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AP U.S. Government and Politics
Unit 5 The Judiciary
Review Items
Test: Wednesday March 21, 2012 (Red)
Thursday March 22, 2012 (Blue)
Review Session: Wednesday 3/21/12 at 7:10 a.m.
In addition to reviewing homework assignments, lecture notes, quizzes and the
multiple choice questions in the study guide, students should have a strong
understanding of the following terms and concepts.
Chapter 16: The Federal Courts
amicus curiae brief
stare decisis
judicial review
class action suit
original/appellate jurisdiction
judicial restraint/activism
1. Compare and contrast criminal and civil law in terms of purpose, parties involved
and the penalty / punishment in each.
2. Compare and contrast plaintiff and defendant
3. Distinguish between original and appellate jurisdiction.
4. Describe district courts, circuit courts of appeal and the Supreme Court.
What do they each do?
5. (a)Describe the selection and removal of federal judges. (b)What is senatorial
6. How is the Chief Justice chosen?
7. Explain the backgrounds of Supreme Court justices in terms of demographics,
geography, experience, partisanship and ideology.
8. How does a case reach the Supreme Court? Be sure to explain “the rule of
four” and “writ of certiorari” in your answer. (a)What types of cases is the
Supreme Court most likely to select? (b)How many are heard each ear and what
% is that of all requested (approximately)?
9. Explain the role and functions of the solicitor general.
10. Explain written briefs, amicus curiae briefs, oral arguments and opinions
(majority, dissenting, and concurring). Identify and explain the significance of the
following terms: stare decisis and precedent.
11. What is strict constructionism or original intent? Why is it controversial?
12. Explain the significance of the landmark case Marbury v. Madison, 1803. Explain
what judicial review means in your answer. (p. 528)
13. Compare and contrast the philosophies of judicial restraint and judicial
Chapter 4: Civil Liberties
civil liberties
Bill of Rights (esp. 1st, 5th, 6th, 8th Amendments)
14 Amendment
incorporation doctrine
prior restraint
probable cause
exclusionary rule
right to privacy
1. What is the most important difference between the Supreme Court’s decision in
Barron v. Baltimore and Gitlow v. New York concerning the Bill Of Rights?
2. Compare and contrast the establishment clause and the free exercise clause
of the 1st Amendment as it relates to freedom of religion.
3. Explain how the following Supreme Court cases are significant concerning the
establishment clause of the 1st Amendment: Lemon v. Kurtzman, Zelman v.
Simmons-Harris, Engel v. Vitale, and School District of Abington Township,
Pennsylvania v. Schempp.
4. What is prior restraint and how is Near v. Minnesota significant?
5. Explain the significance of the rulings in the following cases concerning free
speech and public order: Schenck v. U.S. and Dennis v. U.S.
What was decided in Roth v. U.S. regarding obscenity? How was did the Miller
decision change things? Why is obscenity still hard to prevent today?
7. Compare and contrast libel and slander. How are the standards for winning libel
lawsuits different for public figures and private individuals?
8. What is symbolic speech? Is it protected under the 1st Amendment?
9. What is commercial speech and who regulates it?
10. Describe the relationship between the following terms: probable cause,
unreasonable searches and seizures, search warrant and exclusionary
11. What are the three guidelines for police questioning of suspects as established in
Miranda v. Arizona, 1966?
12. What is the significance of the Supreme Court case Gideon v. Wainwright, 1963?
13. Why do most charges end in a plea bargaining agreement?
14. Describe the relationship between the 8th Amendment and the death penalty.
(b)How are the Gregg v. Georgia and the McCleskey v. Kemp decisions relevant?
15. (a)How does the Constitution imply a right to privacy? (b)List and explain the
importance of Roe v. Wade and Planned Parenthood v. Casey.
Chapter 5: Civil Rights
Civil Rights Act of 1964
13th Amendment
Voting Rights Act of 1965
14th Amendment
15th Amendment
poll taxes
affirmative action
1. Compare and contrast civil rights and civil liberties?
2. What protections does the 14th Amendment provide and how are they
significant to the idea of equality in the U.S. Constitution?
3. What are the Supreme Court’s three standards for classifications under the equal
protection clause? (b)Give and example of each.
4. Describe the struggle for equality for African Americans in three historic eras.
5. Compare and contrast the significance of the Supreme Court cases of Dred Scott
v. Sandford, 1857, Plessy v. Ferguson, 1896 and Brown v. Board of
Education, 1954.
6. What’s the difference between de facto segregation and de jure segregation?
Which did the Supreme Court find unconstitutional?
7. List and briefly describe the six major provisions are the focus of the Civil Rights
Act of 1964.
8. (a)List and explain four ways in which southern states denied African Americans
the right to vote. (b)What did the 24th Amendment and the Voting Rights Act
of 1965 do to address these problems?
9. Describe the trends in re-drawing voting districts that occurred following passage
of the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Supreme Court’s significant rulings
about the matter.
10. How have women been denied equality with men in U.S. history? Explain the
doctrine of coverture in your answer.
11. Identify and explain the significance of the following: the 19th Amendment and
the Equal Rights Amendment.
12. How has Congress attempted to end sex discrimination in the area of
13. What is meant by comparable worth?
14. How has the Supreme Court dealt with the issue of sexual harassment?
15. In what ways are the elderly discriminated against in the U.S.?
16. What are the main provisions of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 and the
Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990?
17. What, generally, have the courts said regarding gay and lesbian rights?
Landmark Cases
There will be a matching section that requires you to know the significance of the
following cases. Prepare by reviewing case background and issue, how the Supreme
Court decided and what the Court’s reasoning for their decision was.
1) Marbury v. Madison, 1803
2) McCulloch v. Maryland, 1819
3) Gibbons v. Ogden, 1824
4) Barron v. Baltimore, 1833
5) Plessy v. Ferguson, 1896
6) Schenck v. U.S., 1919
7) Gitlow v. New York, 1925
8) Near v. Minnesota, 1931
9) Korematsu v. U.S., 1944
10) Brown v. Board of Education, 1954 and Brown II, 1955
11) Mapp v. Ohio, 1961
12) Baker v. Carr, 1962
13) Engel v. Vitale, 1962
14) Gideon v. Wainwright, 1963
15) Heart of Atlanta Motel v. U.S., 1964
16) New York Times v. Sullivan, 1964
17) Griswold v. Connecticut, 1965
18) Miranda v. Arizona, 1966
19) Tinker v. Des Moines School District, 1969
20) Lemon v. Kurtzman, 1971
21) New York Times v. U.S. (Pentagon Papers Case), 1971
22) Wisconsin v. Yoder, 1972
23) Furman v. Georgia, 1972 and Gregg v. Georgia, 1976
24) Miller v. California, 1973
25) Roe v. Wade, 1973
26) Buckley v. Valeo, 1976
27) Regents of the University of California v. Bakke, 1978
28) Hazelwood School District v. Kuhlmeier, 1987
29) Texas v. Johnson, 1989
30) Webster v. Reproductive Health Services, 1989
31) Planned Parenthood v. Casey, 1992
32) United States v. Lopez, 1995
33) Gratz v. Bollinger, 2003 and Grutter v. Bollinger, 2003
34) Lawrence v. Texas, 2003
FRQ Potentials
There will be ONE FRQ on the test. It will be either about civil rights or on civil
liberties. You will be asked to apply knowledge of 1-3 the landmark cases above.
The review session on Thursday morning will provide some help on the specifics but
studying up front will be imperative.
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