Download infinitive constructions - E

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Document related concepts
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present inf.
perfect inf.
active voice
to write
to be writing
to have written
to have been writing
passive voice
to be written
to have been written
1. Infinitives without “to”
 often modal auxiliaries, verbs of senses (see, hear, watch, observe...) + make & let
2. Verb + object + infinitive
a/ verbs of senses: I saw him come.
b/ verbs of asking: ask, tell, order, advice, allow, want, wish, I´d like, warn, persuade...
They warned him not to go there.
c/ verbs of expecting: expect, know, suppose, believe, think...
They believe him (to be) honest.
3. Adjectives + infinitives:
a/ personal phrases: I´m sorry to hear that. I´m glad, pleased, disappointed, relieved.
b/ impersonal phrases: It´s kind of you to let me know.
It´s nice, polite, stupid, rude, silly, foolish... of you
4. Too / Enough + infinitive
 He´s too slow to win.
 The swimming pool is not deep enough to dive into. (it)
 It´s too cold for me to go out.
5. Subject + verb + infinitive
 seem, appear, turn out, prove, happen
 He seems to have understood it.
 The book has proved to be useful.
 She seems to have been crying.
6. Noun + infinitive
 There is no time to lose / to be lost.
 The man to consult / to be consulted. = the man you can consult (possibility) or have to consult (necessity)
 The children didn´t have toys to play with.
 He was the only one to return.
 He was the first (one) to finish. = first- samotné pokud následuje inf.
 BUT!!! He was the first person I called.
7. To be + infinitive
a/ He is to come today. = he is supposed to come
He was to come yesterday. = but I don´t know if he did
× He was to have come yesterday. = but he didn´t
b/ They said good - bye not knowing that they were to meet again. = mají určeno, aby se
c/ No one is to leave the room. = velmi striktní zákaz
I´m not to be disturbed.
- II 8.
 It´s easy to read the book.
 The book is easy / difficult / hard / impossible to read.
 The man is impossible to talk to.
 She is pleasant to work with. The picture is lovely to look at.
9. Half infinitive ( částice “to”)
 Are you coming? I´d love to, but I can´t.
 Does she smoke? Not now, but she used to.
 Give her my regards. Yes, I won´t fail to.
znovu potkali-
I´ll make him repeat it.
I´ll have him repeat it.
I´ll get him to repeat it.
Passive: He´ll be made to repeat it. (have, get)
11. Split infinitive (rozdělěný inf.)
 I´d like to really understand the philosopher.
12. Cannot - but
 I can´t but admire her.
 I can´t help admiring her.
13. Two infinitives:
 He promised to write and post the letter.
14. Suggestions:
 Why not go to the cinema tonight? = inf. bez “to” = what about going
Vypadá to, že v téhle větě je chyba. There seems to be a mistake in this sentence.
Nemám nikoho na koho se spolehnout. I have no one / nobody to rely on.
Nevíš náhodou její tel. číslo? Do you happen to know her number?
Tohle je první mrakodrap, který tady byl postaven. That´s the first skyscraper to have been built here.
To ho přiměje o tom přemýšlet. This will make him think about it.
Tohle jsou peníze na koupení jídla. This is the money to buy food with.
On je prý Američan. He is said to be American.
Tohle slovo se těžko speluje. This word is hard to spell.
To je příliš krásné než aby to byla pravda. It´s too good to be true.