1 RHS AP Biology 2015 Name _________________________ Chemistry of Life: chapters 2 and 3 1. Contrast the term element with compound. Identify the 4 elements that make up 96% of living matter. 2. Label the diagram below and define the terms that you label. 3. What is an isotope and what is “special” about radioactive isotopes? 4. What determines interactions between atoms? Why are valence electrons important? 5. Define the following terms: a. Chemical bond – b. Covalent bond – c. Electronegativity – d. Nonpolar covalent bond – e. Polar covalent bond – 6. How do ionic bonds compare with covalent bonds? 7. What causes polarity? Give an example of a polar and nonpolar covalent bond. 8. Compare and contrast hydrogen bonds and van der Waals interactions. 2 9. Why do atoms even bond? 10. What is electrostatic force? Bozeman Science: (you can also do a video search for “Bozeman Science Chemical Bonds”) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7DjsD7Hcd9U Good video, but don’t worry about calculating electronegativities 11. What are the two types of covalent bonds? How are they different? 12. What are ionic bonds? How are they different from covalent bonds? 13. Why is water considered a polar molecule? For each of the below listed properties of water – briefly define the property and then explain how water’s polar nature and polar covalent bonds contribute to the special property. In addition, include an example in nature of each property. a. Cohesion b. Adhesion c. Surface tension 14. Define the following terms: a. Solute – b. Solvent – c. Aqueous solution – d. Hydrophilic – e. Hydrophobic – 3 15. Label the diagram below to demonstrate the dissociation of the water molecule and then relate this diagram to pH. 16. What defines an acid and a base? 17. What is the concentration of H+ in a neutral solution? 18. Why are “apparently” small changes in pH so important in biology? 19. What is a buffer? Write and explain the carbonic acid buffer system in human blood. 20. Why does water stick to itself? What is the name of this type of bond? 21. Give an example of cohesion and adhesion. 22. Explain how capillary action works. Bozeman Science: (you can also do a video search for “Bozeman Science pH”) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Xeuyc55LqiY 23. Why is it important that pH levels remain relatively constant? 24. What are the names of H3O+ and HO-? 4 Organic Chemistry 25. Why is organic chemistry so important in the study of biology? 26. Why was the Urey-Miller experiment so important? 27. What is special about carbon that makes it the central atom in the chemistry of life? 28. What are functional groups? What are the six most commonly studied functional groups in organic chemistry? 29. Label the diagram polymer, condensation below – identify a monomer, reaction, and hydrolysis. 5 30. What is the central atom in ALL organic compounds? 31. Why can Carbon bond in so many different ways? 32. What type of bond does Carbon make with other atoms? 33. Give an example of a non-polar and polar covalent compound. Bozeman Science: (you can also do a video search for “Bozeman Science Organic”) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QWf2jcznLsY *stop video at 5:55 34. Life is built on _____________. 35. What are functional groups and why are they important? 36. What two functional groups combine to make an amino acid? 37. What is the relationship between monomers and polymers? 38. What is the name of the reaction that makes polymers? To break polymers? 39. Why do both reactions have water as a root word within their name? 40. What is a glycosidic linkage? 41. Compare and contrast the two storage polysaccharides. 6 42. Compare and contrast the two structural polysaccharides. 43. Why are lipids grouped together? What do all lipids have in common? 44. What are the building blocks of fats? 45. Contrast saturated and unsaturated fats – how does this relate to the concept that structure and function are linked? 46. Label the molecule below. 47. List the eight types of proteins and their basic function. 7 48. What are the names for the monomers and polymers of proteins? 49. Label the diagram below concerning the catalytic cycle of an enzyme - 50. Describe the four levels of protein structure. 51. What does denaturation mean and why is it important? 52. What are the roles of nucleic acids? 53. What is meant by the term that DNA is antiparallel? 54. Label the blank diagram below: BIG IDEA: We are all built from the same basic building blocks, yet are so different. How? 8 55. What are three functions your proteins do? 56. What are all proteins made of? 57. What is the relationship between polypeptides and proteins? 58. What are the two most important Nucleic acids? 59. What are the monomers of Nucleic acids? 60. What are the monomers of proteins? 61. Why do proteins fold into such specific shapes? 62. What type of fat is liquid and room temp? Solid? Why the difference? 63. What are the three types of carbohydrates? What’s the difference between them?