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History 1301 Topic Two: European Exploration and Colonization
I. In 1400, the Europeans were confined to the Mediterranean. By 1600, they had
colonies on every continent except Antarctica. Why?
A. national states created
B. technology changes
C. Protestant Reformation
D. change from barter system to mercantilism
II. Portuguese Exploration
A. motives
B. Bartolomeo Diaz
C. Vasco da Gama
D. results of the Portuguese Empire
E. decline of the Empire
III. Spanish Exploration
A. Reconquista
B. Christopher Columbus
- discovery of the “new world”
C. global results of Columbus’ discovery
D. Magellan
IV. French, Dutch and English Exploration
A. Jacques Cartier, French
B. Samuel de Champlain, French
C. Sieur de la Salle, French
D. Giovanni Caboto, English
E. Francis Drake, English
F. Henry Hudson, Dutch
V. From Exploration to Colonization
A. Spanish America
- conquest by the Conquistadores
- New Spain created out of Aztec territory
- Peru created out of Inca territory
- import technology, culture, religion, political systems
- rise of a highly stratified society and strict control over the
population
- generates tremendous wealth for Spain
B. French America
- in present day Canada, Mississippi/Ohio River Valleys
- economy at first based on fur trade
- small population
- not an “empire” like the Spanish built in Meso/South
America
C. British America
- covered in Topic Three
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