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Name _______________________________ Date ________________ Hour__________
CHAPTER 2 MINERALS
Reading Guide
Chapter 2.2 Minerals
Read this section on pages 44-49 and answer the following questions.
Minerals
1. What is
a mineral?___________________________________________________________________________
2. What does naturally
occurring mean? ______________________________________________________________________
3. Why is mercury
not a mineral? ________________________________________________________________________
4. What does it mean to be
a crystalline substance? ________________________________________________________________
5. Why is quartz a mineral and opal not, even
though they contain the same elements? ___________________________________________________
6. What is the chemical
formula for quartz?____________________________________________________________________
7. What does
inorganic mean?______________________________________________________________________
How Minerals Form
8. Where do
silicates form? _______________________________________________________________________
9. Where do
carbonates form? _____________________________________________________________________
Crystallization From Magma
10. What is
magma? ____________________________________________________________________________
11. Where does
it form? _____________________________________________________________________________
12. As magma cools, which
minerals form first? ___________________________________________________________________
13. Last?
_______________________________________________________________________________
Precipitation
14. What happens as water, which has
many dissolved minerals, evaporates? _____________________________________________________
15. List two minerals that form from precipitation.
a. _______________________________________
b. _______________________________________
Pressure and Temperature
16. What does an increase in
pressure cause minerals to do? ___________________________________________________________
17. What can happen when a change in temperature
causes a mineral to become unstable? _____________________________________________________
Hydrothermal Solutions
18. What are
hydrothermal solutions? ________________________________________________________________
19. What is the temperature range
of hydrothermal solutions? _____________________________________________________________
Mineral Groups
20. How many minerals
have been named? ____________________________________________________________________
21. How are minerals
classified into groups?__________________________________________________________________
22. What is the most common
group of minerals on Earth?_____________________________________________________________
Silicates
23. What are the two most abundant
minerals in Earth’s crust?_______________________________________________________________
24. What do they
combine to form?_____________________________________________________________________
25. How do most silicate
minerals crystallize?___________________________________________________________________
26. What clues can silicate
minerals provide to scientists?___________________________________________________________
Carbonates
27. What do
carbonates contain?____________________________________________________________________
28. What is the most common
carbonate mineral?____________________________________________________________________
Oxides
29. Oxides are minerals
that contain what?_____________________________________________________________________
30. List three oxides.
a. _______________________________________
b. _______________________________________
c. _______________________________________
Sulfates and Sulfides
31. What do sulfates
and sulfides contain? __________________________________________________________________
32. What is the chemical
equation of galena? ___________________________________________________________________
Halides
33. What are
halides? ____________________________________________________________________________
34. What are two elements
in the halogen group? __________________________________________________________________
Native Elements
35. What are
native elements? ______________________________________________________________________
36. List seven native elements.
a. _____________________________
b. _____________________________
c. _____________________________
d. _____________________________
Chapter 2.3 Properties of Minerals
Read this section on pages 50-54 and answer the following questions.
Color
37. Is color useful in
identifying minerals? __________________________________________________________________
38. Why or
why not? ____________________________________________________________________________
Streak
39. What is a
minerals streak?______________________________________________________________________
40. Why is a minerals streak a
better indicator than the color?___________________________________________________________
Luster
41. What is
luster?______________________________________________________________________________
42. In what two ways can it be described?
a. ____________________________
b. ____________________________
Crystal Form
43. What is
crystal form?_________________________________________________________________________
44. What is the shape
of a quartz crystal? ____________________________________________________________________
45. What is needed for a crystal to
develop with well-formed faces? _________________________________________________________
Hardness
46. What is
hardness?____________________________________________________________________________
47. What is the standard
hardness scale called?__________________________________________________________________
48. What does this
scale consist of?______________________________________________________________________
49. What is the hardness
of your fingernail?_____________________________________________________________________
50. What is the
hardness of glass?_____________________________________________________________________
51. What is the hardest
mineral on Earth?_____________________________________________________________________
Cleavage
52. What happens when
weak bonds are stressed? _______________________________________________________________
53. What is
cleavage? ___________________________________________________________________________
54. How does
mica cleave? ________________________________________________________________________
55. How many directions of
cleavage does halite have? ______________________________________________________________
Fracture
56. What is
fracture? ____________________________________________________________________________
57. What is
conchoidal fracture? ___________________________________________________________________
Density
58. What is
density? ____________________________________________________________________________
59. What two things can density be used to determine?
a. _________________________________
b. _________________________________
Distinctive Properties of Minerals
60. List four distinctive properties.
a. _______________________________
c.
_______________________________
b. _______________________________
d.
_______________________________