneficial results for the community…” ~ Andrew Carnegie, “Wealth,” North American Review, June 1889 E. According to this passage, the responsibility of the wealthy is to (1) invest in future industry to increase wealth (2) share their excess wealth with the community (3) maintain a lifestyle consistent with their wealth (4) influence government to assist all people What is the question asking? What did Andrew Carnegie believe about how rich individuals should use their money? Carnegie writes, “…the man of Wealth…he is called upon to administer…to produce the most beneficial results for the community…” To produce the most beneficial results for the community means to share his wealth for the benefit of the community. In his Gospel of Wealth, Carnegie believed that rich individuals should use their money to improve the community through the building of libraries and museums and universities. Philanthropy means to donate money generously to worthy causes. Carnegie used much of his wealth to improve the lives of others. Thus, the answer is 2. F. Both the Interstate Commerce Act and the Sherman Antitrust Act were (1) inspired by the effectiveness of earlier state laws (2) designed to protect business from foreign competition (3) declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court in the late 1800s (4) passed by the federal government to regulate big business What is the question asking? What was an important goal of the Interstate Commerce Act and the Sherman Antitrust Act? The Interstate Commerce Act prohibited unfair practices by railroads, such as charging more money for shorter routes. The Sherman Anti-Trust Act was passed to check the spread of monopolies. It outlawed unfair monopolistic practices that stifled competition. Therefore, both Acts were passed by the federal government to regulate or control some aspects of big business. Thus, the answer is 4. G. In a United States history textbook, the terms bread and butter unionism, Gospel of Wealth, and mechanization would most likely be found in a chapter entitled (1) Reconstruction (1865–1877) (2) Industrialization (1870–1900) (3) Imperialism (1898–1905) (4) The Roaring Twenties (1920–1929) What is the question asking? What period in American history is bread and butter unionism, Andrew Carnegie’s Gospel of Wealth, and mechanization a part of? Mechanization is the first big clue. Mechanization means to perform by machinery. Clearly, industrialization is the age of machinery or machines. Of course, Samuel Gompers’ bread and butter unionism was a response to the conditions for workers in the early Industrial Revolution when wages were low. Bread and butter unionism means workers uniting to ensure that workers make enough money to buy their bread and butter or enough money to provide for the basic necessities of life. And Andrew Carnegie’s Gospel of Wealth refers to the successful business owners and entrepreneurs using their wealth for the benefit of the community. Thus, the answer is 2. H. What was the main benefit that labor unions of the late 19th century gained for their members? (1) job security (2) improved wages and hours (3) paid vacations (4) health insurance What is the question asking? How did unions help workers in the late 19th century? A labor union is an organization of workers. When workers unite, they become more powerful. By uniting, workers could ask for improved wages and shorter working hours. A worker alone could easily be fired for asking for such benefits but to fire an entire factory would shut the factory down, at least temporarily. Thus, the correct answer is 2. I. One reason John D. Rockefeller, Andrew Carnegie, and J. Pierpont Morgan were sometimes called robber barons was because they (1) robbed from the rich to give to the poor (2) made unnecessarily risky investments (3) used ruthless business tactics against their competitors (4) stole money from the federal government What is the question asking? Why were successful business owners like John D. Rockefeller, Andrew Carnegie, and J. Pierpont Morgan called robber barons? To be called a robber baron is not to be complimented. A robber baron was a negative term applied to a business owner that eliminated competitors in unfair ways. In other words, a robber baron was ruthless. He would do whatever was necessary to be the only seller in a market. He would do whatever was necessary to control the market as a monopolist. Thus, the answer is 3. J. A significant contribution to the industrialization of the United States was Henry Ford’s development of (1) the assembly line (2) electric-powered vehicles (3) the first holding company (4) a new process for making steel What is the question asking? Who was Henry Ford and what did he develop that increased productivity in all factories? Henry Ford built automobiles. However, he built automobiles a little differently in his factories. Henry Ford was the first individual to use the assembly line in a factory. An assembly line is an arrangement of machines, equipment, and workers in which work passes from operation to operation in direct line until the product is assembled. Henry Ford installed the first moving assembly line for the mass production of an entire automobile. His innovation reduced the time it took to build a car from more than 12 hours to two hours and 30 minutes. Thus, the answer is 1. K. The slogan “Eight hours for work, eight hours for sleep, eight hours for what we will” was used in the late 1800s to promote a major goal of (1) farmers (2) politicians (3) industrialists (4) organized labor What is the question asking? Who used the slogan “Eight hours for work, eight hours for sleep, eight hours for what we will” in the late 1800s? Workers often worked ten to twelve hours a day in the early years of the Industrial Revolution. By working so many hours, workers had little time left for home, family, sleep, or leisure. It was a very hard life. So, workers formed unions. Organized labor means workers organized in an association or a union. This slogan was one of the early slogans used by labor unions. The purpose of the slogan was to encourage factory owners and government officials to reduce working hours. Thus, the answer is 4. L. In the late 19th century, the major argument used by labor union leaders against immigrants was that immigrants (1) took jobs from United States citizens (2) contributed little to enrich American life (3) placed financial drains on social services (4) refused to assimilate into American culture What is the question asking? Why were labor union leaders often anti-immigrant in the late 19th century? The “New Immigrants” from Southern and Central Europe were terribly poor and willing to take whatever work they could find. They would often work for even lower wages than working class Americans. Labor union leaders feared that these new immigrants would take jobs away from American citizens. These labor leaders were often anti-immigrant. Nativism is an anti-immigrant attitude. Some labor union leaders were nativists. They feared the influx of immigrants. Yet while these “New Immigrants” were willing to work, no worker wanted to be exploited. Often these “New Immigrants” were very willing to join labor unions. Nonetheless, some labor leaders were anti-immigrant. They encouraged government policies to limit immigration. Thus, the answer is 1. M. The 19th-century philosophy of Social Darwinism maintained that (1) the government should have control over the means of production and the marketplace (2) all social class distinctions in American society should be eliminated (3) economic success comes to those who are the hardest working and most competent (4) wealth and income should be more equally distributed What is the question asking? What is Social Darwinism? Social Darwinism is the belief that stronger individuals should dominate weaker individuals. It is the belief that some individuals will naturally be successful and some individuals will not. Therefore, Social Darwinists believe that the rich are rich because they are the hardest working and the most competent individuals in a society. Of course, today, individuals recognize that some people are born to good fortune. Some individuals are born with wealth without having to do a thing. So, today, people question the views of Social Darwinists. Nonetheless, Social Darwinists believe that success comes to the best and hardest working. Thus, the answer is 3. N. During the late 19th century, Samuel Gompers, Terence Powderly, and Eugene Debs were leaders in the movement to (1) stop racial segregation of Native American Indians (2) limit illegal immigration (3) gain fair treatment of Native American Indians (4) improve working conditions What is the question asking? Who were Samuel Gompers, Terence Powderly, and Eugene Debs? Samuel Gompers was the founder of the American Federal of Labor, a labor union for skilled workers. Terence Powderly was the leader of the Knights of Labor, a labor union for skilled and unskilled workers. Eugene Debs was a leader of the Industrial Workers of the World, another union! Thus, all three individuals were union leaders and a union is an organization of workers that seeks to promote higher wages, better working conditions, and safer working conditions. Thus, the answer is 4. O. The term business monopoly can best be described as (1) the most common form of business in the United States (2) government control of the means of production (3) an agreement between partners to manage a corporation (4) a company that controls or dominates an industry What is the question asking? What is a monopoly? A monopoly occurs when a single seller dominates or controls a market. A monopoly occurs when a single company controls an industry. Thus, the correct answer is 4. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Here are some more questions to practice. With each passing day, our skills increase. Thus, we are better prepared to answer more questions without too much assistance. Of course, you may benefit from my Two Hundred and Fifty Facts to Pass the US History and Government Regents. This packet is the first link on my U.S. History – Consent of the Governed page on my webpage. Here is a link to my U.S. page: http://www.whiteplainspublicschools.org//site/Default.aspx?PageID=12862 --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------P. “Labor Leaders Executed for Causing Haymarket Riot” “State Militia Called In To End Homestead Strike” “1,000 Jailed as Silver Miners Protest Wage Cuts” Which statement about labor unions in the late 1800s is illustrated by these headlines? (1) Strikes by labor unions usually gained public support. (2) The government frequently opposed labor union activities. (3) Labor union demands were usually met. (4) Arbitration was commonly used to end labor unrest. Clue: What is happening to workers in these headlines? Who is responsible for what is happening to workers in these headlines? Q. One way in which the Chinese Exclusion Act, the Gentlemen’s Agreement, and the National Origins Act were similar is that all were expressions of (1) imperialism (2) nativism (3) militarism (4) Manifest Destiny Clue: What was the Chinese Exclusion Act? What was the Gentlemen’s Agreement? What was the National Origins Act? After determining what these Acts were, then determine what these acts had in common? R. Jacob Riis, Jane Addams, and Margaret Sanger are most closely associated with efforts to (1) educate and train formerly enslaved persons (2) preserve the natural environment (3) advance the interests of organized labor (4) improve conditions for the poor Clue: Who was Jacob Riis? Who was Jane Addams? Who was Margaret Sanger? Again, once you determine who these individuals are, you will see what they had in common. S. The Federal Civil Service System was begun in the late 19th century primarily to (1) reward political party supporters (2) reduce the practice of political patronage (3) secure political campaign contributions (4) provide government contracts for big business Clue: What is the Federal Civil Service and why did it begin? You may also need to use a dictionary to look up words that you may not be familiar with. When you find what the federal civil service is, you will need to think what it prevents from happening in government. T. Nativism in the late 19th century was motivated primarily by (1) hostility toward immigrant workers (2) the need to reduce overcrowding in western states (3) cultural conflicts with Native American Indians (4) the migration of African Americans to northern cities Clue: If you can define nativism, you will easily find the answer. U. During the 1870’s and 1880’s, midwestern farmers found that earning a living was increasingly difficult because (1) prices of agricultural products were increasing (2) railroad companies charged high rates for transporting farm products (3) agricultural output was declining rapidly (4) farm labor was becoming more unionized Clue: It is important to remember that farmers not only grow crops but need to move those crops to market in order to sell those crops. V. -Free and unlimited coinage of silver -Government ownership of railroads -Graduated income tax Which of these political parties first proposed these reforms in its platform? (1) Republican Party in 1876 (3) Bull-Moose Party 1912 (2) Populist Party in 1892 (4) Democratic Party in 1932 Clue: The members of this party wanted silver, regulated railroads, and progressive taxes. W. A goal of the Granger and Populist movements was to (1) expand rights for African Americans (2) help western farmers fight unjust economic practices (3) provide support for the banking industry (4) enable big business to expand without government interference Clue: The Grangers and the Populists both wanted to help these individuals. X. The aim of the Dawes Act of 1887 was to (1) restore previously taken land to Native American Indian tribes (2) maintain traditional Native American Indian cultures (3) assimilate Native American Indians into American culture (4) end all governmental contact with Native American Indians Clue: This Act was intended to encourage Native American Indians to adopt the white man’s ways. Y. The purpose of the Homestead Act of 1862, which provided free federal land, was to (1) encourage settlement of the West (2) set up reservations for Native American Indians (3) establish land-grant agricultural colleges (4) assist in the construction of transcontinental railroads Clue: Free land in the West! Z. Which statement best summarizes the beliefs of Booker T. Washington? (1) The best solution for African Americans was to return to Africa. (2) Social equality for African Americans would be easier to achieve than legal rights. (3) The way to dissolve the barriers of segregation and bring about an end to Jim Crow laws was by active, violent resistance. (4) The most immediate means for African Americans to achieve equality was to expand their opportunities for vocational education. Clue: Booker T. Washington believed the best way to immediately help African Americans was through vocational education or training African Americans in specific skills for skilled jobs. With better jobs and better incomes, equality – he believed – would follow. Southern states attempted to limit the impact of constitutional amendments passed during the Reconstruction Era by (1) passing Jim Crow laws (2) ending racial discrimination (3) seceding from the Union (4) fighting the Civil War Clue: Jim Crow laws were segregation laws that denied African Americans equality. The Jim Crow laws of the post-Civil War Era were attempts by (1) the Federal Government to improve the status of African Americans and Native American Indians (2) state and local governments to restrict the freedoms of African Americans (3) states to ban organizations such as the Ku Klux Klan (4) the Radical Republicans in Congress to carry out Reconstruction plans Clue: Jim Crow laws were segregation laws that denied African Americans equality. Poll taxes and grandfather clauses were devices used to (1) deny African Americans the right to vote (2) extend suffrage to women and 18-year-old citizens (3) raise money for political campaigns (4) prevent immigrants from becoming citizens Clue: A poll tax was a tax on voting. A grandfather clause allowed a person to vote if his grandfather voted before the Civil War. W.E.B. Du Bois believed that African Americans should attempt to gain equality in the United States by (1) setting up a separate nation within the United States (2) entering vocational training programs in separate schools (3) demanding full and immediate participation in American society (4) taking over the leadership of the two major political parties Clue: W.E.B. Du Bois believed that African Americans were entitled equal rights now. The Jim Crow laws, upheld by the Supreme Court in Plessy v. Ferguson (1896), provided for (1) free land for former slaves (2) separate public facilities based on race (3) racial integration of public schools (4) voting rights for African-American males Clue: The Supreme Court ruled in Plessy v. Ferguson that as long as separate facilities were equal, those facilities were constitutional. In other words, separate but equal was legal. This will be reversed in Brown v. the Board of Education. The 14th and 15th Amendments, passed during Reconstruction, resulted in (1) equal rights for women in the United States (2) expanded rights for Native American Indians on reservations (3) increased individual rights for African Americans (4) additional rights for Southern segregationists Clue: The Fourteenth Amendment gave all citizens equal rights and the Fifteenth Amendment gave African American males the right to vote. The underlying reason for the impeachment of President Andrew Johnson was (1) the Credit Mobilier scandal (2) a power struggle with Congress over Reconstruction (3) his refusal to appoint new justices to the Supreme Court (4) his policies toward Native American Indians Clue: To impeach a federal official is to charge a federal official with a crime. However, the real reason for the impeachment of President Andrew Johnson was disagreement between President Johnson and the Radical Republicans over Reconstruction. Johnson favored a lenient approach to the South but Radical Republicans wanted to punish the South for seceding from the Union. In the ten years following the Civil War, a large numbers of former slaves earned a living by becoming (1) conductors on the Underground Railroad (2) workers in Northern factories (3) sharecroppers on Southern farms (4) gold miners in California Clue: Slaves had been freed after the Civil War but were not given any money or land for their years of free labor. This led to many former slaves having to find work on their masters’ plantations after the war. The former slaves were treated as tenant farmers – having to pay rent that was so high that they were always in debt. The institution of slavery was formally abolished in the United States by the (1) Compromise of 1850 (2) Emancipation Proclamation of 1863 (3) creation of the Freedmen’s Bureau in 1865 (4) ratification of the 13th amendment in 1865 Clue: The only way to formally abolish slavery in the United States was through an amendment. A major reason the Radical Republicans opposed President Abraham Lincoln’s Reconstruction plan was that his plan (1) demanded payments from the South that would have damaged its economy (2) postponed the readmission of Southern States into the Union for many years (3) granted too many rights to formerly enslaved persons (4) offered amnesty to nearly all Confederates who would swear allegiance to the United States Clue: Amnesty means to pardon and that means to overlook a person’s wrongdoing. Lincoln wanted to restore the South quickly to the Union and thus favored a lenient approach to Reconstruction. He offered amnesty to nearly all Confederates. He was willing to overlook their wrongdoings. Which geographic advantage did the United States gain by purchasing the Louisiana Territory from France in 1803? (1) warm-water ports on the Atlantic coast (2) rich fishing areas in the Great Lakes (3) full control of the Mississippi River (4) vast coal reserves in the region west of Pennsylvania Clue: Full control of the Mississippi River, the Great Plains, and the port of New Orleans were gained. Because of fertile land and a long growing season, plantations in the thirteen colonies developed in (1) New England (2) the Middle Atlantic region (3) the South (4) the upper Mississippi River valley Clue: Plantations were located in the South. The British system of mercantilism was opposed by many American colonists because it (1) placed quotas on immigration (2) discouraged the export of raw materials to England (3) placed restrictions on trading (4) encouraged colonial manufacturing Clue: Colonies must benefit the mother country according to mercantilism. Colonies only trade with the mother country, export their natural resources to the mother country, and import finished goods from the mother country. The Mayflower Compact is important to the concept of a democratic society because it represents (1) an effort by the colonists to use force to resist the King (2) a clear step toward self-government (3) an early attempt to establish universal suffrage (4) an attempt by the colonists to establish freedom of religion Clue: The Pilgrims sailing on the Mayflower made this agreement, to govern the colony through consent of the governed. The system of checks and balances is best illustrated by the power of (1) the President to veto a bill passed by Congress (2) Congress to censure one of its members (3) a governor to send the National Guard to stop a riot (4) state and Federal governments to levy and collect taxes Clue: When one branch of government limits the power of another branch of government. Which Presidential action is an example of the unwritten constitution? (1) appointing Justices to the Supreme Court (2) granting pardons for Federal crimes (3) submitting a treaty to the Senate for ratification (4) consulting with the Cabinet Clue: These are traditions and customs that have become part of government although not in the Constitution…many were established in the days of President George Washington. The Dred Scott decision on the issue of slavery upheld the Southern viewpoint that (1) the power of the Supreme Court does not extend to cases of race (2) Congress could not pass a law depriving territorial residents of their property (3) a national vote should be held to decide the legality of slavery (4) the economic well-being of the western states depended on slave labor Clue: The Court stated that the Constitution recognized slavery and protected property. Thus, a slave could be brought to any state in the Union. It would take a constitutional amendment to end slavery. The significance of the Supreme Court case Marbury v. Madison is that the decision (1) advanced civil rights for minorities (2) upheld the constitutionality of a national bank (3) limited Presidential control of foreign policy (4) established the power of judicial review Clue: The Supreme Court claimed the right to determine the constitutionality of a law. In Plessy v. Ferguson (1896), the Supreme Court ruled that (1) states may not secede from the Union (2) racial segregation was constitutional (3) slaves are property and may not be taken from their owners (4) all western territories should be open to slavery Clue: Separate but equal was supported by the Court. Alexander Hamilton urged Congress to pass a protective tariff to encourage the growth of (1) labor unions (2) manufacturing (3) agriculture (4) slavery Clue: A tariff is a tax on foreign goods. A tariff raises prices on foreign goods. A tariff lowers prices on domestic goods. This helps the nation’s industries. President George Washington pursued a foreign policy of neutrality during his administration primarily because he believed that (1) the United States needed time to gain economic and military strength (2) treaties were prohibited by the Constitution (3) the United States should not expand by force (4) alliances should be established with both France and England Clue: A new nation needs time to grow strong. It cannot become entangled in the affairs of other nations. A major reason for the issuance of the Monroe Doctrine (1823) was to (1) discourage United States trade with Latin America (2) defend the Panama Canal from Great Britain (3) prevent further European colonization in the Caribbean region (4) provide economic aid to Latin American nations Clue: The USA said to Europe, “The Americas are closed for conquest and colonization.” I.____________________________________ A. Nullification crisis B. Kansas-Nebraska Act C. Dred Scott v. Sanford D. Election of Lincoln (1860) Which heading best completes the partial outline? (1) Foreign Policies of the United States (2) Government Policies Toward Native American Indians (3) Consequences of Manifest Destiny (4) Causes of Sectional Conflict Clue: Differences over slavery and differences over tariffs were the result of differences between the North and South. 50. Which 19th-century business practice does this cartoon illustrate? (1) forming cooperatives (2) establishing trade zones (3) creating monopolies (4) expanding global markets Clue: The robber baron takes it all! Always read carefully!