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Transcript
Mussolini in Power
The “legal” revolution
Dealing with the parliament
Personal power
Dealing with the Party
1922 – the creation of the Fascist Grand
Council
1923 – the Acerbo electoral law
1924 - election results – the Acerbo law not needed
1924 – the Matteotti murder
And the Aventine seccession
1925 – the Fundamental Law
1926 – Mussolini empowered to govern by decree
1927 – circular stating that provincial
prefects must be obeyed, even by
fascists
1929 – abolition of the Chamber of Deputies
Replaced by the Chamber of Fasces and
Corporations
1929 – accumulation of offices
1929 – the Lateran Agreements
The cult of the Duce
With parliament nullified, Mussolini’s close relationship with the King, and the Party nullified
Personal power
Indoctrination
Youth
Education
Youth Groups
Coercion
Older groups
Press Cinema Culture
Education
1936 – textbooks become a state monopoly
1938 – racism in the classroom
1939 – the Fascist School Charter
Culture and the cinema
1925 – a film institute was established
1934 – Office for Cinematography set up
Quotas were set (100 films in 1937) and themes dictated
For major epics
Control of the press
1926 – the Exceptional Decrees suppress many papers
1928 – compulsory registration of all journalists with the
Fascist Journalist Association
1926 – OVRA set up and a Special Tribunal
for the Defence of the State
The Economy
The Corporate State
Autarky
Self-sufficiency
Agriculture
Industry
Winners + Losers
Winners + Losers
The Corporate State
The State
Industrialists
Workers
Industrial spokesmen worked closely with the State –
a permanent alliance with the government
Trade Unions were banned
Legislation favoured industrialists
The State appointed government
lackeys to represent workers
Your project
Critically analyse Mussolini’s domestic policies, focusing on the following key questions:
1.
How did Mussolini set out to create a totalitarian state, and to what extent was he successful?
Anna, Rodrigo + Sophie
What is totalitarianism?




A regime in which the state regulates nearly every aspect of public and private behaviour
A single mass party state, hierarchically organised and led by one man
Monopolised control of the armed forces and communication
Central control of the economy
The making of a single party state



The Acerbo Law of 1923: Party with 25% poll would gain 2/3 majority in Parliament, therefore establishing permanent Fascist
parliamentary majority and eliminating possibility of alternative government
Political opposition banned after the 1924. The Aventine Session, in which non-Fascist deputies withdrew from Parliament in response
to the assassination of Matteotti (an outspoken Socialist)
Elected local governments were replaced by officials appointed by Mussolini
The Power of the Duce



Fundamental law was passed in 1925 to make Musso responsible to the King rather than the legislation
In January 1926 he was empowered to govern by decree
During the late 1920s he accumulated offices on an unprecedented scale – for example in 1929 he was personally responsible for foreign
affairs, the interior, war, navy, aviation, colonies, corporations and public works


Government powers of arrest and detention were increased
All this was accompanied by inflation of Mussolini’s image in the creation of the cult of the Duce – the public was constantly exposed to
slogans such as “Mussolini is always right!” and “Believe! Obey! Fight!”
Indoctrination





Allegiance was to be focused on the Duce
Main channel of indoctrination was education
 Number of approved history texts was reduced from 317 to one
 Racism was practised and taught in the classroom
 Fascist School Charter introduced in 1939
Youth groups starting from age 8 were introduced
 Anti-Semitism was spread along with ideas of Aryan superiority
 Catholicism was to be sole religion of the state
Freedom of the press was severely limited:
 Journalists obliged to register with Fascist Journalist Association
 Many newspapers were suppressed by Exceptional Decrees of 1926 and 1928
There were attempts to control culture through organs such as the Manifesto of Fascist Intellectuals and the Ministry of Popular Culture
Coercion


System of repression was gradually constructed, victims were mainly ex-politicians who refused to take an oath of loyalty to the regime
Repression was carried out by organs such as the Opera voluntaria per la repressione antifascista and the Special Tribunal for Defense
of State
Controlled Economy

Economic policy went from free enterprise to state intervention and control


Introduction of corporate state: increase of state control over economy without destroying private enterprise
Free trade unions banned and other industrial branches were brought under control of Ministry of Corporations, National Council of
Corporations Chamber of Fasces and Corporations
Social Aspects



Mussolini sought to establish a new national identity for the Italian people
Status of women was degraded, with the “Battle for Births” women were placed in the role of childbearing and housekeeping
Until the country’s sportsmen were obliged to succeed and promote image of strong fascism
But how totalitarian was it?



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



Conservative interests such as the monarchy, industry, landowners, armed forces and the Church formed quite an important part of the
regime, making it less totalitarian all around
Musso lived with the fear of other elements of his party or state challenging his authority, therefore he undermined their power and this
resulted in a paradox where the strength of fascism depended on the weakness of Fascist organizations
Indoctrinate measures often did not have such profound effects on rural areas
40% of children managed to avoid joining youth groups
Control of press meant that constant distortion of facts about Italy’s foreign affairs led eventually to the entire government being
misinformed
Fascist cultural aims were labeled as an “incoherent and bizarre mixture of conflicting ideas”
The Church had an important part in state and even clashed with government over education system
Corporate state produced inefficient and failed to produce consensus between workers and employers
Overall…

The real benefits of fascism actually only reached a small portion of Italians, mainly estate owners and middle class employed by Fascist
beaurocracy, and for the majority of Italians the quality of life disintegrated


2.
Policies of the 1920s pushed Italy into recession before World Depression, and any chance for recovery in the 1930s was ruined war
preparation
Italian population remained loyal to regime in 1939, however from 1941 onwards discontent grew rapidly
Did Mussolini create a corporate and a self- sufficient economy?
Batgirl, Batman + Robin
Corporate State: Myth or Reality?
What was the Corporate State?
Corporativism represented a mean of disciplining labour in the interest of employers and state (during the 1930’s depression)
To Mussolini -- Matter of pragmatism, not principle; an elaborate façade behind which corruption and exploitation could flourish while
Mussolini pursued his different goals which interested him most.
A system which professes to be revolutionary yet socially unifying, to guarantee economic progress & social justice by bringing employers &
workers together within a legally constituted framework.
 Corporativism was the fascist alternative to socialism
Increase state control over economy without destroying private enterprise
Two Strands:
‘Corporations’ were to be elaborated. e.g.: agriculturalists, from the largest landowner to the poorest farmhand, would belong to one corporation.
This would eventually
Syndicalism: stress on trade unions, embraced corporativisim in favour of class collaboration to increase industrial production (‘productivisim’).
Therefore, corporations would be used to enhance capitalist wealth and state authority.
Corporativism and the PNF:
Sought to achieve popular identification through ‘national syndicalism’.
‘Integrated corporations’ composed by employers and fascist unions designed to control labour relations, determine economic policies and
channel public opinion.
Mussolini and Corporativism:


The Duce backed down when confronted with employer resistance, either to labour pressure or, as between 1930-4, to the possibility of
genuine corporativist advances.
“A theory to which most fascists could subscribe, over which indeed they could even be permitted to engage in limited debate; an
apparent social and political experiment useful for bestowing respectability on his regime in the eyes of foreigners.”
The Corporate State- Achieved!




Ministry of Corporations (July 1926) – corporativisim embodied
1930 – potential corporative parliament introduced (National Council of Corporations)
1934 – ‘mixed’ corporations of emplyers and employers created at last.
1939 – Chamber of Fasces and Corporations Created
Corporate State:
A REALITY!
Or was it?...

The Italian attempt to implement it was never a serious one.


1928 – workers side manned by fascist officials, not genuine workers or chosen representatives, amenable towards employers
Workers constantly protested and revolted and caused social chaos in some cities around the country

Corporativism proved insufficient and cumbersome. It failed to provide consensus between employers and employees. Furthermore, it
was loaded in favour of employers, while the workforce had to depend on government lackeys.

It represented a means of disciplining labour in the interests of employers and of the state.
22 of them (‘mixed’ corporations) empowered to determine wages + conditions within a specific area of economic activity
To what extent did Mussolin’s social policies change Italian society?
Ricardo, Antonia + Thomas
3.
Youth and Fascism: The manipulated generation
Why manipulate the youth:
In order to maintain power in Italy, the Fascist regime decided that by manipulating the youth from an early age, a State where fascism was
supported strongly would be guaranteed in the future.
Education: Building a Fascist Future
Propaganda and Education

In order to suppress intellectual independence and manipulate all Italian youth to having one belief towards history, politics and all else
that could affect in any way support of the Fascist regime the following were implemented…
“THE EYES OF THE DUCE ARE ON EVERYONE OF YOU”


1936- Text books were a State monopoly. In order to form brainwashed minds that fully support the Fascist regime, one History book
was set and approved to all schools in Italy out of 300 previous different versions.
The consequence was that only one distorted, biased version of the history of the world was taught, jeopardising the bring up and the
general education of a generation of students.


1938- Racism and religious intolerance enter schools, classrooms and the minds of young Italians.
The consequence is the constant reminder and therefore convincing and raising one generation to be racist and intolerant with other
cultures and groups of people, leading to serious social consequences and problems that could aggravate in the future.

1939- Fascist School Charter implemented.

The eyes of the Duce…- Control!
Effect:

The implementation of a manipulated education and reformed schools was not effective enough due to loopholes, evasions and
underground movements and resistance specially in universities.

Hence, youth groups were the answer…
Process of Socialisation:

Peer groups

Family

Education

Church

Since all youth is influenced by these, the State aimed to pull the young away from the family, in order to manipulate them more
effectively, and use of peer pressure, the church and education to build a fascist future. Education was manipulated in schools, since this
form of brainwashing was not effective enough, the governments appealed to peer groups and the church through youth groups.
Fascist Education for boys:

“It is not for nothing that Fascism is so ritualistic. The marches, salutes, yells, songs, and what not, are giving new focus to the
imagination of the Italian youth, are linking their social life to political organizations and are filling their minds with political- I will not
say ideas, but feelings. This is perhaps the greatest of the fascist revolutions. Good Italian youths still go to mass and participate in
religious festivities, but their sentiments, their imaginations, their moral ideas are centred elsewhere.” – Herbert Schneider
Youth Groups:





Since the schools could not alone guarantee good fascist citizens, even though they were reformed and manipulative. Thus, the Fascist
Regime decided that military training needed to be provided so that Fascist ideology could be combined with social, military and sports
education.
At the age of four: Sons of the Wolf
At the age of eight: joined the Balilla
At the age of fourteen: Avanguardisti
At the age of eighteen: Fascist Levy
Creed of the Balilla:

The boys involved in youth groups were exposed from an early age to a doctored version of Italian history superimposed and
manipulated twisted on a Religious format…
The Fascist Women:





Stayed at home
Were discouraged to attend schools, and most did not finish secondary education. They rarely made through the Fifth grade.
They were given a task by Mussolini, “to inculcate Italian youth with ideology of the fascist state and to select and promote the elite”
Had subordinate roles in organisations such as the Fasci Femminili where woman would spend their time doing fascist propaganda or
making charity for the poor.
In cities poor and middle class women could work in factories or industries, in the countryside they could work in agriculture as well as
factories and the upper class women not only barely had any education but did not work, they stayed at home taking care of the
household and the children.
Women in Fascist Italy
Women before fascism



Free to work in whatever areas they wished to.
Some were free to vote (limited suffrage).
Did not follow any governmental rules about procreation
Women after WWI


Though Italy was going through many economic, social and political problems, they followed the policy of “different but equal” when
relating to women.
After the First World War the women played a bigger part in the working class.
Working Women
% of all working women
employed in:
Women as % of total labor force
in:
Agriculture
Industry
Other
Agriculture
Industry
Other
1911
58.8
24.2
17.0
43.2
43.9
39.5
1921
52.2
23.6
18.2
40.5
34.4
40.0
Year
El Bello Duce

“In my government women will take part in every sector of human activity.”
Benito Mussolini before becoming the Italian leader
The Real Dictator

“Women must obey…my idea of her role in the state is in the opposition to all feminism. Naturally she shouldn’t be a slave, but if I
conceded her the vote, I’d be laughed at. In our state, she must not count.”
Benito Mussolini, Italian Fascist dictator.
“Different but Subordinated”
Problem: lower and middle class men became threatened by the increase in women in the workplace.
Problem: Catholic Church still preached female subordination and very rigid gender roles.
Solution: erode the position of women within society to re-establish male.
Result:
Status of women depressed by Fascism, this time more deliberately and systematically.
Step 1: The Battle for Births




Mussolini wanted another 20 million people to the population.
Larger number of people for cheap labour.
Mussolini believed that a country’s dominance could be measured by its people.
Placed women firmly in the role of childbearing, family management and “homemaking sciences”
How was it implemented?




A piece of legislation was passed by Mussolini.
Target of 5 children was set.
The more children, the less tax the family would pay.
There was a bachelor’s tax to encourage men to marry.
How did they persuade women?


Propaganda: emphasized domesticity, maternity and self sacrifice.
Mussolini set up contests to see who could bear the most children. The final prizes were promotional tours and their pictures published in
magazines.

The prevention of increasing the population (i.e. abortions and birth control) was a major crime against the state and was prosecuted as
such.
Woman magazines talked about:





Family
Procreation
Women’s Rights
Fascist Proclamations
How to take care of the garden
Fascist Proclamations
Although this purports to be a monthly magazine dedicated to the women of the family, it consists mainly of speeches by Mussolini and other
Fascist-related articles.
Working Women in Fascist Italy




Strict division of Labour
Legislation to deter women from competing with men for work and to protect working mothers.
Women were prevented from roles in which they might threaten men.
10% limit on female employment in offices.
Daily Life

UPPER CLASS WOMEN:
 Take care of children
 Participate in female organizations


MIDDLE CLASS WOMEN:
 More freedom: Had jobs but the working options were limited by government.
LOWER CLASS WOMEN:
 Enjoyed the most freedom but bore more children than the other classes and they worked in factories
Fasci Femminili
Channelled the energies of upper and middle class women into caring and essentially subordinating roles, doing good works for the poor and
spreading Fascist propaganda.
“Women are not slaves” –B.M.


Mussolini’s policies did not increase birth rate
Most of the restrictions dealing with working women were removed to facilitate wartime mobilization
Reason or Faith?
Why was there a merger between the State and the Church and what changed?



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Lateran treaty created in 1929 settled the question of the Pope’s temporal power by restoring the Vatican city to his sovereignty.
The concordat defined the ROLE of the Church in the fascist state.
Catholicism was now to be the SOLE religion of the State.
Religious instruction was to return to schools.
Church marriages would be given full validity.
Papacy would be compensated for financial losses.
There was no natural affinity between the Church and the state, however, both sides had to gain by ending rift.
The merging process was greatly accelerated by a fascist government in need of the approval of Italy's HUGE catholic population.
In Foreign policy, there was overlapping interests between the Church and State .

Pius XI openly justified Mussolini’s participation in the Spanish Civil War on the grounds that he was helping contain the main
enemy of Christianity.
How was the role of the Church established in the State?



The merger of the Church with the State was seen a great achievement as the Church had been separated from the State for more than
50 years.
Mussolini NEVER managed in subordinating the Church to the full control of the state.
It could be said that the Church came eventually to threaten the Fascist state.
Effects of a lack of control over the Church.


Catholic action developed numerous institutions which drew membership away from the Para-military organizations and which
directly competed with official social and cultural groups.
It seemed that while approving Mussolini's fights against alien beliefs abroad, within Italy the Church competed aggressively with
Fascism for the sole of people
“New Order”


2 movements were created: FUCI {Italian Catholic University Federation} and the “Movimento Laureati.”
They both joined in an attempt to create a “NEW ORDER” together with the Catholic action in an attempt to finish with Mussolini's
regime.
The Fall:


1939 - Fascism in Crisis
Catholic leaders begin to take direct initiatives. {FUCI and Movimento Laureati}.

Italians shook off Fascism and returned to the traditional left, in part to Catholic politics - this time in the form of the Christian
democratic party.
The Social Consequences of the Fascist Regime in Italy.
The Losers and the Winners:
Industrialists
Landlords
Middle Class
Urban Workers
Peasantry
Other Social Effects
Industrialists:


They were able to depend on a permanent alliance with the government
-Vidoni Pact(1925), Charter of Labour(1927) ->increased their powers (this policy helped to destroy the capacity of the trade unions to
resist
 the workers' unions were replaced by the Corporations, directly controlled by the replaced by National Council of Corporations)
 During the Great Depression, after 1933, they were given top priority by the government
 -investment from the IRI*,
-official approval of the spread of cartels (effectively reduced competition between the industrial giants preventing any real modernization)
Landlords:


They received lots of help from government policies.
(The government intended to maintain a large rural labour pool through agriculture)



-the movement of rural workers to cities was allowed only by permission of local prefects
-special workbooks(libretto di lavoro) was introduced in 1935
Even though Mussolini’s original belief was to have small landholders in Italy, the large estates maintained their state despite the Great
Depression.
Middle Class:
They experienced mixed fortunes
-those in private enterprise adversely affected by the Great Depression
 Some who couldn’t stand to live in Italy during the Great Depression, they emigrated to USA
-those who entered state service did reasonably well for themselves
 Complexity of the administration and the growth of the corporate state produced large numbers of civil service jobs. -Expanding state
and party bureaucracies provided opportunities for employment and status
 Wages were reasonably high and the fringe benefits were considerable
 Expanding education system created new posts for would-be teachers and qualifications for a rapidly increasing number of middle class
students
 Disciplining of organized labour provided them with a new sense of status and security.
Urban Workers:


They were tied down by the regulations introduced by the industrialists with government approval (which on the other hand benefited the
industrialists)
They felt intimidated by high unemployment (about 2 million by 1932) as the government promoted agriculture more than industries
Peasantry:


Overall, they were badly affected and many defied government edicts.
working masses as a whole experienced a comparable decline in living standards, then some moved to the cities to swell the slum
population



a whole range of essentials became too expensive for many urban and rural workers. Food became more expensive and the retail prices
fell but they did not correspond to the reduction in wages
reduction in agricultural wages of up to 40% and the index of real wages fell by 11% between 1925-1938
‘Battle for grain’ -> the neglect of other foodstuffs and the wasteful use of marginal land
The lives of women:



Mussolini emphasized domesticity, maternity and self sacrifice to women through propaganda.
Women were allowed to work, but they were prevented from roles which threatens men’s superiority.
Women from different classes had different roles.
 Upper class took care of their children and female organisations
 Middle class had to work
 Lower class participated in the battle for births.
 “Battle for births”
An aim to double Italy’s population within a generation. This was essential for an empire.
The family which had most kids won benefits such as giving priority in employment to fathers.
However this failed
Youth:




The regime took full advantage of the youths in Italy to maintain Mussolini’s power.
The goal was to channel their behavior into politically and socially acceptable forms, to make them into functioning members of society.
They made sure that the youth learns about Fascism ideas at school
They were trained to be “Fascist soldiers” by entering memberships of the organization Opera Nazionale Balilla (ONB).
Others:
Benefits of Fascism
Fascist social welfare legislation was more advanced and progressive compared to other European nations in some aspects.
These include;
 Old-age pensions and unemployment benefits increased
 Medical care improved to the point that there was an appreciable decline in infant mortality and tuberculosis
 State spent 400 million lire on school building in 1922-42 (when only 60 million was spent in 1862-1922)
Controls by the governments
 The secret police was given wide powers. Even the bandits which had been rife in the south for decades were suppressed.
 Through education, school children were indoctrinated with Fascist ideas. They were told that "Mussolini is always right. Millions of
them were recruited into the youth organizations of the party. In 1931, university professors were forced to swear an oath of loyalty to
fascism and to teach according to its principles.
 The mass media. — the cinema, the radio, the press, the books and the magazines—were all strictly censored by the government.
Was Fascism successful in society?





Before 1922 Mussolini claimed that Fascism represented the interests of all Classes. However by 1939 it was clear that any real benefits
had accrued only to a small minority.
He had many so called “battles” to encourage people to be more competitive. However this didn’t really have good effects.
Although money wages may have declined dramatically, real wages held up better.
Fascist state increased the provision of social insurance (against unemployment, injury, etc) available to workers.
New institutions like the Dopolavoro cushioned the effects of hardship and slightly enriched working class lives.
Diplomacy & Imperialism: Italy’s Foreign Policy
What shaped Mussolini’s Foreign Policy?


Unpremeditated response to domestic problems that were inhibiting his consolidation of power?
OR
Underlying consistency of conquest; always expansionist, even when moderately conducted?
The controlling hand:



Foreign officials couldn’t guide and restrain him for long…
He was his own foreign secretary.
Although from 1929-1932 Dino Grandi, and from 1936 onwards Galeazzo Ciano (his son-in-law) were Foreign Secretaries, his essential
control persisted.
The Imperialist Dream:


Italy wanted to be the dominant influence in the Mediterranean, Africa and the Balkans ideally.
Although the Post-War treaties remove her most serious security threat, Austria-Hungary, the dream of an Empire was far from
becoming a reality because of her economic and military weakness.
The Mutilated Victory:



Fiume had given Fascism much to live up to, and the enthusiasm towards conquest attracted large numbers, including “chauvinistic was
veterans”. The ultimate question was: Could Mussolini deliver?
March on Rome: new ethos reinforced by Nationalists AND Conservatives:“ We Italians like to be loved, but prefer to be envied and
feared.”.
Main Fascist factions: Nationalists, ex-syndicalists, technocrats and squadristi, wanted a “REVISIONIST FOREIGN POLICY” that
would modify peace settlements in favour of Italy, as the current ones were seen as: “Insulting to her status as a victor.”- D’Annunzio


The “dangerously intoxicating cocktail”:
Mussolini’s socialism was completely obliterated. His views were now similar to those of the:
Nationalists, who wanted to use force who believed in PERPETUAL INT’L STRUGGLE especially against France.
AND
Futurists, who wanted the use of modern technology, weaponry and war.
Mussolini wanted a revision of the post-war treaties. He wanted to reinstate the glory of the Italian Empire for the sake of the survival of
an Italian Nation.
Domestic and Foreign Policy:




BATTLE, BATTLE, BATTLE… (births, grain, lira)
Mussolini sacrificed the export industry to focus on heavy industry, necessary of war production.
His militaristic values and quasi military discipline along with his propaganda were certainly not the policies of a regime
whose leader was seeking peace.
France, Mussolini and Britain…





Mussolini had to tread carefully in order to achieve his ambitions. He wished not only for an aggressive revisionist policy, but also for
the kind of influence that would upset the current balance of power.
However, he restrained himself to verbal defiance that didn’t affect the post-war STATUS QUO in a contradictory pursuit, bearing in
mind that, as much as he hated to admit, he was effectively in the hands of France and Britain. But how he loved to defy them and get
away with it.
He wished to be viewed as a “respectable” statesman.
He ridiculed democracy and the L of N pacifism, but this could have been out of jealousy.
He envied Britain and her empire as much as he envied France and her diplomatic web as well as its policy of harbouring anti-fascist
Italians.

However, this was mixed with intense admiration, because Mussolini longed to dictate the course of European affairs, and the amount of
time that F and B had done so was admired.
DUCE: Adventurer and Diplomatist: boldness and negotiation

Fiume and Corfu:





Powerful friends:



The agreement with Yugoslavia ultimately led to the economic stagnation of Fiume, but this did not matter to Italian Patriots.
Although Mussolini basked in the fact that he changed the L of N’s decision concerning Corfu, he learnt he could not defy those more
powerful than himself, as Britain did force him to leave the island.
Evaluation: Italians expected conquest and heroism from their leader. A weak and passive one would not do.
MUSSOLINI BECAME WHAT ITALY NEED HIM TO BE.
Austen Chamberlain, British Foreign Secretary, who admired Mussolini’s anti-bolshevism and imposition of internal order. This
friendship helped
Mussolini expand his empire in Africa.
Adolf Hitler, Nazi leader of Germany.
The Balkans and Africa:
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Mussolini’s interests weren’t ENTIRELY respectable.
He wanted to extend Italian influence in SE Europe.
He encouraged subversive movements in Yugoslavia and Hungary, and wanted to replace French influence by Italian.
He wanted the Adriatic region, even if it meant dismembering Yugoslavia.
He ruthlessly subjected the Arab and Berber population of Libya.
Although he signed the 1928 friendship treaty with Ethiopia,friendship was the last thing in his mind.
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Mussolini grows impatient:
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Formal diplomacy was leading various foreign journalists and cartoonists to criticise him.
From 1928, he became more strident and adopted “REVISIONISM” as the official policy.
However, he still had to be prudent. Italy was not ready for conflict. The 1929 depression had caused the military budget to be cut.
Luckily, this
coincided with the L of N’s attempt at disarmament, so Italy could pretend to be the “good neighbour”.
In July 1932, he resumed the foreign secretaryship and filled the most important posts with committed fascists.
He abandoned “tactical ambivalence” and intensified the policies of the late 1920s.
Diplomatic manoeuvring was less appealing than Terrorism and Imperialism.
Other Factors:
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The PNF had lost its political role.
The Corporatist state was running out of steam and the Fascist revolutionary promises needed fulfilling.
Relations with the Vatican had been stabilised. With no significant domestic conflict, it was the perfect time to expand.
The Anglo-French monopoly was coming to an end.
Most importantly:
It was the opportune moment to export Fascism… Mussolini increasingly laid claim to an IDEOLOGICAL conception of foreign
policy, something he did not consider when he first came to power.
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This was the era of Fascism, in which Italy’s imperial destiny would be fulfilled at last.