Psychology 336L - Dr. Frank Manis - Fall, 2003 STUDY GUIDE FOR EXAM 1 (chapters 1-4 and lectures Aug. 25 to Sept. 17) The best study guides are lecture outlines and notes because they indicate what I feel is important. For each topic (e.g., prenatal development), use the text to flesh out details of the lecture and vice versa. If you didn't get detailed notes on the videos, you can watch "The Miracle of Life", "Louder than Words" and "The Mind-Development" at Leavey. There will be 40 multiple choice, and 10 short answer (total: 100 points). You should know results and conclusions of any research study that is described in class or in the text in a paragraph or more, including "A Closer Look" boxes, but not researchers' names. You can use the author's recommendations about studying. The review questions are useful, as are pulling it together and reflect questions. The chapter summary (recite, recite…) is useful. You can give yourself a quiz on the book on-line at psychology.wadsworth.com. In addition to lecture material, you should know the following from the book: Chapter 1 (Lectures on Aug. 25 and 27) A long chapter, with a lot of review concepts for those who remember their Intro Psych. Know about Locke and Rousseau. Learn Freud's concepts of the conscious and unconscious mind, his concepts of id, ego and superego and how they work together developmentally. Know the names of his stages and the nature of the conflict in each one, but not the ages. Know the Oedipus and Electra complexes and their resolution (identification with the samesex parent). Also know the limitations and what of merit is left of Freud's theory. Know Erikson's most important concept (the identity crisis) and be able to name and state the basic issue in his first five stages, but not the ages. Know the steps in and be able to give examples of classical and operant conditioning, know the concepts of positive and negative reinforcement, extinction, punishment, time out, shaping and socialization, and know the problems/limitations of punishment. Know Skinner by name. Know Bandura by name and his concepts of reciprocal determinism and observational learning. Know the concept of identification on p. 22 and how it differs between Freud and social learning theory. Know the benefits and limitations of learning theories. Know Piaget's 5 key concepts (scheme, adaptation, assimilation, accommodation, and equilibration). Know the four main stages and the age ranges. Know the basic components of information processing theory and how it has been applied to practical problems in child development. Know what is meant by maturational theory and know the name of Gesell. Know the main concepts of ethology, fixed action patterns, releasing stimulus and critical period, and how this theory explains the origin of inborn behavior. Know the four ecological systems (and Bronfenbrenner's name) and be able to generate examples. Know how Vygotsky's theory differs from learning theory and Piaget's theory, and his two key concepts of zone of proximal development and scaffolding (generate examples). Be able to explain the three controversial issues in child development (nature-nurture, continuity-discontinuity, activepassive) and how each theory comes down on these issues (Table 1.3 is a useful study aid). Know the basic characteristics of naturalistic observation, the case study, the correlational method, the experimental method, the nature of positive and negative correlations, and the limitations of correlational studies. Know the concepts of independent and dependent variables and the importance of random assignment. Integrate material from the lecture on the limitations of generalizability of experiments and the nature and importance of quasi-experimental designs. Know how to describe longitudinal, cross-sectional and corss-sequential designs and the pros and cons of each. Be familiar with the 7 main ethical guidelines for research (which are mostly common sense). Chapter 2 (Lecture on Sept. 3) Know the basic definition of chromosomes, genes and DNA. Know the difference between identical and fraternal twins and dominant and recessive traits. Know about Down syndrome and PKU. Know about Sickle-cell anemia, Tay-Sachs disease and Cystic Fibrosis. Know how amniocentesis takes place, what it can tell us and the risks (see lecture). Know about ultrasound and what it can tell us. Know the basic design of twin studies and adoption studies and what they can tell us about the relative contribution of heredity and environment to the individual differences among people. Know the concept of genotype, phenotype and reaction range (more detail in the lecture). Know how conception takes place but you can ignore all of the stuff about infertility and about selecting the sex of your child. Chapter 3 (Lecture on Sept. 8, and 1/3 of lecture on Sept. 17) There is a lot of detail in this chapter. You don't have to memorize it all. You should definitely know the topics covered in lecture and read up on them in the book. Beyond that, here are some guidelines. Know the basic characteristics of the period of the ovum, embryo and fetus, but without memorizing all of the dates and specific events (e.g., in Table 3.1). Know what happens in the germinal stage and what the blastocyst and implantation are (see lecture and video Miracle of Life). In the embryonic period, know about the cephalocaudal and proximodistal principles (examples help a lot!), and about the formation of the neural tube. Know how sexual differentiation takes place as in the lecture, but there is no need to memorize all of the structures in Figures 3.4 and 3.5. Know the functions of the amniotic sac and the placenta. In the embryonic period, the lecture has all you need to know. There are many environmental influences and too much detail to memorize. Know basically what malnutrition does to the baby over the long-term, but don't memorize the effects of particular nutrients or vitamins. Know the critical period concept and four examples of how teratogens operate in critical periods: rubella, thalidomide, radiation and alcohol (the latter two are in the video, The Mind). In each case, know the specific effect on the embryo or fetus and when it occurs. In the case of the other teratogens, the only ones that will be on the exam are cocaine, cigarettes, and maternal stress. In the case of cocaine, you don't need to know all of the experiments, but, you should know about the controversy over what the true effects of cocaine are. Know the information on prenatal brain development from the lecture on Sept. 17. Chapter 4 (lectures on Sept. 10 and 15) Know what events lead up to the onset of birth. Know the basic characteristics of the first, second and third stages of labor. Know the pros and cons of the use of anesthesia in childbirth, and the characteristics of natural childbirth methods. Under what circumstances are C-sections given? You can ignore the sections on where a child should be born (pp. 135-139). Know the nature of anoxia and its effects. Know how to define pre-term and low-birthweight babies and the reasons some babies are small for date. Know some of the long-term problems that occur for preterm and low birthweight babies. What kinds of approaches are being used to provide preterm infants with stimulating experiences. What are some parental reactions to pre-term babies and what are some possible problems? Know what post-partum depression is and why it is likely to occur. (You don't need to know the box on pp. 148 on Andrea Yates). What is the typical course and some helpful interventions for PPD? Know about the controversy over whether early contact between mother and baby are critical to maternal bonding. Know what features the Apgar test looks for (first column in Table 4.3) and how the scores are used to assess the baby's health but not all of the point values in columns 2-4 of Table 4.3. You should be able to list and define several kinds of reflexes and classify them as primitive or adaptive (from lecture and videos), and what the significance of declining reflexes is during infancy. Know how well the newborn sees and hears, and how well the newborn recognizes familiar sights, sounds, and smells. Be able to give an example of classical and operant conditioning that might occur with a newborn. Know how newborns typically sleep and roughly how much of their sleep in REM sleep. As REM sleep declines from the prenatal period through early childhood, what is thought to be the reason for such a high need for REM sleep in young infants and preemies, and the reason for the decline? What are the major possible causes of SIDS and what can be done to reduce its incidence? Identify types of cries seen in newborns and how these cries affect the parents. What are the best ways to go about soothing a crying baby? PRACTICE MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS 1. Which of the following is an example of negative reinforcement? a. a child starts screaming when he hurts his toe b. a parent scolds a child when the child forgets to brush her teeth c. a bully at school keeps taking food from a smaller child at lunch time d. a child brushes her teeth to avoid hearing her parent's persistent nagging. 2. What is one of the key advantages of a longitudinal study relative to a cross-sectional study? a. longitudinal studies are less time consuming and expensive b. longitudinal studies allow you to examine cohort effects c. longitudinal studies provide a more direct measure of change over time d. longitudinal studies are not subject to test practice effects 3. Which of the following is true of exposure to teratogens in prenatal development? a. a teratogen that is harmful to one species of mammals is harmful to all species of mammals b. the timing of exposure to a teratogen is important c. teratogens usually have widespread, not specific effects on prenatal development d. damage from teratogens can often be completely compensated for by a good postnatal environment 4. Which independent variable in the Kauai longitudinal study was more strongly related to behavioral outcomes at 10 years of age, severity of birth complications, or socioeconomic status (SES)? Refer to the IQ scores below. Severe complications Low SES High SES No complications 94 110 99 112 a. SES b. severity of complications c. both were equally related to IQ d. relationship to outcome cannot be determined PRACTICE SHORT ANSWER QUESTIONS (work on these at home and discuss in section) 1. Give an example of a possible exosystem influence on a child's behavior. 2. Identify two of the conditions that amniocentesis can detect. 3. Give an example of an active gene-environment relationship that is more likely to occur as the child gets older. 4. How does sexual differentiation in the fetus illustrate the process of gene expression? 5. Why must we be cautious in interpreting a result in which mothers who took cocaine had babies with lagging language development three years later? 6. What are two of the main features of prepared or natural childbirth? 7. How do the infant's hearing capabilities tend to favor the infant paying attention to human beings more than other objects or creatures in the environment? 8. Give an example of operant conditioning in a newborn.