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SUBJECT: Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design
UNIT: TCLEOSE Course # 2103
Steve Garst, L.C.C./C.C.P.S.
PHONE: 936-203-4361
TIME ALLOTTED: Twenty-four (24) hours – 3 days
INSTRUCTIONAL AIDS: Lap top computer, LCD projector and screen, eleven (11) power
point presentations, displays of various locks, hinges and peephole displays, videos,
relevant Internet sites, white board and flip chart.
STUDENT MATERIALS: Binder containing copies of all power point presentations, together
with assorted researched information on each discussion topic, along with other relevant
topics such as reading blueprints, safes and ratings and assorted other up-to-date data.
PREREQUISITE EXPERIENCE OF THE LEARNERS: Basic understanding of Crime Prevention.
No specific course prerequisites.
GOAL (PURPOSE OF THE COURSE) This course is designed to familiarize students with the
concept of Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED) such that students
can explain it to the general public. Further, the student will be able to apply the concepts
in daily applications of Crime Prevention, whether that be simply giving advice on
individual topics or preparing a home or business security survey.
DATE PREPARED: December 7, 2009
PREPARED BY: Steve Garst, L.C.C./C.C.P.S.
Adjunct Instructor, Institute for Criminal Justice Studies
CPTED Lesson Plan – Property of Sgt. Steve Garst
SUBJECT: Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED)
UNIT: TCLEOSE Course # 2103 – 24 Hour Class
(Specific points of information to complete the goal statement):
Overview Section
1. The student will be able to define the basic terms of CPTED.
2. The student will be able to demonstrate various strategies used in the implementation of
3. The student will be able to identify the four basic CPTED principles of (1) Natural
Surveillance, (2) Natural Access Control, (3) Territorial Reinforcement and (4)
4. The student will be able to recite the four “D’s” of CPTED, (1) deter, (2) detect, (3) delay
and (4) deny and define each.
5. The student will be able to articulate that CPTED concepts have been around for centuries
but were not called by that name.
6. The student will be able to identify and define the three lines of defense: (1) perimeter,
(2) building exterior and (3) building interior.
7. The student will be able to list up to nine of the basic principles of crime prevention
8. . The student will be able to define the term “crime prevention.”
9. The student will be able to define the term “crime prevention through environmental
CPTED Lesson Plan – Property of Sgt. Steve Garst
10. The student will be able to list the three CPTED actors: normal, abnormal and observers.
11. The student will be able to label the three sides of the crime triangle – desire, ability and
12. The student will be able to state several of the principles contained in the Theory of
Opportunity Reduction.
13. The student will be able to list the two issues concerning solid barriers.
14. The student will be able to identify the main issues related to the issue of maintenance or
lack thereof.
15. The student will be able to list the three assessments of space – designation, definition
and design, and identify which of the three is where most mistakes are made.
16. The student will be able to state up to eight selected strategies in proper CPTED design.
17. The student will be able to view floor plans and site plans and suggest a variety of ways
they can be improved using CPTED principles.
18. The student will be able to list at least three items that would be considered “lines of first
19. The student will be able to list at least three items that would be considered “lines of
second defense.”
20. The student will be able to list at least three items that would be considered “lines of third
Assessments and Liability Section
1. The student will be able to match the definition of term to “security assessment.”
2. The student will be able to break down the five components of the definition of crime
prevention and explain each.
3. The student will be able to list at least seven of the nine points of concern in a buildings
security assessment.
4. The student will be able to articulate the best times to conduct security surveys and why.
5. The student will be able to discuss several ways to sum up their initial reaction to a
building that can serve to guide them through the process.
6. The student will be able to provide a list of entrapment areas they might encounter in a
CPTED Lesson Plan – Property of Sgt. Steve Garst
7. The student will be able to describe the difference between eye isolation distances and
ear isolation distances.
8. The student will be able to state the need to establish the usage of nearby properties
adjacent to buildings being surveyed.
9. The student will be able to list several examples of “movement predictors.”
10. The student will be able to discuss the “human factor” related to the safe use of property.
11. The student will be able to articulate the need for obtaining crime statistics in the area of
the building security assessment and state the preferred time frame for them.
12. The student will be able to state the need to obtain demographics of the area where the
building is located that is being assessed.
13. The student will be able to list several reasons for the need to interview persons during a
building survey.
14. The student will be able to further list several examples of the types of people that should
be interviewed.
15. The student will be able to name the major components of an assessment report.
16. The student will be able to list the major components that should be included on the cover
page of the report.
17. The student will be able to list the major components that should be included on the table
of contents page of the report.
18. The student will be able to list the major components that should be included on the cover
page of the report.
19. The student will be able to provide a basic outline of at least one way to outline the
contents of the report.
20. The student will be able to write a basic “introduction” for a security assessment report.
21. The student will be able to articulate the need for a “disclaimer” and be able to provide a
basic disclaimer statement.
22. The student will be able to write a basic “environmental narrative”.
23. The student will be able to provide an example of what a proper, fully described “general
deficiency” might be for a security assessment.
CPTED Lesson Plan – Property of Sgt. Steve Garst
24. The student will be able to provide an example of what a proper, fully described “general
recommendation” might be for a security assessment.
25. The student will be able to provide an example of what a proper, fully described “lighting
deficiency” might be for a security assessment.
26. The student will be able to provide an example of what a proper, fully described “lighting
recommendation” might be for a security assessment.
27. The student will be able to articulate the need for pictures and give at least one example
of when and how pictures should be used, and give at least one example of when not to
use them.
28. The student will be able to pick the term “premises liability” from a list and match it to the
property title.
29. The student will be able to list several items that might be considered “deficiencies” that
would be cited in a premises liability lawsuit.
30. The student will be able to distinguish the difference between “English Common Law” and
“Early American Law” by matching the proper definitions to the appropriate title.
31. The student will be able to define the term “special relationship.”
32. The student will be able to define the term “”assumed duty.”
33. The student will be able to define the term “foreseeability.”
34. The student will be able to define the term “prior similar incidents rule.”
35. The student will be able to define the term “totality of the circumstances.”
36. The student will be able to articulate several points and counterpoints relative the current
court usage of the “totality of the circumstances” rule.
37. The student will be able to list at least three things the CPTED practitioner should always
do to cover themselves related to liability issues.
Lighting Section
1. The student will be able to state at least three reasons why exterior lighting is so valuable
from a CPTED viewpoint.
2. The student will be able to articulate that the correct answer to lighting deficiencies is not
always “more light” but “more appropriate light” and give at least one example of the
CPTED Lesson Plan – Property of Sgt. Steve Garst
3. The student will be able to match the definitions of the terms “watt”, “lumen”, “footcandle”, and “kilowatt” to the appropriate title.
4. The student will be able to calculate the electrical costs to use any appliance when the
appliance wattage and cost per kilowatt hour is given.
5. The student will be able to list several of the characteristics of incandescent lighting.
6. The student will be able to list several of the characteristics of compact fluorescent
7. The student will be able to list several of the characteristics of halogen lighting.
8. The student will be able to list several of the characteristics of fluorescent lighting.
9. The student will be able to list several of the characteristics of mercury vapor lighting.
10. The student will be able to list several of the characteristics of metal halide lighting.
11. The student will be able to list several of the characteristics of high pressure sodium
12. The student will be able to list several of the characteristics of low pressure sodium
13. The student will be able to state several reasons for buying and for not buying high
intensity bulbs.
14. The student will be able to list the three basic types of switches used in lighting fixtures
and give at least one characteristic of each.
15. The student will be able to list at least three positions for lighting.
16. The student will be able to articulate the reasons why ground lighting and accent lighting
should never be considered security lighting.
Windows and Glazing Section
1. The student will be able to articulate several generalizations about windows concerning
their proper use and reasons for having them.
2. The student will be able to define the term “u-factor”.
3. The student will be able to define the term “solar heat gain coefficient”.
4. The student will be able to define the term “bullet resistant” as it applies to glass.
5. The student will be able to define the term “spalling”.
CPTED Lesson Plan – Property of Sgt. Steve Garst
6. The student will be able to define the term “fire integrity”.
7. The student will be able to define the term “service life” as it applies to glass.
8. The student will be able to define the term “standard glass”.
9. The student will be able to define the term “tempered glass”.
10. The student will be able to define the term “wired glass”.
11. The student will be able to define the term “laminated safety glass”.
12. The student will be able to define the term “safety film”.
13. The student will be able to define the term “glaze” or “glazing”.
14. The student will be able to list several characteristics of Low-E glass.
15. The student will be able to list several characteristics of Reflective Glass and at least one
16. The student will be able to list several characteristics of Spectrally Selective Glass and at
least one use.
17. The student will be able to list the three primary types of safety glass and give at least one
characteristic of each.
18. The student will be able to state the two primary types of glass alternative products and
will be able to list at least two characteristics and/or uses of each.
19. The student will be able to list at least four of the six types of windows commonly in use
20. The student will be able to describe an awning type window and list at least one
characteristic and advantage/disadvantage to its use.
21. The student will be able to describe a casement type window and list at least one
characteristic and advantage/disadvantage to its use.
22. The student will be able to describe a fixed type window and list at least one
characteristic and advantage/disadvantage to its use.
23. The student will be able to describe a hopper type window and list at least one
characteristic and advantage/disadvantage to its use.
24. The student will be able to describe a single-hung type window and list at least one
characteristic and advantage/disadvantage to its use.
CPTED Lesson Plan – Property of Sgt. Steve Garst
25. The student will be able to describe a double-hung type window and list at least one
characteristic and advantage/disadvantage to its use.
26. The student will be able to describe a sliding type window and list at least one
characteristic and advantage/disadvantage to its use.
27. The student will be able to discuss the uses and non-uses for two-way glass.
28. The student will be able to articulate at least three different reasons why windows should
not be covered in commercial businesses.
29. The student will be able to discuss the appropriate uses and non-uses of one-way
visibility glass.
30. The student will be able to articulate the basic rules of CPTED as they apply to windows –
keep them locked, secondary locks, etc.
Doors and Other Openings
1. The student will be able to state the minimum required thickness of an exterior wooden
2. The student will be able to list at least five common ways doors are entered illegally.
3. The student will be able to view a standard door and jamb assembly and be able to
identify the key components on the diagram.
4. The student will be able to list the two most common types of wooden doors and give the
appropriate characteristics of each.
5. The student will be able to list several characteristics and qualities of a steel door.
6. The student will be able to list several characteristics and qualities of an aluminum door.
7. The student will be able to list several characteristics and qualities of a fiberglass door.
8. The student will be able to list several characteristics and qualities of a French door.
9. The student will be able to list several characteristics and uses of a Cremone bolt.
10. The student will be able to list several characteristics and qualities of a sliding patio door.
11. The student will be able to list at least three methods of securing sliding patio doors.
12. The student will be able to articulate at least two ways to defeat overhead garage doors
CPTED Lesson Plan – Property of Sgt. Steve Garst
13. The student will be able to describe at least three methods to properly safeguard
overhead garage door openers.
14. The student will be able to state the difference between single, double, and triple layer
garage doors.
15. The student will be able to articulate the similarities of connecting entry doors from
garages into the home with normal exterior entry doors and provide recommendations
on how to properly secure them.
16. The student will be able to describe at least four different ways to properly secure a hinge
pin that is located on the exterior of a door.
17. The student will be able to provide a minimum of two recommendations needed to
properly secure the strike plate area of a door assembly.
18. The student will be able to start the difference between strike plates traditionally
furnished by manufactures with locksets to after-market high security strike plates.
19. The student will be able to make recommendations as to why doggie doors and mail slots
should not be used in doors.
20. The student will be able to articulate the need for a peep home in solid doors and give the
minimum requirements for a proper one.
21. The student will be able to indicate the issues with reverse peep holes and make
recommendations on how to defeat them.
22. The student will be able to provide a list of guidelines to select adequate exterior doors.
23. The student will be able to point out at least three issues that should be considered
regarding landscaping near exterior doors.
24. The student will be able to list at least three general guidelines concerning exterior doors.
25. The student will be able to describe the two primary design styles of skylights and
articulate several security issues that must be considered to secure them.
26. The student will be able to give at least three recommendations regarding the proper use
of roof hatches.
27. The student will be able to articulate the primary issue with window air conditioner
installations and give at least three suggestions to improve them.
28. The student will be able to summarize the basic needs for addressing building that are on
pier and beam or otherwise exposed floors with access below.
CPTED Lesson Plan – Property of Sgt. Steve Garst
29. The student will be able to articulate several ways that roof access ladders should be
properly installed.
Locks and Key Control Section
1. The student will be able to provide the basis definition of a lock.
2. The student will be able to list the basic characteristics of a standard door knob lock set.
3. The student will be able to list the basic characteristics of a single-cylinder deadbolt lock,
along with it primary use.
4. The student will be able to list the basic characteristics of a double-cylinder deadbolt lock,
along with it primary use.
5. The student will be able to list the basic characteristics of a captured key deadbolt lock,
along with it primary use.
6. The student will be able to list the basic characteristics of a “jimmy-proof” deadbolt lock,
along with it primary use.
7. The student will be able to list the basic characteristics of a rim lock, along with it primary
8. The student will be able to list the basic characteristics of a mortise lock, along with it
primary use.
9. The student will be able to list the basic characteristics of a chain lock, along with it
primary use.
10. The student will be able to list the basic characteristics of a keyless lock, along with it
primary use.
11. The student will be able to list the basic characteristic of an anti-saw bolt, and list its
primary characteristic and how it work.
12. The student will be able to describe the benefits and use of a beveled casing or cover.
13. The student will be able to articulate what an anti-drill feature is and how it basically
14. The student will be able to list all four features required for a padlock to be considered a
security padlock.
15. The student will be able to point out the differences between a hockey puck lock and a
disc lock.
CPTED Lesson Plan – Property of Sgt. Steve Garst
16. The student will be able to define a “burglar bar” as it relates to doors and list one
advantage and one limitation.
17. The student will be able to discuss a number of issues related to key control and make
specific recommendations for implementation of proper controls.
18. The student will be able to provide recommendations against the practice of hiding keys.
19. The student will be able to discuss in detail the many advantages and disadvantages of
proximity card readers for control, listing some of the additional advantages of their use.
Fences and Landscaping Section
1. The student will be able to list at least five different types of fence materials in common
use today.
2. The student will be able to explain the difference between a basic security fence and a
basic privacy fence.
3. The student will be able to state the minimum height, post location and basic design
criteria for a standard eight foot cyclone fence.
4. The student will be able to provide the proper lengths of post hole depth needed for every
additional foot of fence post over four feet.
5. The student will be able to describe the basic fabric requirements, along with clips and
bolts required for a security fence.
6. The student will be able to list the additional guidelines for fence posts and rails for fences
over twelve feet in height.
7. The student will be able to articulate the minimum, maximum and acceptable distances
security fences should be from the item being protected.
8. The student will be able to discuss the issue of horizontal slats on fences and give at least
one suggestion on how to eliminate that problem.
9. The student will be able to reiterate the landscaping requirement to allow proper
visibility thought fences, giving at least three recommendations to eliminate improper
10. The student will be able to define the “3-7 rule “ in CPTED.
Alarms and Cameras Section
1. The student will be able to discuss the main issues of a properly functioning intrusion
alarm system and the requirements.
CPTED Lesson Plan – Property of Sgt. Steve Garst
2. The student will be able to discuss the main issues of a properly functioning fire alarm
system and the requirements.
3. The student will be able to list the three main components of an alarm system and give a
description of how each function operates and its purpose to the system.
4. The student will be able to list at least two of the more common sensing devices for alarm
5. The student will be able to list the three most used space or motion sensing devices in use
6. The student will be able to identify when listed the four types of remote transmission
7. The student will be able to note three of the five main causes of alarm system
malfunctions or failures.
8. The student will be able to articulate why alarm systems should be installed in
conjunction with a quality camera system.
9. The student will be able to will be able to discuss some of the more common, recently
documented effectiveness’s of having cameras installed.
10. The student will be able to identify the single highest cost of after-market installation of
camera systems.
11. The student will be able to discuss the importance of proper maintenance and quality
installation and updates to camera installations.
12. The student will be able to list a variety of locations where cameras should, and should
not, be installed and give at least one reason why for each given.
Colors, Pictures and Art Section
1. The student will be able to articulate the fact that colors do in fact impact human
2. The student will be able to list at least three characteristics of the color red.
3. The student will be able to list at least three characteristics of the color yellow.
4. The student will be able to list at least three characteristics of the color green.
5. The student will be able to articulate why the same color looks different under different
kinds of lighting.
CPTED Lesson Plan – Property of Sgt. Steve Garst
6. The student will be able to demonstrate that color may also appear different based on the
contrast of the background with which they are placed.
7. The student will be able to articulate the fact that pictures can be used to influence human
behavior, but should be carefully selected to elicit the behavior desired and give several
8. The student will be able to give at least one example how signs and arrows can be used to
influence human behavior by giving adequate direction and instruction.
Floor Plans an Sight Plans
This section is all based on pictures that give various scenarios or problems, followed by a slide
that gives one possible solution. Students will be asked to look at each scenario and provide their
own suggestions prior to viewing the proposed solution provided by the instructor. The overall
objective is to get students to apply knowledge gained so far in the class to real world issues and
get them to start thinking in CPTED mode.
1. The student will be able to discuss a variety of solutions to each problem situation
1. The student will be able to articulate the reasoning behind using colored dots to signify
safe and unsafe rooms for weather and shelter in place issues.
2. The student will be able to articulate the needs for comprehensive safety plans that
encompass a variety of issues, especially as they relate to terrorism.
3. The student will be able to redefine the old adage that “practice makes perfect” to more
correctly say that “practice makes permanent.”
4. The student will be able to discuss the importance of uniquely identifying buildings from
all sides, above, and below (when appropriate).
5. The student will be able to identify a variety of traffic calming techniques to slow traffic
by speed.
6. The student will be able to identify a variety of traffic calming techniques to slow traffic
by volume.
7. The student will be able to identify a variety of traffic calming techniques to slow traffic
by both speed and volume.
8. The student will be able to describe at least two different methods that are being studied
to improve traffic calming methods.
CPTED Lesson Plan – Property of Sgt. Steve Garst
CPTED Lesson Plan – Property of Sgt. Steve Garst
(Student Motivation / Opening Statement)
Slides 6 – 16 – Pictures of ancient homes and fortifications
The concept of CPTED has been around for centuries, we just never called it that. Ancient
civilizations used all these principles to place homes, forts and other areas in locations that were
easy to defend against intruders and helped to keep the occupants safe. The term was first used
by C. Ray Jeffries in a book he wrote entitled Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design in
the early 1980’s. The concept was slow to catch on, and others, such as Tim Crowe expounded on
the topic. Today, many still do not know basic CPTED concepts. Some architects are beginning to
become educated on CPTED principles, as are some town managers, business owners and
ordinary citizens. Adequate education of the general public is essential if CPTED principles are
ever to become widespread.
Ancient civilizations realized the need for rules and some were much harsher than our current
laws. (Refer to the Code of Hammurabi slides.) In later days, cultures still recognized the need for
guidance in both access control and maintenance, both terms to be discussed in detail shortly.
(Refer to Roman Law slides.) Warfare also taught us lessons. WWII and Vietnam showed us that
it was difficult to move large amounts of troops quickly through narrow, twisted streets. That
lesson came back in the form of narrow, winding streets in residential subdivisions to force
traffic to reduce both their volume of traffic and the speed they drove, making it safer for kids
playing in yards of for older people to cross streets. (Point out Vietnam slide.)
In the pictures, point out the difficulty of gaining access to these structures. While crime
prevention may not have been the overriding factor when the structures were designed and
built, it is certainly a good byproduct. Houses on stilts to avoid flooding also make it difficult to
gain unauthorized access.
The lessons of ancient cliff dwellers were studied, learned and applied to more modern cliff
dwellers, especially in European countries.
Military fortifications in almost all cultures provided high walls with pointed or other dangerous
tips, narrow entrances and few of them, small portholes for shooting while offering protection
from being seen, and much more.
CPTED Lesson Plan – Property of Sgt. Steve Garst
The 1500 mile long Great Wall of China was designed to keep entire countries of people in or out,
depending on your location and point of view.
(Implementation of Instruction)
Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design – Forward
Majority of things related to CPTED are “common sense and good judgment.” (Slide 18)
It is thinking of uncommon solutions to common problems, or common solutions to uncommon
Example: Students (stoners) at a high school loitering in an unattended area after school.
Administrators want a low cost way to get them to move on, without personnel, cameras, etc.
Solution: Play classical music over the PA on a nearby speaker each afternoon. After three days
they are gone.
Crime (Prevention) is everyone’s responsibility.
(Slide 19)
The first tenet of the American Crime Prevention Association is that “crime is everyone’s
responsibility.) People cannot rely solely on police officers to fight. They must take ownership of
the problem and do their part to fight crime. CPTED is a simple way to get everyone involved at a
low cost that is effective in preventing crime.
Truism – “Convenience Kills Safety”
(Slide 20)
This is an inverse relationship and almost holds universally true. If it is safe it is probably not
convenient, and if it is convenient, it is probably not safe.
Example: Employees don’t want doors in the back where they park to be locked. Others don’t
want fences that restrict movement, etc. There are examples after examples.
Security Caveat – Anything made by man can be defeated by man.
(Slide 21- 22)
Nothing man-made is 100% crime proof. If man can make it, man can defeat it. So why bother?
The four “D’s” of CPTED come in here. Deter, detect, delay, deny. Make things more difficult.
Reduce the risk of harm to people and reduce the destruction to property. Make them move to
other, softer targets. Slow down criminals. Increase the risk they will be caught. Limits the
liability of owners if they have done all they can to limit risks. Shows they care and are concerned
about preventing crime.
CPTED Lesson Plan – Property of Sgt. Steve Garst
Security Can be Either Physical or Psychological
(Slide 23)
Many concepts of CPTED use physical barriers, such as fences, shrubs, walls, curbs and other
barriers to achieve the goals. But many barriers do not present a physical barrier at all, but are
still good deterrents. Lighting is a good example. Nothing about light physically prevents anyone
from doing anything, but its presence certainly deters crime.
Crime Prevention – Definition
(Slide 24)
What is crime prevention: It is “the anticipation, recognition and appraisal of a crime risk and the
initiation of action to remove or reduce it.”
Anticipate – to expect, foresee or plan for something. It is looking at a situation hypothetically
and asking “what if?” this or that were to happen. Then what?
These “what if” questions help to identify potential problem areas, which are then recognized as
potential areas that need attention.
Appraisal is the assessment or evaluation of the identified problem with the goal of finding
potential solutions to correct these hypothetical problems before they become actual problems.
Initiation of action to remove or reduce it is the process where a solution is implemented toward
preventing the problem from becoming a reality. Some problems may have actions that can
completely eliminate a potential problem.
Example: A lone window at the back of the building is identified as a potential place of illegal
entry. The solution is to remove the window and brick in the opening to match the existing wall
of the building. Now there is no longer a hole in the wall, thus preventing entry.
Some (most) actions only help to reduce the prospect of crime or danger. Placing an 8 foot
security fence around a swimming pool with a self closing, automatic locking gate helps to
eliminate the possibility of someone entering the property, falling in the pool and drowning, but
it does not absolutely prevent it. Someone may block open the gate, climb the fence or slip in
with the gate is opened by someone else and then drown.
Crime Prevention has eight (8) basic principles
(Slides 25 -26)
(1) It must be geared to the local level. As with anything, problems are better identified and
programs are better run when they are close to the source. People and agencies from remote
locations cannot do nearly as well in crime prevention as can local folks with local resources.
(2) Specific policies, goals and objectives must be set by law enforcement – Law enforcement
personnel are by and large the best trained to look for crime and to offer potential solutions.
The general lay public, absent any training or involvement in crime prevention are often
clueless as to where to begin. Law enforcement should lay the ground work. They should not
CPTED Lesson Plan – Property of Sgt. Steve Garst
dictate solutions but should offer guidance and overall direction to keep citizens on track as
they identify and address potential crime problems.
(3) All officers must understand that everyone is responsible for achieving the goals. This
applies to officers as well as citizens. One officer with a bad attitude can do more to undo many
hours of crime prevention efforts than a whole group of citizens. The average citizen looks to
law enforcement personnel as professionals with expertise in solving crime problems. An officer
who demonstrates the he or she does not care can cause many folks to simply stop asking for
input from any officer.
(4) Place a special emphasis on youth. Young people, from the early teens to mid-twenties,
are shown to commit the bulk of the crimes. Even those who do not commit crimes may be
friends or acquaintances of those who do. They know where many of the problems are and in
many cases have a pretty good idea of how to address them, if someone just asks or gives them a
chance. Also, to the extent they are involved, they have a vested interest in helping to not only
come up with strategies, but more importantly, to help implement those strategies. They are
often the key to success or failure of many crime prevention programs.
Example: Think of a park where skateboarding became an issue. Was it solved without the
direct involvement of the teens who use it? Doubtful.
(5) Develop fact based plans to analyze the types of crime that pose threats. Every place is
unique and has its own unique set of issues. What may be a problem in one area of town may
not be an issue at all in another. The specific facts related to the project or area in question is
necessary to properly address potential problems for every area or building. Surveys may be
used to ask users and neighbors what they see as issues that need addressing. Observation of
the actual use of the property, both day and night, often reveals issues that some may have
never noticed. Speaking with custodians, maintenance personnel, service workers, delivery
drivers, etc. all give a different perspective and help both to identify problems but also offer
(6) Foster Neighborhood Watch Groups. Neighborhood Watch is a proven mechanism for
preventing crime. Criminals repeatedly state that when they see NW signs they go elsewhere
because when they see that they know there are nosy neighbors who may be watching. NW
groups that are properly formed and adequately trained can do wonders in helping to foster
crime prevention. Neighbors helping out and looking out for neighbors is a powerful tool.
(7) Provide security surveys and crime statistics. A security survey is performed by persons
with extensive training in crime prevention and CPTED concepts. They are trained to look for
problem areas and offer solutions to address them. These surveys are generally much more indepth, comprehensive studies of the property. All surveys should include crime statistics for the
property in question as well as the immediate area. Six (6) months is the absolute minimum
someone should check crime statistics when doing a survey but one (1) year is much better. If
circumstances dictate, it may be necessary to go back even further. This would be necessary
where crime shows to have changed significantly in recent times, where seasonal spikes occur
to show the cyclical pattern and similar needs.
CPTED Lesson Plan – Property of Sgt. Steve Garst
(8) Crime Prevention takes place at the Neighborhood Level. This is almost a summary of
recap of the preceding rules. Fact based plans, outlined by law enforcement that focuses on local
issues and involves youth and NW programs are much more likely to be successful. This
suggests that a more concise solution can be found not just at the local level, but further down at
the individual neighborhood level.
Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED) – Definition
(Slide 27)
“Proper design and effective use of the built environment can lead to a reduction in the
incidence of crime and the fear of crime and lead to an improvement in the quality of life.”
As the definition suggests, the proper design is the first consideration. The most significant,
positive impact can be made by properly designing a building before it is built. Once built, many
constraints are added that have to be dealt with to make it safer. It is still doable, hence the
second part ‘effective use’ comes into play. Even a poorly designed building can be made safer by
controlling the movement of people or how they actually use the facility. The reduction in both
the fear of crime and actual crime is the goal. Actual crime may be one thing. The perception
(fear) of crime may be something else altogether. If a person perceives that crime is high in a
certain area, it may as well be because potential victims will react or behave as if it were a reality.
To the extent that crime or the fear of crime is reduced, then the quality of life is improved.
Example: If someone thinks that muggings and assaults in the park across the street from their
house are excessive, they will not use the park. This is true whether or not their assumption is
factually correct. If they believe it is not excessive, they may be more likely to use it. If they use a
park for the purpose with which it was intended, the quality of life improves for the users as well
as the surrounding community.
Physical Environment AFFECTS the behavior of people which AFFECTS the productive use
of space which AFFECTS crime or loss prevention.
The best way to think of this is by an example. If students (point to the class) are in a classroom
and the temperature is set way low so that it is unreasonably cold (physical environment), and
they have no way to change the setting themselves, their primary concern is staying warm, not
learning (behavior). The learning environment is impaired (productive use) because they are not
focusing on the lesson but on getting warm.
The same theory holds true for crime prevention and CPTED. If the physical environment can be
changed so that people use the space for the purpose for which it was intended, the space and
the people become more productive. Legitimate activity tends to make the criminal element go
elsewhere, so the end result is that crime is reduced.
CPTED has three types of actors
(Slide 29)
(1) Normal Users – These are the people who are using the building for the purpose for which
it was intended, or they are at least the group legally occupying the space, whether or not
they are using the property fully as intended. These are workers in the factory, dwellers in
CPTED Lesson Plan – Property of Sgt. Steve Garst
the apartment complex, tenants in the shopping mall, customers at the retail store, etc.
These are the people you want using the space and they are the potential victims. These
are the people you want to feel safe, so there less crime, or less perception of crime.
(2) Abnormal Users – These are the people using the property for purposes other than those
intended. They may be the ones cutting across the lot as a shortcut, damaging or littering
the property in the process, or the drug dealers who have taken over the darkened
tree0lines corner of the property for their drug deals. They are the folks you want to leave
the property, and if the CPTED assessment and solutions are effective, this is what will
(3) Observers – a.k.a. Gatekeepers – These are generally neighbors, passers-by, or others.
They are not using the property either legally or illegally. They are just in the vicinity.
These people, especially those who live or work nearby, can provide invaluable
information about a piece of property, and can often give suggestions for improvement.
They see the comings and goings on a daily basis and can often have a positive impact on
improving the quality of life for those who do use it, as well as for themselves, if properly
The Crime Triangle – Desire, Ability and Opportunity
(Slide 30)
All three elements must be present for crime to occur. A person must first have the desire to
commit a certain crime. They must then learn how to do it properly; otherwise they get caught
quickly and easily. Once those two things are in place, they have to have the opportunity – the
base of the triangle. Our goal in CPTED is to take away the opportunity. This is about all we can
control. We cannot take away the desire of someone to commit a crime, nor can we keep them
from effectively learning how to commit it. We can however take away the opportunity for them
to carry out their plan.
Example: A kids wants to steal a car (desire.) He does some research, from other car thieves or
goes on-line and learns how to hot-wire cars (ability). That person now has two of the three
things needed to commit a crime. However if he is unable to find a car to steal, or finds cars but
they are so well secured (locked, alarmed, well-lighted, etc.) he cannot effectively carry out his
plan. Taking away the opportunity to commit the crime is the goal.
Theory of Opportunity Reduction
(Slide 31)
(1) Criminal behavior is learned – Despite some folks seemingly inherent willingness and
knowledge to commit criminal acts, the ability to do so correctly and repeatedly, without
getting caught, is a learned behavior. There is little we as crime prevention practitioners
can do to keep someone from learning a skill, even an illegal one, if they are intend on
doing so. Still we can have some impact on this area.
(2) Reducing the opportunity reduces the ability to learn – If we can remove the base of the
crime triangle, we can reduce the criminal’s ability to perfect his or her skills.
Example: If there are no available cars for a new criminal to hot wire, he can’t perfect his
skills. Remove the opportunity and you remove the crime.
CPTED Lesson Plan – Property of Sgt. Steve Garst
(3) Criminal opportunity is lessened by improved security and increased surveillance. – The
better we secure property (lock in up, put it inside, remove packages from sight, etc.) the
less likely a person will even attempt a crime. One of the best ways to prevent crime is by
increasing the perception and/or the reality that the area is being watched by someone.
Whether this is done by putting more unobstructed windows on the front of the store, or
placing cameras around the area, or any similar measure, the increased visibility reduces
the likelihood that someone will even attempt a criminal act.
Tools and Knowledge
(Slide 32)
(1) We can help potential victims. – These are the folks that we can impact. By applying
CPTED and other crime prevention concepts, we can better protect someone from
becoming a victim.
(2) People have limited control of their own environment. – Think about the example of the
cold classroom and no thermostat available. Many times people have a very limited ability
to control their environment. Workers in a building have limited access to areas, etc.
Unless the person is actually the building owner, and thus are in a position to alter
conditions in the building, non-owners have a very limited ability to control factors that
could make it more or less safe for themselves.
(3) Control the potential victim’s environment, not the criminals. – As stated earlier, we
cannot control the criminal, but we can control the area populated by legitimate users. If
we can make that area safer, we have limited the criminal’s opportunity to commit a
(4) Controlling the victim’s environment affects the criminal motivation by reducing the
criminal opportunity. – This emphasizes what has already been said. Make the potential
victims area safer and by default, the opportunity to commit crimes is reduced.
(5) Law enforcement has a primary role in reducing opportunity through education,
information and guidance. – Law enforcement has the tools, knowledge and training to
know how criminals operate and thus can predict how to best reduce the opportunities
for crime. By meeting with citizens in NW groups or other settings, and sharing this
knowledge with citizens, the message of how to stop criminal behavior is spread.
(6) Crime Prevention strategies and techniques must remain flexible and specific. – Criminals
are persistent. If they are determined to remain in an area and commit crimes, they will
modify their methods to accomplish their goals. Law enforcement and citizens need to be
aware of the changing face of criminal activity and try to anticipate how criminals may
adapt, or be prepared to react quickly if criminal activity starts which was not predicted.
Cost Effectiveness
(Slide 33)
Making recommendations to thwart criminal activity are often costly. High costs are one reason
the people decline to implement recommendations that would make the area safer. The
challenge is to find methods that will accomplish the goal of removing the criminal opportunity
in a low cost manner. The challenge is to get out of the rut of thinking the same way every time.
The old adage of “when you are a hammer, everything becomes a nail” comes to mind. We have
to change our mind-set if we are to find low cost alternatives to thwart criminal activity.
Example: When Houston Metro put light-rail in downtown they had to block off the inside lanes
of streets with concrete barricades. The inside lanes were generally their bus lanes also. People
CPTED Lesson Plan – Property of Sgt. Steve Garst
were sitting on top of the barricades to be the first on the bus, but that potentially put them in a
position of falling or being pushed directly into the path of oncoming traffic. Their solution –
apply a thick coating of grease on top of the concrete barriers. They had it in great supply and the
solution was relatively low cost. It stopped people from sitting on top of the barricades.
We must also consider what is being protected. It is unrealistic to recommend that someone put
a $100,000 state-of-the-art camera and monitoring system in a warehouse that only contained
$5,000 worth of easily obtainable inventory parts. Consider the importance of what is being
protected and make sure the cost of protecting it does not out-weight the value of the protected
The Four (4) “D’s” of Crime Prevention
(Slides 31-38)
(1) Deter – (deterrence): to keep someone from doing something through fear, anxiety, or
doubt. To discourage someone from doing something. Example: Install an alarm in a
vehicle and place a “club” on the steering wheel to make that vehicle unattractive to
criminals. Make them want to move on to another target and not even try to enter that
(2) Detect – (detection): to find out or discover the presence of existence of anything hidden.
Example: A building alarm is triggered when a window is broken, sending an alert to local
law enforcement, alerting them of a possible illegal intrusion. The criminal is caught
because his or her act was detected.
(3) Delay – to put off to a future time; postpone; to make late; to stop for a while. Example:
placing a high-security padlock on a door that is frequently the location of unauthorized
entry. The criminal is accustomed to cutting the low-security padlock with bolt cutters
however this high security lock does not have an exposed shackle so the bolt cutters does
not work. It takes more time to try to defeat this lock, thus increasing the possibility the
criminal will be caught.
(4) Deny – to refuse access to; forbid. Example: a criminal still attempts to cut into the high
security padlock but is unsuccessful. The extra measure taken to better secure the door
prevented entry thus denying the crime and allowing only the attempt.
The Four Strategies or Key Concepts of CPTED
(Slide 39)
(1) Natural Surveillance – The ability to see in and out from the property.
(2) Natural Access Control – Controlling ingress and egress to a building to guide legitimate
users and thwart illegal users.
(3) Territorial Reinforcement – Clearly establishing where one property stops and another
starts. Identifies public from private and private from other private property.
(4) Maintenance – Showing continued ownership of the property by proper upkeep.
It is important to note that these categories overlap. There is seldom a clear delineation between
where one stops and the next starts. Often the same solution will fall into more than one category
or concept. For example, lighting fixtures in parking lots may be of a different design that nearby
street lights. The result is that natural surveillance is enhances since lighting makes things more
visible. Additionally, territorial reinforcement is noted because the difference in features shows
CPTED Lesson Plan – Property of Sgt. Steve Garst
that public property has stopped and private property has started. Each of the four concepts will
frequently overlie one another.
Natural Surveillance
(Slides 40 – 43)
Place physical features, activities and people in a way that maximizes visibility. Design buildings
with windows that face public areas. Do not block windows with displays, advertisements, or
similar items. Maintain an open area of viewing.
Example: The 3-7 rule: - No shrub, bush, benches or similar items should be above three (3) feet
in height and no tree limbs or similar obstruction should be below seven (7) feet. This creates an
open area of a minimum of four (4) feet to allow viewing into or out of the area.
Public spaces should be open and well-lighted at night. Criminals like the cover of darkness.
Adding artificial light helps to offset the cover of darkness. Parking lots, walkways, hidden areas,
etc. are all examples of areas that should be open to visibility and well lit at night. Do so helps to
make intruders more visible and easier to observe their activities. People approaching the area
have a better opportunity of avoiding becoming a victim if they can see someone lurking in the
area before they leave their vehicle or building and become more vulnerable.
Parking garages and lots are particularly difficult to light. Garages often have very low ceilings,
which prevents light from being projected over large distances. This generally requires more
lighting fixtures to overcome the deficiency. Painting the structure white or some other light
color helps to reflect the available light to offset lack of fixtures. Designing open stairwells so that
people passing by can see in helps make the areas safer.
Parking lots often do not have enough light poles, or the poles are not tall enough to project the
light over sufficient distances. Sufficient lighting should overlap each other so that there are no
dark areas or shadows in the spaces between the fixtures. Sometimes merely changing the type
of light head or type of lighting itself can alleviate the problem.
Be cautious of the “law of unintended consequences” Many time people will come up with
what they think is the best solution but fail to think things all the way through. This may create a
problem that did not exist beforehand. Consider the “what-ifs” of doing certain things beyond
what the current problem being considered.
Example: A city in Arizona had a problem with street racing on the main thoroughfare thru town
late at night. Their solution was to add metal halide lighting, a very bright white light. It did deter
the racing because the natural surveillance it afforded made it much easier to see cars
assembling from greater distances. The unintended consequence was that the reflected light up
on the nearby mountainside, where the high-dollar homes were located, was so bright it now
obscured their view of the night sky. They were major taxpayers and they were not happy. The
city had to go back and replace the bright lights with a different fixture (at considerable more
cost) to both fix the racing problem and not block out the view of the mountainside homes.
Building entrances should be unobscured. There should be no landscaping closer than twentyfour (24) inches. Solid doors should have peepholes to allow viewing from the inside without
opening the door. Glass doors should not be covered in such a way that visibility is obstructed.
CPTED Lesson Plan – Property of Sgt. Steve Garst
Ideally there should be no hidden alcoves or porches that allow someone to hide close to the
Doors and windows that overlook streets are great deterrents. Even windows that are ‘fake’ can
help. While recommending fake anything is generally never a good idea, because of the
expectation and legal issues they generally raise, fake windows to not imply that someone is on
the other side watching like a camera system does. A window merely gives the opportunity to
view something, but it creates the perception by criminals that someone may be inside watching
their activity.
Sidewalks should be clear, well maintained and unobstructed. They should be lighted if
necessary to improve visibility at night. Lighting can be used to emphasis that one sidewalk can
be used as opposed to another, helping to actually guide folks where desired.
Visibility Issues with solid barriers
(Slide 42)
Solid barriers have two negative effects. The first is it provides a shield for unauthorized activity.
It provides a place for criminals to hide while in preparation, or in actual carrying out, their
criminal activity. The second is it prohibits legitimate users from observing the property and
being able to see that an unauthorized person is in the area.
Example: Every commercial building needs a dumpster for trash. No one wants to see them so
many times cinder block or other solid materials are used to construct a shield for them. These
provide excellent places for criminals to hide and virtually eliminate the ability for legitimate
users to see unauthorized persons in or around the dumpster.
Picture of bank building
(Slide 43)
Point out that there is a four lane street in front of the visible car. There is a parking lot to the
right and a large Lowe’s parking lot behind, all providing a 270 degree field of view. Bushes are
trimmed low and there are no huge columns or other structures that prevent visibility into or out
of the area. The ATM is on the left side and is easily visible.
Natural Access Control
(Slide 44 - 47)
This concept addresses ingress and egress from the property. Ideally, it controls who goes where
and when they go there. This may be done by key control for example, where certain employees
have access to areas that others may not. Certainly the general public would not have keys and
thus access to non-public areas. This concept may also use gates, turnstiles, traffic direction and
traffic calming devices to force people and vehicles through certain control points.
This concept may also use physical attributes such as landscaping, fences, changes in types of
lighting, signs, and similar strategies to guide people.
Signs may direct. They may serve as notice of restricted access. They may inform. They may also
be confusing, especially if they are too small or too cluttered with too much information that it
confuses the reader. This is especially true if the sign has to be read and understood while
CPTED Lesson Plan – Property of Sgt. Steve Garst
driving. If the sign has too much information, is too small or otherwise difficult to read in the
allotted time while driving, they are useless.
Landscaping may be used as visual clues of where to go. Lower shrubs in the parking lot may
gradually increase in size nearer the entrance to visually draw the eye to the door. Care must be
taken not to violate the rules of natural surveillance with larger bushes, especially those near the
building however.
This concept is aimed at reducing the opportunity for crime by physically denying access to
areas. Gates force people to come and go in specific areas. They provide choke points. Many
criminals may not want to be confined to only one avenue of escape and thus may decide to go
elsewhere to commit their crimes. The deterrence may be psychological as well. Parking lots that
are open and unobstructed, with proper lighting that draws attention to the path that folks
should follow to get to the building via wide open spaces deters prospective criminals. The
perception that they may be seen much sooner and by more people than if the area were
secluded or dark causes them to go elsewhere in many instances.
Controlling Ingress and Egress
(Slide 47)
This serves as a natural channel for people to pass into and out of a facility. The channel must
accommodate normal, expected movement that is customary for that type of business or
establishment. Emergencies must also be considered also. There may be times that solutions that
are adequate for normal business may not work at all for emergency vehicles. Example: If a steel
entrance archway is constructed at a height of nine (9) feet to accommodate cars and pickups,
but prohibit delivery trucks it will prevent fire trucks and many ambulances from using that
entrance. Beware of “the law of unintended consequences.” Don’t solve one problem and create
another. Finally, it should not deter or detract from the overall value of benefit. Example: A ten
foot chain link fence with razor wire on top may definitely discourage burglars but it would
probably not be acceptable to parents if it were constructed around an elementary school. The
same would hold true of many other buildings. Example: After the Oklahoma City bombing, the
Federal government set out to better secure the Federal buildings nationwide against truck
bomb attacks. They considered many alternatives but the one most generally settled on were
bollards around the buildings, many topped with lighting. Not only were they functional, but they
were ascetically pleasing, with the added benefit of providing more lighting around the buildings.
For existing buildings in urban settings, this was a good compromise over high fences set at great
distances from the building and similar alternatives.
Pictures of High School
(Slides 48 – 60)
Point out the small signs with lots of information, some of which have conflicting information.
Where is student parking really located, straight ahead or to the right? There is a curved street
with a 40 MPH speed zone. Can drivers read and comprehend these signs under those
Ask where the front door is located. Various slides show a variety of entrance doors none of
which are clearly marked. Two sides of the building has the address, so either could be perceived
CPTED Lesson Plan – Property of Sgt. Steve Garst
as the main entrance. Can visitors clearly and easily find the front door so they can properly
register as a guest?
Pictures of Stadiums
(Slides 61 – 62)
Slide 61 shows the soccer stadium in Frisco, Texas. The entrance is clearly marked with a large
globe. This visually draws the eye to that location from the parking lots, clearing guiding visitors
to the gates. Once at the entrance, the plants and sidewalks almost form a “V” shape funneling
visitors directly to the gate both visually and physically. The entire area is open and
unobstructed, making it easy to see if folks are hanging around. This is a good illustration of
natural surveillance and natural access control.
The football field at Little Elm also visually and physically draws people to the ticket gate. Vehicle
access is controlled by gates that do not detract from the view of the stadium. The sign is less
confusing that others. The entire area, especially near the stadium itself is well lighted. It also has
good natural surveillance and access control.
Parking Lots Pictures
(Slides 63-65)
Ask students what they notice about the first lot. (Note that there are no clear entrances and
exits, no marked spaces, many different paving materials, no lighting, no access control, no clear
indication of where the adjoining business parking starts and stops, no way to control
trespassers, no way to safeguard cars, etc.)
Compare that to the next two slides of a parking lot only two blocks away. It is fences, lighted,
well maintained, stripped, has no tall bushes (3 foot rule) and all tree limbs are well above the
recommended seven (7) foot rule. Gates can control traffic flow and thus ingress and egress.
Ask which lot the student would feel more comfortable parking in, especially at night.
Civic Center Building Pictures
(Slides 66 – 68)
Ask the student what they see as issues. (They should point out lack of maintenance; fences that
hide activity, shrubs grow up next to doors and entrances, poor parking lot maintenance,
inadequate lighting, easy access to the roof via the arched columns, graffiti that has accumulated,
Houses along coast drive
(Slides 69-70)
Ask students what they see as concerns, if any. (They should point out trees and shrubs being
allowed to grow right up next to the entrance of the first house. There is no natural surveillance
and lots of places for persons to hide. Unauthorized persons can be in the garage of the first
house without being noticed. It is also dangerous to try an exit the driveway as bushes obscure
the view of oncoming traffic.)
Ask students to contrast the second house with the first. They should note the shutters over all
doors and windows. No shrubs or bushes on the property which opens up the natural
CPTED Lesson Plan – Property of Sgt. Steve Garst
surveillance. A camera system is noticeable adding to the surveillance aspect. It somewhat gives
the appearance of a fortress as opposed to a house, but from a CPTED viewpoint, it embraces all
of the CPTED concepts – natural surveillance, access control, territorial reinforcement and
Territorial Reinforcement
(Slide 71)
This concept (the third) strives to express ownership by using physical attributes that
distinguish it from the surrounding property. This can be done with landscaping that is different
that adjoining property. It can be done with signs to say this is mine. Fences are an obvious way
to establish territory. Even subtle things such as lighting that differs from adjoining lighting can
say this is mine and that is theirs. Changing paving materials can subtly show that a transition
has occurred from one owner or property to another. This is best illustrated by the next graphic.
Graphic of transformation from public to private space
(Slide 72)
This graphic shows how to use different types of driveway and sidewalk materials to show
ownership, The transition from asphalt to concrete, across grass that differs from that along the
sidewalk, across sidewalks transitioning from concrete to pavers all show different ownership.
Landscaping, fencing, and lighting can all serve to add to the concept of territorial reinforcement.
Picture of landscaping and open lots
(Slides 73-76)
Point out the difference in landscaping. It is easy to see in the first two pictures where one
property stops and the next starts. In the last two it is almost impossible to tell where one
property ends and the next begins. While natural surveillance is in abundance in the last two
pictures, it totally lacks both access control and territorial reinforcement. All the concepts must
work together. Having one, but excluding others, opens up the possibility for the criminal
element to get involved.
(Slides 77-78)
The last of the four concepts, it the most overlooked. People tend to let burned out light bulbs go
unchanged, seldom used doors and gates go unrepaired, defer painting the building or parking
lot striping and things of that nature. Continued upkeep of these items and all the other
maintenance issues allows for the continued use of the space for its intended purpose. Good
maintenance makes a statement that this is mine and it has value to me so I am taking care of it.
It serves as a further expression of ownership. This is the “broken windows’ concept known to
police officers. If the small things are tended to immediately, they don’t become large and they
don’t encourage illegitimate users for trying to take over and/or use the facility for their illegal
Things must be inspected on a routine, periodic basis. Have holes been dug under fences? Has
the fence fabric fallen or have the posts sagged? Do the locks on the gates still swing on the
hinges or are they falling off or rusted shut from non-use? Example: A school had a great fire
escape plan. They intended to exit the building, pass thorough a large vehicle gate (seldom used
and padlocked) to an adjoining park, where parents and busses could pick up the kids. No one
CPTED Lesson Plan – Property of Sgt. Steve Garst
checked the padlock on the gate prior to the drill. It was rusted shut from lack of use. 700 kids
and teachers were trapped against a locked fence with no place to go. Fortunately it was only a
drill. What if there had actually been a major fire?
Pictures of lack of maintenance
(Slides 79-92)
Ask students what they see in the first two slides. Broken fences and overgrown landscaping
encourage illegal entry and make a statement that the owner doesn’t care about his/her property
so why should others?
Ask students what issues they see with a fence section that has fallen. They should point out that
not only is inadequate maintenance an issue but the opening affords a place to hide to more
easily gain entry into the unoccupied house. It further draws attention to the fact that the house
is vacant.
Ask students what issues they see with garage doors that have obviously been pulled up and off
track. They should point out the ease of entry to the rest of the house. The garage provides cover
and concealment for unauthorized activity, as well as giving criminals extra time to gain entry to
the rest of the house without discovery.
Ask about what the students think regarding foreclosure notices and advertisements being
placed on doors and windows. They should answer that it merely advertises the fact that the
building in empty and encourages criminal activity.
Ask students is the open Knox Box is a concern to them. They should answer that it definitely is.
The building key that was inside the Knox Box is gone, meaning that someone has a master key
to the building. The solution must be that the building must be completely rekeyed immediately.
Ask students what they think of areas that allow graffiti on walls or cars to be places up on blocks
and left for long periods. They should answer that graffiti that is left only encourages more
graffiti, along with the attendance violence that often accompanies it. Cars left on blocks for long
periods of time encourages theft of parts from those cars and both factors draw in the criminal
element. Their presence only serves to virtually guarantee more crime is coming – soon.
Ask students what they think about graffiti that is left on a “Keep the Sparkle” sign. They should
say that graffiti encourages more graffiti. Obviously no one has taken ownership of this park. No
one is watching it and ensuring that it is used for its intended purpose. This graffiti is a direct
challenge to the park owners to show who, in reality, really owns and controls this park.
Additional pictures that follow only serve to reinforce these views as graffiti covers virtually
every surface of the park – benches, tables, poles, sidewalk – everything.
Ask students if they see any issues with this parking garage. They should point out the
overgrown bush and the fact that the lower level appears to be adequately secured by bars to
prevent illegal entry. The second level, which is still near the ground, is only secured by a sagging
cyclone fence. Obviously someone has attempted entry and was possibly successful. No one has
repaired the fence to prevent further illegal entry. Some may point out the “wall art” on the
electrical box near the bushes. Obviously graffiti must have been an issue here in the past, and
CPTED Lesson Plan – Property of Sgt. Steve Garst
someone has taken the initiative to try and prevent it by commissioning art work on the box.
This has been proven to be an effective technique in thwarting illegal graffiti.
Target Hardening (A fifth strategy)
(Slide 93)
Target hardening is anything that makes it more difficult to complete an unauthorized act. It
does it several ways. First it makes the target less appealing. Example: Two BMW’s parked side
by side, identical in every way except that one has an alarm system, a “Club” on the steering
wheel and VIN etching on all the glass. Which one is the car thief or burglar most likely to try to
enter/take? Obviously the one without the extra devices. The one with all the added items is a
“harder target” so the criminal will generally move on to easier ones.
Target hardening can take many forms. Increasing physical barriers is generally the one most
used. Adding more or better locks, alarms systems, camera systems and things of that nature.
Psychological barriers are sometimes used, like lighting, removing shrubbery to open up natural
surveillance, placing signs or notices of surveillance and things of that nature, but these are not
always viewed as target hardening solutions. Still, to the extent that criminal activity is thwarted
by whatever measures are taken, it could reasonably be considered target hardening.
Assessment of Space
(Slide 94 – 98)
There are three methods that are used in assessing the space. They are (1) designation, (2)
definition and (3) design.
Designation – (Slide 95) Up to ninety (90) percent of mistakes in the planning, designing and
building a building are made right here. This is the point where the owner of the property tells
architects and engineers what it is he or she wants built. This is where he relays his or her vision
of what he sees in his/her mind to the mind of the people actually drawing the plans and
calculating the requirements of the structure. It is the original purpose of the building. In doing
security assessments, one should always look at how well the space supports the use or intended
use. If miscommunication happens here it adversely affects the “effective use of the space” for the
duration of the life of the building. Once the building is built, conflict often arises between what
was intended and what is actually happening. Example: An apartment owner asks architects to
design an apartment complex such that the washateria is centrally located. (but does not go on to
state “to make it safer for users.” The architect places it in the main building, inside the
courtyard, but in an area that is secluded and not many people will normally use this area. It
becomes a place for drug deals in the complex. Women are afraid to go there alone to wash
clothes. They either go in groups of friends or they just don’t go. Question – Is quality of life
adversely affected? Yes. Is the space being used for the purpose for which it was intended? Yes,
people are still washing clothes but is there conflict? Absolutely!
Example Drill
(Slide 96)
Display this slide and ask the students to take a plain sheet of paper, draw out a rough sketch of
the building as it is shown on the slide and then tell them to “add a porch on the back of the
building.” After giving them several minutes to do so, ask them to share what they drew. Chances
CPTED Lesson Plan – Property of Sgt. Steve Garst
are you will get a great variety of shapes and sizes of patios. This illustrates how “designation”
(fully explaining the desired results) can lead to misunderstandings and thus problems down the
(Slide 97)
This speaks to how well the designation of the space (Step 1) accurately depicts the final product.
Is the space defined? Is it clear that this open space was designated, and thus defined as a
badminton court?
Selected Strategies
(Slide 98)
(Slides 99 – 102)
If the building, for whatever reason, is not fulfilling the desired end, what are some strategies or
solutions that can be used to bring it into compliance, and make it safer for everyone?
First, clearly define the borders of the space. Walls of a building obviously define the “space” the
building occupies, but that may become less clear outside. Apply territorial reinforcement to the
project by clearly indicating ownership. Even something as simple as mowing the grass can begin
to show ownership and clear border definitions. The end result is that normal and reasonable
persons should be able, by virtue of applying territorial reinforcements, to tell where ownership
transition occurs.
Second, as with the graphic shown earlier (slide 72) that shows how to establish private
property from public property, or from neighbor’s property, pavement treatment, signs, lighting,
landscaping, fencing, and a whole host of other options can be used to distinguish one property
from another.
Third, place safe activities in unsafe locations. This may seem odd, but the idea is to place
legitimate users in places where they can monitor activity that may be unwanted. Ask for
examples. Example: Drivers education programs after school are a generally safe activity. There
is multiple folks in and out of an area as they practice driving. If there are issues in one of the
parking lots (BMV”S, thefts, etc.) place that safe activity in that parking lot (unsafe location) to
monitor activity.
Fourth, place unsafe activities in safe locations. Ask for examples. Example: A casino in Las Vegas
had two parking lots behind their casino. The valet lot was immediately behind the casino and
the self-park was way out back. The theory was that valet employees would not have to go as far
to get cars and thus reduce the wait of customers and those too cheap to pay for valet parking
could be inconvenienced by having to walk a little further. The problem was, cars were being
burglarized in the back lot and people (winners) were getting robbed as they walked to their
cars. Ask students for a solution. The low cost idea is to switch lots. Give the valet folks a golf cart
to speed up the trip, and allow those not using valet services to park closer. The valets are
CPTED Lesson Plan – Property of Sgt. Steve Garst
moving through the front lot all the time keeping an eye on suspicious activity in the front lot.
Result: crime virtually stopped and the only real cost was repainting signs for the lots and an
investment in some golf carts.
Fifth, redesign the space to increase the perception or reality of natural surveillance. Ask the
class for examples. Example: Place a one-way mirror between the office manager’s office and the
cashier out front so the owner can remain in the office and observe what is going on around the
register. Is the cashier stealing or not ringing up all the purchases? Is someone acting suspicious
and acting as if they may be about to steal something or rob the clerk?
Sixth, relocate gathering areas to locations with natural surveillance and access control to
locations away from view of would-be offenders. Ask for examples. Example: Drug dealers are
starting to congregate in the small park area behind the building originally designed and
intended for workers to eat lunch on pretty days. At all other times the area is vacant. The drug
dealers notice this and begin taking it over at those unused times. Making the area a designated
smoker area now gives smokers a legitimate place to go (a safe activity – not considering health
issues), while at the same time placing them in a location to see the unauthorized activity and
report it. The drug dealers finally leave and find a new location.
Seventh, redesign the use of the space to provide natural barriers to conflicting activities. Ask for
examples. Natural barriers do not necessarily need to be physical. Separation by distance is a
natural barrier. Example: A skate park for teens may be regarded as threatening or intimidating
to elderly people who are meeting weekly in an adjoining community center. Moving the
locations or times of either of these events will resolve the apparent conflict. The conflict need
not be real. Perception is reality, so if the elderly believe there is a problem, it is real to them.
Eighth, overcome distance and isolation through improved communication and design
efficiencies. Ask for examples. Example: Many college and university campuses have long
distances to walk between building to classes or to/from parking lots to classes. One way they
have dealt with this issue is with ‘blue phones’ on poles around campus that dial directly to the
police department, giving immediate help.
(Slides 103 -109)
Walk through each graphic, asking student for their solutions on each point. Graphics will
illustrate some of the solutions just discussed.
Three Lines of Defense
(Slide 110)
There are three lines of defense to criminal activity in CPTED. (1) the building perimeter, (2) the
building exterior and (3) the building interior. The best solution start farther out. As concessions
are made on the first or second line of defense, more must be added at the third line to yield the
same measures of safety. Example: The Israeli Mosad studied one school shooting incident they
had back in the 60’s. From that, they determined that the spot to clear visitors was at the fence
surrounding the school, before the people ever got to the building. They said it was easier to
neutralize a threat at the perimeter than it was inside the building, because at that point it was
CPTED Lesson Plan – Property of Sgt. Steve Garst
really too late to effectively handle a situation. The result – Since that was implemented there
have been no significant school incidents again.
Perimeter Barriers – the first line of defense
(Slide 111)
A barrier is anything that restricts or obstructs. It may be either physical or psychological.
Remember other CPTED rules though regarding natural surveillance. Solid barriers provide a
shield to illegitimate users and prevent legitimate users from being able to see the area. This will
be covered in more detail later in talking about landscaping, fences and other perimeter features.
Building Exterior – the second line of defense
(Slide 112 - 113)
Ask how many sides a normal square building has. Most will say four (4). Some will count the
roof and say five (5). Few will also consider the basement or floor, which effectively makes six
(6) sides. All must be considered. Storm sewers may be a source of entry as well as basement
stairs, etc. Likewise, unsecured roof hatches or skylights may also be points of entry via the roof.
For the sides, not only should windows and doors be considered but things like window air
conditioners. Have they been properly secured or shielded to prevent them from simply being
pushed into the room, leaving a gaping hole by which to enter. Remember, concessions allowed
on the first line of defense (perimeter) must begin to be made up for here. This too will be
covered in more detail later in talking about windows, doors, skylights and similar items.
Building Interior – the third line of defense
(Slide 114)
This is a complex area and will involve such things as alarms, cameras, doors, locks, metal
detectors, key control, building access, and a host of other factors. All must be considered to
safely secure the building. As with the other two, more details will be discussed as the topics of,
alarms, cameras, key control, etc. come up.
CPTED Lesson Plan – Property of Sgt. Steve Garst
(Student Motivation / Opening Statement)
One of the most important tasks a crime prevention practitioner will perform is a Security
Assessment. Security Assessments may be done on commercial buildings, manufacturing
facilities, schools, apartment complexes, malls, or personal residences. In other words, they may
be done for any piece of real estate property. These assessments are done for a variety of
reasons. Frequently it is because some crime issue has come up and the owner of the property is
asking for help in keeping it from happening again. Other times, the owner is anticipating
potential problems and is asking for assistance in preventing them from occurring. Sometimes a
property is for sale and the owner wants to give potential buyers reassurance that they have
anticipated crime problems and have taken proactive steps to prevent them. It may also be the
potential buyer who is asking for the assessment and he/she wants to see if there are issues the
current owner has not addressed and that he or she, as the new owner, will need to handle.
Whatever the reason, the crime practitioner will be presented with unique issues every time. No
two pieces of property are exactly the same. The challenge will be to look at the project as a
whole, not trying to magnify or minimize any one or two issues. Presumably the crime
practitioner is the ‘expert’ and the recommendation they make to the owner of the property will
can great weight in both business decisions as well as potential litigation should someone sue.
For that reason, if for nothing else, the crime practitioner needs to be very thorough and prepare
a comprehensive report, with realistic, achievable solutions for identified deficiencies. Doing so
will go a long way toward minimizing the legal risk of both the owner and the crime prevention
practitioner. More importantly however it should make both the property and the persons who
use it much safer, which should be everyone’s ultimate goal.
(Implementation of Instruction)
What is a Security Assessment?
(Slide 2)
It is a “critical on-site examination and analysis of an individual plant, business, home, public or
private institution, to ascertain the present security status, to identify deficiencies or excesses, to
determine the protection needed, and to make recommendations to improve the overall
‘Critical’ means that the property is scrutinized in detail. Every potential aspect of the property
needs to be assessed. What are potential crime problems of the geographical area? What are
potential crime problems of the property itself? What, if anything, has been done to address
issues in the past? What are issues with parking, walking, visibility, hearing, and on and on. That
does not mean that the crime practitioner has direct criticism toward the property or owner. In
fact, it is always good to point out areas that are good or adequate, along with pointing out areas
CPTED Lesson Plan – Property of Sgt. Steve Garst
of deficiencies. Crime practitioners need to place themselves in the position of the owner. How
would they want someone else to present issues, good or bad, to them about their property.
‘On-site’ means that the crime practitioner has to actually physically inspect the property, often
multiple times. There is a need to inspect it when normal, everyday activity is present. For most
businesses, this generally means daytime. There is also a need to inspect it at times when it is
closed. A whole different set of variables and issues are usually identified between open and
closed times, which are literally and figuratively, night and day, which are also times the
property needs to be visited.
The crime practitioner is examining whatever the piece of property is looking specifically at the
security statue. Sometimes areas are found which are adequate. If that is the case, the
practitioner needs to state that he/she has looked at a specific area, describing it, and found the
security to be adequate, also explaining what those adequate items are. Other times, the
practitioner will find deficiencies. These need to be specifically identified and every deficiency
must be accompanied with specific recommendations the practitioner deems necessary to
correct them. There may even be occasions where the practitioner finds that there is an
overabundance of security for some area. These too should be noted. While most people believe
there can never be enough security, from a business person’s economic standpoint, if something
can be eliminated that saves them money, while not compromising the overall security of the
specific item, the practitioner should make appropriate recommendations to achieve that.
Components of an Assessment
(Slide 3)
The components are the definition of crime prevention. They are the (1) anticipation and (2)
recognition or a crime risk, the (3) appraisal of that risk and the (4) initiation of action to remove
or alleviate that risk. Each area of assessment should address each of these points.
Nine points of concern
(Slides 4 – 5)
(1) What is the general purpose of the building?
What is the general purpose and designation of the building? Is the actual use consistent
with that designation? Consider the hours of use. Who are the people using the building?
Who are the people who have access and key control? Who performs maintenance and on
what type of schedule? Is the building open to the public? Are there issues or concerns of
workers separate and apart from those of the general public?
(2) What are the hazards involving the building or occupants?
These hazards are not limited to what we normally think of as hazards, although those
items certainly need to be considered. Hazards would certainly include things like
chemical storage. Don’t forget that every custodial closet potentially contains some type
of controlled chemical that is subject to specific storage requirements. On-site labs and
processing facilities will most certainly contain a much greater quantity than most other
sites. In addition, consider the opportunities for crime. Things like, but not limited to,
employee theft, theft of workers personal property (purses/briefcases, etc.), assaults, and
any other type of crime likely to occur on this particular property.
(3) Are there any police or security applications?
CPTED Lesson Plan – Property of Sgt. Steve Garst
Does the property have on-site guards? Are they on duty 24/7 or some other times? What
can they do to improve security? How about law enforcement patrol of the area? How
often do they drive by and what routine actions do they take? Do they routinely get out
and pull doors or just drive by? Is there anything they can do that would improve
(4) What are the physical recommendations?
Inspect the lighting, doors, windows, fences, gates, alarms, metal detectors (if applicable),
et al. This is not an all inclusive list. Ask the class how many sides a normal square
building has. Most will say four (4). Some will say (5) counting the roof. Maybe some will
correctly say six (6) and count the basement or subfloor. Every building should be
considered to have at least six (6) sides until one or more can be eliminated. This will
generally comprise the bulk of the assessment. Each deficiency must be noted in detail,
and specific recommendation must be made to correct each one.
(5) What are the provisions for locks, both of the building itself, but for costly equipment if
Consider not only the types and quality of locks, but also the key control for them. When
was the last time they were changed? Can the owner be absolutely certain there are not
unauthorized duplicates in existence? If not, what needs to be done? Is there costly, easily
portable property that needs to be considered? Things like laptops or desktop personal
computers, labeling machines, cash registers, and things of that nature need to be
(6) Is the property alarmed?
If so, is it adequate? Does it protect the areas that need protecting? Is it monitored 24/7.
Does it have the ability to isolate building sections, allowing for turning it off in specific
areas while leaving other, unoccupied areas alarmed. Who has codes and when have they
been changed. If there is no alarm, would the property benefit by having one installed? In
addition to the alarm itself, consider cameras or CCTV system. Could the property benefit
from having one and would installing one be cost-effective or too expensive to consider?
(7) Storage
Does the business maintain an inventory, either in the store or in a back warehouse? How
is it monitored and controlled? What are safeguards for shoplifting and/or employee
theft? Also consider provisions for handling cash and other costly, but easily concealable
items such as office supplies, postage stamps, office machines, and other similar items.
(8) Signs
Are they adequate signs, if applicable? Do they contain necessary information without
being cluttered or confusing? Are trespassers warned to stay off? Are visitors told where
to park and enter the building? Are notices regarding on-site cameras and similar security
items prominently posted?
(9) Custodians, maintenance and delivery personnel.
Are the persons employed in these capacities subject to a background check? Can their
routine duties be modified so that they also serve to increase security for persons or
property? What are protocols for deliveries? Who signs for them and how are they
distributed throughout the building? Are outside delivery personnel allowed to go
unattended throughout the building or complex?
What is the best time to conduct the assessment?
CPTED Lesson Plan – Property of Sgt. Steve Garst
(Slide 6)
The first is during normal working hours when workers are present. This allows the practitioner
to view work patterns and flow of persons and traffic. It will also allow them an opportunity to
interact with and interview persons who work there. Often these people can and will point out
problems that may not be readily apparent, or that are issues for them. These interviews can
provide great leads to follow up on to better address security.
Another key time is after the business is closed, if it is not a 24 hour operation. This allows the
practitioner to see the property when few if anyone is around. Since this is generally at night, it
allows the practitioner to see lighting deficiencies, entrance detection deficiencies and isolation
issues that may not be readily apparent in daytime.
In any event it is absolutely necessary to visit the property at least twice, once in the daytime and
again at night, regardless of whether or not it is a 24/7 operation. Daytime and nighttime each
offer their own unique set of issues, whether the property is occupied or not.
Assessment Guidelines
(Slides 7 – 17)
(Slide 7)
What is your (the inspector) gut reaction?
First impressions are generally accurate. Try to sum up your feelings in five words or less. “This
place sucks!” or “this isn’t too bad.” are good first impressions. These impressions should then be
used as internal guidelines to direct the inspection however caution is needed. Do not overly rely
on them. They are guidelines which may prove to be inaccurate upon further, detailed inspection.
Would your impression be different if you were disabled in some way?
Would your first impression change? Can you still get around safely?
What if you were here alone late at night?
Would your impression change even further? What if it were your spouse, child, sister or mother
and they were here alone, day or night? Would you feel even more different?
Guidelines - continued
(Slide 8)
How is the lighting?
Is it working properly? Does it have the correct type of light source (metal halide, high pressure
sodium, incandescent, etc.)? Is it aimed properly and not ‘bleeding over’ on adjoining property?
How is it activated (switch, timer, photo electric cell, etc.)? Is it evenly distributed or are there
shadows and unlit areas? Is it possible to physically identify a person 25 feet away or a vehicle at
75 feet, including an accurate color description of clothing or vehicle color, etc.?
How are the sightlines?
How far can someone see before visibility is restricted in some manner? Are there trees, shrubs,
columns, building abutments or alcoves that provide areas of hidden seclusion? Are there solid
fences, enclosures (such as for dumpsters) or similar items that limit the ability of the legitimate
user to see while providing cover and concealment for illegal activities?
Guidelines - continued
Are there signs?
CPTED Lesson Plan – Property of Sgt. Steve Garst
(Slide 9)
Are they adequate and not conflicting or confusing? Are they easy to understand and follow? Are
they prominent enough (large enough and readily seen) to be useful without providing cover and
concealment? Are there enough of them or are there too many? Is the route they suggest safe,
day and night?
Are there entrapment areas?
Are there long dead-end hallways with no means of escape? Are bathrooms, cafeterias, laundry
rooms or other common areas prominently located or hidden and off the beaten path? Are there
sheds, loading docks, hidden recesses, privacy fences, etc. that could provide areas to trap a
potential victim?
Guidelines - continued
(Slide 10)
Are there eye isolation distances?
Ask the class what eye isolation distances mean? This does not speak so much to how far
someone can see, but more to how likely it is that the potential victim can/will be seen by others.
If there is ‘eye isolation’ then potential victims are generally in either a remote area not readily
observable by passers-by or the area is somehow otherwise hidden from view. (Example: tall
landscaping, long distance, etc.) It also deals with how many people are likely to be around to
observe someone. Are there other workers, the general public or casual observers normally in
the area that will be able to see a problem? Does the same hold true at night or when the
business is closed? How easy is it to predict how many people will be around at various times of
the days or days of the week? Do guards or law enforcement routinely patrol the area?
What are the ear isolation distances?
(Slide 11)
Ask the class what this means. Most will deduce that it is the same as eye isolation distance but
refers to hearing, not sight. They would be correct. Apply the same questions as for eye isolation,
substituting how far away will others be and still be able to hear if there is a problem? Eye and
ear isolation issues are generally addressed together. One consideration may be installation of
security ‘blue phone’ in the area to help eliminate both eye and ear isolation distances, or
perhaps escorts services.
Guidelines - continued
(Slide 12)
What are a person’s escape routes?
How easy would it be to get away if confronted? Would they be trapped in certain areas or is it
open enough to get away? What if one way is blocked, either accidentally or on purpose? Is there
an alternate route?
What is the nearby land use?
This may seem irrelevant but it can be vital to know what is next door. Ask students why they
think that might or might not be true. Example: What if the property next to a 900 unit
apartment complex routinely handles chlorine products (think swimming pool supplies)? Is
chlorine gas toxic? Absolutely! It is essential to know what is nearby. What about neighbors that
could conflict with the property being assessed? Example: A 2,000 student high school is located
next to a dry cleaning business being surveyed. Could traffic at peak times from the high school
(arrival/dismissal) potentially adversely impact that dry cleaning business? Sure! Would a
potential owner who is off-site be interested in knowing that information? Yep. Does the
neighboring business offer more or less safety to the property being surveyed? If you had to
CPTED Lesson Plan – Property of Sgt. Steve Garst
evacuate your property because of a bomb threat or gas leak, could/would your neighbor be able
and willing to take you in? Could they physically accommodate all the people likely to be on-site
at any given time? Can your business reciprocate and return the favor by taking them in if they
have an emergency?
Guidelines - continued
(Slide 13)
Are there movement predictors?
Things such as elevators, escalators, tunnels, and even hallways are places where larger numbers
of people associate and where they can potentially become trapped. Are these places isolated or
are there areas of concealment near them?
Is it easy to find your way around?
Are the entrances and exits readily apparent and properly marked? Are there sufficient numbers
of them, especially during emergencies? Are they as identifiable to visitors who are there for the
first time as they are for workers who have been there for years?
Guidelines - continued
(Slide 14)
What is the “human factor”?
Does the property feel ‘cared for’ or does it feel abandoned? Is it being properly maintained, such
as routine maintenance programs that check working doors, locks, etc. and keep areas painted
and burned out bulbs replaced quickly? Would more or less landscaping help or would it help to
remove it or replace it with something more appropriate? Are there adequate rest rooms and are
they centrally located? Are there specialty items that need to be considered such as eye wash
stations or similar emergency areas? Are all areas equally well lighted or are only the mainly
used areas lighted, while lesser used areas are dark? Could this be an issue if someone were to
enter the area during daylight but exit after sunset, or on a particularly stormy, overcast day and
suddenly find themselves in darkness?
Guidelines - continued
(Slide 15)
How is maintenance?
Considering not only matters already discussed, like repairing locks, replacing lights, and so forth
but looking also at thing like litter being picked up? Is trash blowing everywhere, with trash cans
either non-existent or overflowing? Do cigarette butts line the sidewalks, patios or entrances?
Are window panes and sidewalks cracked or broken? Is water dripping and/or standing posing
hazards for slipping or health issues from mosquitoes? Is the grass mowed and are the shrubs
and trees pruned to comply with the “3-7 rule.” (Remind students and/or ask them again what
that rule is.)
If improvements are needed for anything what specifically are they? Remember that for every
noted deficiency, there must be a solution offered. What would you, the inspector, like to see
changed? Remember to keep recommendations effective, practical and cost-effective.
Guidelines – continued
(Slide 16)
Study the crime statistics
It is absolutely essential to gather crime statistics for the property being inspected as well as for
the immediately surrounding area. A minimum of six (6) months is required. A year is much better.
CPTED Lesson Plan – Property of Sgt. Steve Garst
Longer may be required if yearly cyclical patterns are evident. Ask the class for an example of
this. Example: You are assessing a business that manufactures and ships large numbers of items
only at Christmas while the remainder of the year is relatively flat. Could there be more crime
during these high cycles than at other times? Yes, so it may be necessary to go back several years
and look at crime stats, at least for those peak periods.
Get demographic information
The demographic make-up of the surrounding area may be critical to a thorough assessment.
Ethnicity, gender, age and similar demographics may impose certain safeguards and/or
restrictions on the property being assessed. Example: A senior living community located next to
a major trucking warehouse may be problematic relative to traffic issues. Seniors generally drive
much slower and react more slowly to rapidly developing situations. Could this be an issue if
large numbers of eighteen wheelers are coming and going next to the seniors entrance/exit?
Guidelines - concluded
(Slide 17)
Interview People
This is essential. Talk to the owner or on-site manager. They will give you one point of view or
perspective. Talk to custodians and maintenance personnel. They will give you a different
perspective. Often these are the folks who truly know where problem areas are and may even be
able to offer relevant solutions. They may be able to tell you how things used to be in certain
areas and if that was better or worse than it is currently. Talk to workers. They will give an even
different point of view and like custodial/maintenance people may be able to give specifics of
problems and solutions, current and past. They can certainly tell you of any special concerns they
have. This is invaluable as these deficiencies may not be readily apparent to a visiting crime
practitioner who might otherwise miss them. There may even be situation where the employees
‘rat out’ an owner/manager, whether accidentally or intentionally. Example: The owner may
have recently temporarily changed a feature of the facility or amended a procedure in anticipate
of your inspection, intending to change it back after you leave. Interviewing employee may reveal
that issue. Talk to customers. They will have a very different viewpoint from any of the above
people with their own unique set of issues that need addressing. Talk finally to observers –
neighbors and passers-by who routinely interact with the property and its staff/customers. They
have a totally different take on the entire facility and process than any of the other folks
previously mentioned.
Study adjacent land use
As has already been noted, adjoining property may be both a positive or a negative factor
regarding the property being assessed. Learning of its use, or planned use, may be critical. Even
vacant land next door needs to be considered. What if the vacant land next to that 900 unit
apartment complex is being considered for a chicken processing plant? Could there be potential
conflict in the future? No doubt!
Walk the property
Physically walking the property is absolutely essential. Walking, particularly at different times of
the day or night, gives totally different perspectives than riding or simply standing and viewing
the same area. When conducting an assessment, especially when writing the report of observed
deficiencies and related recommendations, it is much better to go in some pre-determined order.
Clockwise, counter-clockwise, or some other predictable pattern does two things. It makes it less
CPTED Lesson Plan – Property of Sgt. Steve Garst
likely that something will be overlooked by the inspector plus it make the final report more
readable and easier to follow than it would if the report is jumping around all over the property
with no particular sequence.
The Assessment Report
(Slide 18 – 30)
Assessment reports do not have a standardized format. The below guidelines may be modified as
needed to fit a particular situation or they may be used verbatim to facilitate preparations of
security assessments.
Have a cover page
(Slide 18)
As with any written report, a cover page tells what property is involved, who prepared it, who it
was prepared for and the date is was prepared. Only basic information goes here. Generally it
contains the name and physical address of the property in larger, bold lettering centered on the
page. Below that, in a smaller font size is the name of the person for whom the report was
prepared, followed on the next line by who prepared the report. Generally, one or more spaces
separate each line item. The last item is generally the date the report was completed/submitted.
Since security assessments necessarily encompass several days, to even weeks or in some cases
months, several dates will appear at various places in the report. The date on this page is
generally the date the report is finalized.
Table of Contents
(Slide 19 - 20)
Generally consisting of a single page or two, this page merely summarizes the page location of
each of the key components of the report. Each major component should be listed, together with
the page number of the report where it can be located. Each of these components will be
discussed in detailed in subsequent slides.
(Slide 21)
The purpose of an introduction is to give a very brief synopsis of what CPTED is. It gives the
classic, accepted definition of CPTED and outlines the four key concepts of Natural Surveillance,
Natural Access Control, Territorial Reinforcement and Maintenance. A good, brief introduction
follows and may be used verbatim if desired.
Introduction to CPTED
“Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED) is based on the premise that
the proper design and effective use of the built environment can lead to a reduction in the
incidence of crime and the fear of crime, and lead to an improvement in the quality of life.
CPTED assessments use four key concepts: Natural Surveillance, Natural Access Control,
Territorial Reinforcement, and Maintenance. Natural Surveillance is the placement of
physical features, activities, and people in a way that maximizes visibility. For example,
views into or out of buildings or across open areas should not be obstructed by
landscaping, architecture, signs, window coverings or things of a similar nature. Natural
Access Control is the physical guidance of people coming and going from a space by wellCPTED Lesson Plan – Property of Sgt. Steve Garst
considered placement of entrances, exits, fencing, landscaping, signs, lighting and similar
items. Territorial Reinforcement is the use of physical attributes that express ownership,
such as placement or types of lighting, landscaping, walkways, driveways, signs, fencing
and other items that clearly demonstrate a transition from the adjoining property.
Maintenance, such as painting, mowing, pruning, light bulb replacement and more, all
serve as additional expressions of ownership, indicating that the owner cares for and
takes pride in the property, thus allowing for continued use over its useful life.”
(Slide 22)
The inclusion of a disclaimer is absolutely essential. In our litigious society, people sue everyone
in sight if they feel they have been harmed. More and more, frivolous law suits, alleging a whole
host of seemingly irrelevant items are being brought against property owners. Unfortunately,
jurors and courts are sadly agreeing with these outlandish suits and are awarding handsome
damages on behalf of the plaintiffs. While the inclusion of a disclaimer in no way insulates the
preparer against being named in a law suit, its presence helps to at least put people on notice of
the overall intent of the document, which can often mitigate damages. Disclaimers should be on a
page by themselves, with the heading in a bold, larger font. A well-written disclaimer statement
may be as follows:
This report is intended for __________________________ (place the name of the person who
commissioned the report) and others as he/she alone may specifically authorize or designate. The
suggestions contained within this report should, if implemented, help to reduce the incidence of crime
and the fear of crime in or on the premises. Conversely, the lack of doing any or all of these
suggestions will not necessarily make the property inherently more crime ridden or dangerous to the
The implementation of any or all of the suggestions in the ensuing report is NO guarantee that crime
will go down. It also does NOT contain any assurances that users of the property will become safer. It
will NOT make the property crime-proof.
The suggestions are made by the preparer of this report at the request of the person for whom it is
intended, based on the preparer’s observances, training, knowledge, research and work experience.
They are not all-inclusive and do not purport to indicate that they are the only solutions to observed
deficiencies, to the exclusion of all others. Likewise, the report does not purport to imply that the items
mentioned are the only deficiencies, merely the only ones observed by the preparer. Others may exist
that were not observed by or revealed to the preparer. The person(s) for whom the report is intended
is/are solely responsible for the proper interpretation and implementation of the suggestions and should
contact the preparer if clarification is needed.
Common sense and good judgment is needed by users of this report in the application of any or all of
these suggestions. The preparer assumes no liability for any of the suggestions that are or are not made
to the property. Users of the property are ultimately responsible for their own individual safety. Users
should not, and may not, infer or make any claim of liability against the preparer for any of the noted
deficiencies or related suggestions contained in this report. The person(s) for whom the report is made
CPTED Lesson Plan – Property of Sgt. Steve Garst
agrees to hold the preparer harmless for any claims of any nature that may arise related to this report.
Environmental Narrative
(Slide 23 - 29)
(Slide 23)
This generally starts by describing the geographical location of the property. Remember that not
all readers may be familiar with the property, such as prospective owners. They need to be given
a layout of the property. The major streets or other geographical boundaries surrounding the
property should be given, along with the orientation of the property in relationship to them. A
typical location description may be:
The Mom and Pop Grocery Store is located at 109 Main Street in the city of Anywhere,
USA. The building faces north and is bounded on the north by Main Street, on the east
by East Street, on the South by South Street and on the West by West Street. The
primary vehicle entrance is located on Main Street, in the approximate middle of the
block directly in front of the main entry doors of the store itself. The entrance is not
controlled by a light or other traffic control devise, however a left turn only lane is
provided for traffic traveling westbound on Main Street. Three sides of the property
(East, South and West Streets) are fenced with an eight foot cyclone fence. There are
pedestrian gates in the approximate center of each of the three fences. The pedestrian
gates on East and West Street are not gated, allowing customer access to the store. The
pedestrian gate on South Street is gated and locked at all times, precluding access to
the rear of the store.
If available, it is acceptable to add a map of the immediate area, of sufficient detail to show the
streets noted, the property in question and some of the surrounding area. Some reports now go
so far as to include the Global Positioning System (GPS) coordinates for the property. All is
Description of the Property
(Slide 24)
This section gives a detailed description of the property being covered by the assessment. It not
only describes the property in great detail but it should paint a graphic visualization of the
property and surrounding area. It should also include a description of the area immediately
surrounding the property. An example would be as follows:
The building that houses the Mom and Pop Grocery Store is of brick and masonry
construction that was commonly used in 1966 when the building was originally built.
The original building comprised approximately 8,000 square feet under roof and was
built in the approximate center of the block surrounded by the streets noted above. In
1972 an additional 4,000 foot wing was added on the east side of the original building
and in 1978 an additional 3,000 foot wing and 1,200 foot fenced garden center was
added on the west. The main building and its additions are covered by a flat pitch rock
and tar roof. The garden section is also under a steel pole and beamed metal roof with
chain link fencing surrounding the entire area from ground level to the base of the
roof. The front of the original store is composed entirely of laminated plate glass
running the length of the original building from about two foot above ground level to
about one foot from the base of the ceiling. Both subsequent additions are solid brick,
as are both sides and the back. There are no doors or windows on either side of the
CPTED Lesson Plan – Property of Sgt. Steve Garst
building. There is a loading dock at the approximate rear center of the building
sufficient for two eighteen wheelers to back up and upload simultaneously.
Immediately to the west of the loading dock is a pedestrian entry door for workers and
other authorized personnel. There are no other windows or other opening on the back
A well maintained asphalt parking lot surrounds the front and both sides of the
building, yielding twenty (20) handicap designated parking spaces and one hundred
eighty (180) stripped parking spaces for cars and light pickups. The back lot is
reserved for delivery of product and employee parking. It is not marked for public
parking and signs are mounted on both the east and west store walls near the back
indicating that there is no public parking at the rear of the store.
The interior of the building is mostly open with shelving aisles running north and
south almost the entire length of the store. Coolers for dairy products and frozen foods
run the entire length of the east wall, as well as the next aisle adjoining it. Eight checkout counters and cash registers are located along the front of the store, fronted by the
glass wall noted above. Storage for buggies is immediately inside the glass wall,
between that wall and the check-out counters.
A customer courtesy booth, primarily for cashing checks, selling lottery tickets and
handling customer requests or complaints, is located at the west end of the row of
check-out counters. It is on a platform raised about two feet above the public floor
surface. It is of wood and wood panel construction about five (5) feet high with an
additional one foot clear glass panel on top of all four (4) of the walls. Above the glass it
is open to the ceiling, which is about another four (4) feet to the ceiling base.
Public restrooms are located in what would have been the northwest corner of the
original building, along the front wall, just past where the glass front of the store ends.
When the addition on that side was built, the bathrooms were updated and remodeled
but they remain in their original location.
The rear of the store is comprised of a stock room that runs across the entire length of
the main building (including both additions but excluding the garden center.) This
store room is almost entirely open and is one hundred fifty (150) feet long by fifty (50)
feet wide. The east end of the storeroom contains employee restrooms, with openstorage locker rooms for each restroom and a break room which doubles as a meeting
place for employees. The men’s restroom and locker room is located in the far
southeast corner. It is adjoined on the north side by the break room, which is joined by
the women’s restroom and locker room to its north. Collectively these three areas take
up the entire east end of the store room area.
The area immediately surrounding the property is part of the originally incorporated
area of the city. The area along either side of Main Street is predominantly residential,
although a few of the residents have converted the structures to retail shops consisting
primarily of antiques and resale items. Main Street itself is heavily traveled, since it is
the primary route through the city and is also known as State Highway 101. A traffic
CPTED Lesson Plan – Property of Sgt. Steve Garst
study done by the Texas Department of Transportation in April of this year measured
22,215 cars per day average on this street/highway.
The remaining three streets are not nearly as heavily traveled, since they are
predominately used only by residents in the immediate area, with very little if any,
thru traffic. Like Main Street, the area is mostly residential. While the bulk of the
structures along Main have been well-maintained by their owner, the same is not true
of over half of the structures along the other three streets. Virtually none of the homes
have been converted to businesses. They have remained either residential or they have
become abandoned. Four houses on West Street immediately south of Mom and Pop’s
Grocery were partially burned several years ago and nothing has been done to them
since. Consequently, transients were observed and reported to be inhabiting these
buildings as well as certain other abandoned structures along West Street. Some
houses have been torn down, leaving vacant lots, most of which are not maintained.
Consequently they are overgrown with vegetation and have accumulated piles of trash
and junk vehicles, appliances and assorted other debris.
East Street has experienced much the same in terms of unkept houses, vacant houses
and lots with the exception that there have been no recent fires to any of the remaining
The same holds true for South Street although reports say that a major manufacturer
of heavy equipment is seriously considering purchasing all of the homes and property
along South Street immediately behind Mom and Pop’s Grocery Store to build a major
state-of-the-art distribution warehouse for their equipment parts. Despite several
attempts, efforts to confirm or deny those reports were unsuccessful. At this point such
reports can only be considered unsubstantiated rumor.
A more close up aerial view of the building is good to include here, if available.
CPTED Assessment
(Slide 25)
This section contains information about the dates and times that the security assessment was
preformed. These are the dates when the inspector actually visited the property, conducted the
inspection, interviewed persons, took pictures and so forth. If multiple trips were made, it may
be appropriate to include a list of those dates, together with the primary reason for each visit.
This would generally be done for massive projects that could not be covered in one day and one
night trip, or where significant deficiencies are noted and additional trips are needed to both
document the deficiencies as well as to determine the best recommendations for correcting
This is also the appropriate place to state if prior security assessments were conducted on the
property and if so, what is their status. If prior assessments were done and the owner attempted
to comply with all of the recommendations, that is commendable and should be noted. If the
opposite is true and deficiencies were noted but little if anything was done to correct them, that
is another matter. In all probability the current inspector will be finding the same uncorrected
deficiencies and probably more. This can become very problematic for the owner, assuming it is
the same person both times, because this is getting into the area of deliberate indifference, which
CPTED Lesson Plan – Property of Sgt. Steve Garst
adds a whole other dimension to liability lawsuits. (This will be discussed in more detail when
liability is discussed later in this section.)
Note that the night-time survey of a closed business does not take nearly as long as the day time
survey. Generally there is no one to interview, which alone is a time-consuming process. Most of
the work is done during the day and generally most of the night work is solely outside the
building. This is also the only time to study the appropriateness and adequacy of the lighting.
A representative statement might be as follows:
A daytime security assessment was conducted between the hours of 9:00 AM and 4:30
PM on Tuesday February 3rd, 2009. This visit was composed of a comprehensive tour
of the site with the building owner, interviews with employees and assorted random
customers, a follow-up self guided walking tour of the complex noting both adequate
and deficient areas, and taking appropriate pictures.
A nighttime security assessment was conducted between the hours of 2:00 PM and
4:00 PM on Thursday February 5th, 2009. This visit was composed of attempts to gain
entry into the closed business, gain access to the roof, test the alarm system, survey the
lighting, all while noting both adequate and deficient areas, taking pictures as
If a previous security assessment was done, this is the time to state that. If one was not done, a
simple statement to that effect is sufficient. An example of a statement when no previous
assessment was noted is as follows:
When asked, the owner of the property stated that to his personal knowledge there has
been no previous security assessments performed at any time on this piece of
If a report was done and the owner attempted to perform all, or substantially all of the
recommendations, that is admirable and should be disclosed. An example might be:
The owner disclosed that a security assessment was done at his/her request five years
ago, in June, 2005. A copy of that report was furnished upon request. It was noted that
the owner complied in full with all of the requests, except two.
One recommendation made was that the front glass windows be replaced with a
polycarbonate material which would make the windows less vulnerable to breakage,
vandalism or attempted break-ins. The owner stated that this recommendation was
much more costly than he could afford once he obtained cost estimates, which were
also furnished. As a compromise, the owner said he added a security laminate film to
the inside of each glass, which helped to strengthen the windows at a significantly
lower cost.
The second recommendation suggested bullet proofing material be added to the walls
of the courtesy booth, both to significantly strengthen the walls but to add protection
CPTED Lesson Plan – Property of Sgt. Steve Garst
to employees who might be inside. The owner stated that the costs to do this was
extremely expensive for his small business and given the fact that he had only been
robbed at gunpoint one (1) time in ten (10) years, and that was outside as he left the
store, he did not consider the added expense worthwhile.
On the other hand, if a prior security assessment was performed and little if any of the
recommendations were done, this deficiency must be noted. A sample might be:
After repeated questioning, the owner disclosed that a previous security assessment
was performed on the property five (5) years ago when he first purchased the
property. A copy of the report was furnished. Some of the information in that report
appeared to have been redacted but the owner stated that was not the case. In that
report a total of twenty-five (25) deficiencies were noted. When the current
assessment was completed the same twenty-five (25) deficiencies, plus twelve (12)
more, were noted. This indicates one of several things: (1) that none of the original
deficiencies were addressed, (2) that attempts were either unsuccessful or inadequate
or (3) that subsequent maintenance was insufficient allowing the same deficiencies to
General Problems
(Slide 26)
This is where the inspector lists all of the deficiencies that are found during the assessment. They
need to be listed in complete detail, sufficient that even someone not familiar with the property
can find the correct location and locate the problem. The maintenance or repair person may be
given a copy of the report by the owner and told to fix the problems. If they are listed in proper
detail, he or she can find them with no problem.
Remember that the inspection needs to be done in some logical sequence so that the likelihood
that something is missed in less and to make the report easier to follow. This is also the time,
during the inspection, to take pictures as appropriate. When the detailed description of the
problem is given, and pictures were taken, an index of the pictures needs to be made and crossreferenced here for ease of location and identification. An example of a deficiency might be as
Item # G-1
Overgrown Landscaping (Trees)
In the employee parking and delivery lot behind the store, there are five (5) trees along
the back wall of the building. These trees have lower limbs that will allow someone on
the ground to climb up in the tree, continue up the tree limb by limb, until they reach a
height sufficient enough that they can gain access to the roof.
See pictures number P-1 through P-4
The “G” in front of the number helps to indicate that this is item number 1 under the “general’ list
of deficiencies. The recommendation list should follow the same numbering sequence, as you
will see next.
General Recommendations
CPTED Lesson Plan – Property of Sgt. Steve Garst
(Slide 27)
For each deficiency noted, there must be at least one recommendation on how to correct it. The
inspector needs to recognize and balance several things in doing this. All business costs must be
balanced against the costs, or risks, of doing nothing or doing something more/less. A
recommendation that is too costly will not be done, as seen in the example above recommending
bullet proofing material around the courtesy booth.
On the other hand, the inspector should not compromise what he or she truly considers
necessary for proper protection of property and safety of persons. It will be up to the building
owner as to whether or not to ultimately follow the recommendation. They may follow it
precisely, they may follow it only partially, they may try to substitute some other solution or they
may totally ignore it.
The inspector may also give more than one option. For example, they may give an optimum, or
best, solution which will probably also be the most costly. He or she may follow that with a
second or more recommendation, explaining that while not the optimum solution, it will afford
more protection or security than what presently exists.
Whatever the recommendation(s) are, they need to be as detailed, if not more so, than the
problem identification description. Remember that most business owners or homeowners are
not as familiar with crime protection measures as the inspector. They have called on you, the
inspector, to give them guidance on how to make their property safer. If they already had the
answers, they would have already taken the steps necessary to fix the problem and wouldn’t
need an inspector. They have asked for your expertise. Give it to them in specifics, so that any lay
person knows what the recommendation is. If you leave doubts or options, chances are they will
not properly correct the problem. Be specific! Generalities only invite more problems. For
example, if you merely told an owner to “put more light in the parking lot” what specifically is he
or she supposed to do? Will they put up more light poles? Will the put some fixture on the side of
the building? Will they add more or brighter lights to existing poles? If you leave the
recommendation vague, they will most likely get it wrong.
One caution regarding any recommendation, whether for a general or lighting recommendation
(to follow), is to never recommend a specific brand name or store. You can tell them a specific
fixture can be purchases at…, and then list several stores, but do not limit it to only one. The
same advice holds true for the product itself. You can recommend several different manufactures
of locks, for example, but do not stop with just one.
A specific recommendation, giving a range of solutions from best to least, for the tree problem
noted above might be as follows:
Recommendation – Item # G-1
The optimum solution is to completely remove the trees.
Reasoning: This will totally eliminate the ability of someone to climb them to
gain access to the roof since they will no longer be there. Removing them
completely will further eliminate the need to perform routine maintenance at
regular intervals as they grow back.
CPTED Lesson Plan – Property of Sgt. Steve Garst
The next best solution is to top out the trees, such that the remaining top is at least
three feet lower than the top of the roof.
Reasoning: Cutting the tops out of the trees may still allow someone to climb
them, but once they reach the top of the tree, which is below the roof line, the
tree structure will not have sufficient strength to support the weight of a person
while they attempt access to the top. If this option is taken, an inspection of all
the trees, at least annually, must be made to determine if further topping is
required as they grow back.
The least acceptable solution, but one that will afford more protection than what is
currently available, is to cut off the lower limbs of all the trees from the ground up to
a distance of eighteen (18) feet.
Reasoning: Cutting off all the lower limbs below eighteen (18) feet will require
that someone would need a ladder or some other means of scaling the lower
tree trunk to gain access to the lowest limb.
Remember that the “general” list of recommendations should precede the number with the letter
“G”, to correspond with the deficiency of the same number.
It is best if the recommendation(s) immediately follow the deficiency. That way there is no
confusion as to which recommendation goes with which deficiency. This is NOT a requirement
however. Some inspectors prefer to list all the general deficiencies, and follow that with a list of
all the general recommendations. If this method is chosen, care must be taken to list the
recommendations in the exact same order and number as the related deficiency. It would be
extremely confusing if deficiency # 1 indicated the problem with the trees, but recommendation
# 1 was for correcting deficiencies with the courtesy booth.
Lighting Problems
(Slide 28)
Lighting is so important to thwarting criminal activity that all lighting deficiencies and
recommendation should be listed separately from all others. The rules to follow are otherwise
exactly the same as for the general deficiencies and recommendations. Be specific! This may be
particularly important since most lighting issues involve not enough light in specific areas, either
because it is lacking totally, it is present but not sufficient to illuminate the surrounding area, or
it is not functioning (burned out, damaged, etc.). Avoid generalized statements like “it is too
dark” or “too bright”. Everything is relative, and what it too much to one person may not be
enough to someone else.
Further, taking pictures of a burned out or dark area generally only yields an unusable photo
which simply looks like an undeveloped negative. They are generally just as black as the area
depicted and thus serve no useful purpose. If however three (3) of five (5) light fixtures are not
working, a useful picture might be to back off far enough that all five (5) fixtures could be seen,
which hopefully will show the two (2) that are working properly while also showing the other
three poles with dark light heads, indicating they are not working. Such a picture also more
clearly indicates which lights need attention in relation to all the others, making them much
CPTED Lesson Plan – Property of Sgt. Steve Garst
easier to locate. This might be a useful picture, but simply taking a picture of one lone, burned
out fixture will probably not be of much value.
An example of describing a lighting deficiency might be as follows:
Item L-1 – Insufficient lighting at the rear of the store.
At the back of the store, in the employee parking and delivery lot, there is only a
single halogen light above the loading dock, operated by a photoelectric cell that
turns the light on when dark and off during daylight. This light was functioning at
the time of the inspection, giving sufficient lighting to the loading dock itself.
However the far east and far west ends of the parking lot have virtually no
lighting, relying solely on the light from this one halogen fixture and the ambient,
reflected light from other fixtures on adjoining properties. One of the overgrown
trees (noted in General Deficiencies, Item G-1) that is located between the delivery
dock and pedestrian entry door further serves to shield most of the available light
from the loading dock fixture that would otherwise be helpful to provide light near
the pedestrian entry door. Further, trucks that remain at the loading dock
overnight block a substantial amount of the otherwise available light from this one
fixture. Additionally, should this one light go out, virtually the entire rear area of
the store would be totally blacked out.
Lighting Recommendations
(Slide 29)
Follow the same rules for lighting recommendations as for general recommendations. List
recommendations in the same order as the deficiencies and number them the same. List them
with the recommendation immediately following the deficiency or make separate lists of each,
again being certain to maintain the same numbering to avoid confusion.
It is very important to make specific recommendations regarding lighting. There are so many
types of lights, light fixtures, and methods of operation that an owner will also invariably chose
the lowest cost, not the most appropriate light/fixture for the application unless specifically
directed to get a certain thing.
An example of writing a lighting recommendation for the above noted deficiency might be as
Item L-1 – Insufficient lighting at the rear of the store.
Install two (2) one hundred (100) watt high pressure sodium lights, mounted in a
reflector based fixture with directed heads, one (1) on each of the two (2) existing
light poles located along the fence line at the rear of the store in the utility
easement. Both fixtures should be operated by a photo-electric cell. Both light
fixtures should be placed as near to the top of the existing poles as possible, but in
no event should they be installed lower than twenty-four (24) feet from ground
level. The directed head of each light should be aimed such the light from the top
of the fixture approximately meets the roof line on the back of the building. They
should not be aimed above the roof line as they may blind motorists traveling
CPTED Lesson Plan – Property of Sgt. Steve Garst
along Main Street (Highway 101). They should further be aimed so that the
directed light from the fixture on the east end catches a portion of the east side of
the building. Likewise, the directed light from the fixture on the west end should
catch a portion of the west side of the building.
Reasoning: High pressure sodium lights yields a bright, mostly white light
that gives good color rendition, allowing for easy identification of persons or
vehicles. They have a useful life of roughly twenty thousand (20,000) hours
so they do not have to be changed out as often as other bulbs. They yield
approximately one hundred (100) lumens per watt, so the effective wattage
of each one hundred watt (100) bulb will be 100,000 watts, giving more than
sufficient light to the area. The directed, reflective heads allow aiming the
light toward the building and parking lot, eliminating bleed over to
surrounding properties and avoiding blinding of drivers in the area. The
photo-electric cell operation turns the lights on at dark, whether that be
because of natural sunset or because of storm clouds that darken the area,
and turn the lights off with there is sufficient daylight to light the area.
Pointing each light so that some of the directed light illuminates the sides of
the building nearest each fixture serves to add additional lighting to those
areas, while still allowing sufficient overlap at the rear of the store to avoid
dark or shadowy areas.
(Slide 30)
Pictures should be taken of most deficiencies, expect those noted previously under “lighting
problems” above. The old cliché that “a picture is worth a thousand words” is generally
applicable here.
It is often best to take a series of pictures, unless the item you are referring to is so unique to the
property there is no way to confuse it with something else, much like you’d do for crime scene
photos. Start out by taking a broad shot of the area, with the item in question somewhat centered
in the photo. Then take a closer shot, maybe of just the item itself and the immediately
surrounding area. Then take a very close up shot of the deficiency. For example, if you are talking
about an issue with an exterior door lock on one door and there are twenty outside doors, it may
be confusing. Take a picture far enough away that you can see both the deficient door, along with
some of the others, and some easily identifiable reference point. If a reference point is not
prominent, you can take the photo and when you print it in the report, add an arrow pointing to
the item in question. The next photo should focus more on the door in question and it’s
immediately surrounding area, especially if that area contains reference points, like a room name
or number on the frame. The final photo should be a close up of the deficiency on the door; i.e.
the door lock in this example.
Pictures may be included with the deficiency description and recommendations or they may be
attached as exhibits. Generally, it is less confusing to place pictures all together in an appendix.
This helps to keep the body of the written report more concise. In addition, many items are easy
enough to identify (if the narrative describing the deficiency is well written) that the visual is not
needed to locate the problem. It is merely another way to reinforce what the problem is.
CPTED Lesson Plan – Property of Sgt. Steve Garst
Remember that pictures need to be numbered and cross-referenced to the item in the report. In
the description area itself an example was already given for referencing pictures there. From the
picture section, the reference would be back to the narrative of the deficiency. So in the example
about the trees, the first two pictures may be from the fence at the back of the property, taken at
approximately the corner of where the building would come if it went all the way to the fence,
with one looking toward the west and the other toward the east. These would be numbers P-1
and P-2. Then third picture may then be looking at one of the trees showing the building in the
background sufficiently to be able to identify which tree is represented. Perhaps one that shows
the tree, the corner of the building, along with a nearby fire plug, which makes it unique from the
others. Label this picture P-3. The final picture would be a close-up of the tree itself that shows
the branches all the way to the ground or the top above the roof line. Label this picture P-4.
Place the pictures in an appendix in the order of their number. On the first page or pages of that
appendix, place a reference key. It should look something like the following:
Description of Deficiency Pictured
Trees giving roof access
Deficiency Number
Photo Number
P1 – P4
Using this single list allows someone looking at a numbered picture to look down the ‘photo
number’ list, which are in numerical order, find the corresponding number on the list for that
picture and then looking left to see which deficiency is depicted. The same list can be used by
reading the deficiency, comparing its number to the list, also in numerical sequence, and then
looking right to see the corresponding pictures.
In our increasingly litigious society, people sues others other all sorts of issues. This becomes
especially true when they feel, rightly or wrongly, that they have been harmed by another,
whether or not it was intentional. To the extent that they can prove it was intentional, even
better because damages generally increase. To the greater extent that they can prove that the
person being sued (defendant) knew, or should have known, about a problem and that problem
adversely affected the person suing (plaintiff), even better still because now the area of
‘deliberate indifference” has been entered, carrying with it much, much greater damage awards.
Premise Liability
(Slide 32)
This is the common term lawyers’ use when referring to this area of law. They are looking for the
person(s) or organization(s) that have the most money – a.k.a. ‘big bucks’ or ‘deep pockets.’ They
want to collect monetary damages so these are the folks they look for first. It is not uncommon to
sue everyone in sight, even if they are only remotely connected to the issue. For example, if
someone drowns in a hotel swimming pool, even the contracted pool cleaner may find
themselves named in the suit. This is sometimes referred to as a ‘shotgun approach.’ They just
fire into the crowd of everyone even remotely associated with the problem and hope they hit
someone with the ‘deep pockets.’ Can these lawsuits potentially involve the person who conducts
the security survey? Most assuredly!
CPTED Lesson Plan – Property of Sgt. Steve Garst
The most general of the allegation(s) in the lawsuit will claim or try to show that the property
owner (defendant) failed to do something that contributed to the event in question. In the pool
example, they will make all sorts of allegations, such as inadequate fencing, inadequate locks on
the gate, inadequate gate itself, no pool cover, no life guard, improper signage, poor maintenance
(the water was cloudy or dirty making it harder to see the drowning victim – hence the pool
man) and on and on. The more of these they can prove, the better the odds of getting lots of
money, but even point one may be enough.
Frequently part of the ploy, or simply what happens, is that all the named defendant’s start a
‘finger pointing’ contest with each one pointing at the other saying “it was their fault. I would
have done it properly if were up to me” or “the problem was never brought to my attention so I
could do something about it” and on and on.
What they are trying to avoid, and what the plaintiff is alleging (trying to prove) is that the crime
was “foreseeable”. If it can be shown that the plaintiff could predict or foresee a potential
problem then they could, and should have, done something about it, thus it was ‘preventable.’
Deficiencies alleged
(Slide 33)
As was pointed out just above, the allegations will take many forms. The most common will
allege inadequate lighting, inadequate locks, poor access control, poorly trained guards (or no
guards), poor management policies, and deliberate indifference.
Historically – English Common Law and Early American Law
(Slide 34)
Since the bulk of U.S. laws came from English Common Law, this is the source also of the original
lawsuits in premise liability cases. English Common Law was mostly in favor of the defendants.
They held that there were no ‘special relationships’ between parties. A hotel had no special
relationship to its guests, a bus line had no special relationship to its passengers, and so on. This
meant that since there was no ‘special relationship’ they had ‘no duty to act.’ The old adage of
“buyer beware” was the norm. Consumers were pretty much on their own and at a loss to
recover damages for much of anything.
Most early courts came to realize that this was not a good precedence to follow. They recognized
that there were indeed times when persons were wronged and the person doing so should be
held accountable. This led to the law of ‘special relationships’ which was a natural counter-point
to the historical perspective of no special relationship. The courts and legislatures created some.
Special Relationships and Early American Case Law
(Slide 35)
Court cases began to hold that there were indeed certain classes of folks that, through common
industry practice and other conditions, did have a duty to perform certain acts. Bus companies
and train companies had a duty to maintain rolling stock in normal safety conditions that a
reasonable person would expect. The same begin to happen with hotels. Guests do have an
expectation of privacy and are entitled to feel safe and they should be furnished certain
equipment to that end (locks, etc.). Apartments, and a whole host of other businesses and
industries soon followed. It created the ‘expectation’ that one party had toward another.
As case law developed, early American case law began to refer also to ‘assumed duty.’ In cases
where there was no established business practice or industry standard, and thus no legal duty or
CPTED Lesson Plan – Property of Sgt. Steve Garst
‘special relationship’ created, assumed duty developed out of voluntary acts that one assumed
toward another. In other words, a business owner may simply do something out of the kindness
of his heart and thereby took on the responsibility to do so in the future.
Assumed Duty and mid-20th century American law
(Slide 36)
Assumed duty may come into play when, for example, a mall provides civilian security escorts
for mall patrons as they go to and from their cars. They are under no legal obligation to do so,
however if they do, they must do so with “due diligence.” That is to say, they must ‘foresee’
potential problems, such as the possibility of hiring a sex offender, who then uses his or her
position to assault a mall patron. They should then have taken the precaution of doing a
background check on security employees in an effort to screen out these persons. Absent doing
that, they placed themselves in a position of having ‘foreseeability’ but doing nothing about it –
thus damages will probably be awarded should this act occur.
As court cases became more prevalent, courts began to expand on the concept of ‘special
relationships.’ Now, industry standard and common practices were not the only considerations.
Under this expanded concept, if one party took ANY action to safeguard another, then essentially
they had created a special relationship for themselves and were thus bound to ‘foresee’ criminal
or other unfortunate possibilities. These were the types of laws that eventually caused ‘good
Samaritans’ to stop rendering help, as they may make themselves liable for damages if they
inadvertently caused more harm than good in their efforts. (Fortunately, most States have now
passed Good Samaritan law to stop such lawsuits.)
General Defenses to Foreseeability
(Slide 37)
Early defendants, through court case law, developed what became known as the ”prior similar
incidence” rule. This essentially said that if this particular problem had never happened before,
then there was no way someone could predict that it would. No prior problem – no
foreseeability. Critics began calling this the “one free rape” rule, implying that some form of
common sense needed to be included. If a defendant could get off completely, simply by being
able to show this event had never happened before, then they could avoid consequences even if
the likelihood that it would happen was there, it just hadn’t come yet. The act could happen one
time and no one could collect damages based on foreseeability. After the first event, everyone
similarly situated could be sued and held liable. The first person to drown in a hotel swimming
pool had no recourse under this rule. The second victim and all those thereafter, did.
Case Law 1980 to present and Other Considerations
(Slide 38)
Courts began to see the absurdity of the extremes being places on both defendants and plaintiffs
and developed what is now known as the “totality of the circumstances” rule. This said that prior
incidents should be considered but they were not to be the only considerations. This stance
effectively negated the ‘one free rape’ rule. Likewise, foreseeability became only one of the
factors to consider in these lawsuits.
Now, one of the factors courts consider is, what is the nature of the business or ‘relationship’?
They look at industry standards and best practices to see if this defendant is in-step or out-ofstep with others similarly situated. If they are doing what most everyone else in their trade is
doing, they are probably OK in this area. If not, they may have problems if they get sued.
CPTED Lesson Plan – Property of Sgt. Steve Garst
They consider the surrounding locale. Certain areas of the country are more tolerant, or
intolerant as the case may be, toward the same event. One area of the country may say the
drinking age is 18, while others say it is 21. Thus if an establishment serves alcohol to someone
who is 19, and that person goes out, runs over, and kills an innocent customer, the establishment
may be liable only if the they are in a place that recognizes 21 as the legal age.
Another consideration is the lack of customary precautions. If, for example, the Association of
Resort Hotels sent out a letter only to its member hotels, excluding the thousands of other nonmember resorts/hotels, saying that all windows on floors three and above should be fixed (nonopening) windows to prevent people from either falling or jumping from higher floors, that can
reasonably become a customary security precaution. When other non-member hotels learn of
this recommendation, they will be in a much stronger, defensible position if they too have taken
those same recommendations and implemented them.
Courts will also look at the experience of the owner. If this is a person who has owns twenty-five
dry cleaning business, and he first started in business twenty years ago, that person will have a
greater liability than a person who has just purchased one dry cleaning business to try his hand
at it, having never before worked in that industry.
Courts continue to demonstrate their willingness to explore new options, some of which may
favor the plaintiff and some of which may favor the defendant. Practitioners are cautioned to
follow relevant case law to see how courts are ruling, especially courts in their geographical area.
Criticism and Counter-Point
(Slide 39)
Defendants generally claim that this is an impossible standard. They say there is no way humanly
possible for them to predict all the many possibilities that may result in harm to another. To a
great extent that is a valid argument. How, for example, could McDonalds have ever predicted
that a customer who was served hot coffee, would take the lid off, place it between her legs while
driving, spill the coffee causing severe burns, and then turn around and successfully sue them for
having served her the hot coffee? How can a supermarket foresee that a child will be allowed to
run around a store unsupervised by the parent, and that the child would run into a person
causing them to fall and get hurt, and that person would successfully sue the supermarket for
allowing it. What makes this case even more bizarre is that the adult the child ran into and
caused injury was the child’s own parent, who themselves had allowed the child to run around
unsupervised. They don’t get much more bizarre than that, but cases like this happen daily in our
current court setting.
A counter-point however contends that these are not abstract issues. They claim that for the
most part, reasonable people with common sense and good judgment will all be able to arrive at
the same conclusion regarding the foreseeability of issues (although that is a somewhat difficult
argument in light of the above two cases.)
They go on to argue that courts should look at things that are below reasonable or acceptable
standards. To the extent that someone does not measure up to those standards, they should be
held accountable to someone who is damaged as a result.
CPTED Lesson Plan – Property of Sgt. Steve Garst
Finally, courts have fairly consistently held that the deficiency must be a ‘substantial contributing
factor’ to the incident. A tire with a recorded history of blowouts, does blow out, causes the
vehicle to wreck and the occupants are killed. The relatives sue and will probably win. Reason?
The tire was a substantial contributing factor to the wreck that caused the death. Had it not been
for the defective tire, there would have probably been no wreck and hence no death as a result.
In that case however would they also been likely to sue the car manufacturer also? Remember
they are looking for damages (money) and those who have it, and car manufactures generally fit
that criteria. Unless there is other evidence that the particular vehicle had a history of rolling
over, etc. it is unlikely that the plaintiff will prevail and win damages from the car company
because the vehicle itself was not a ‘substantial contributing factor’ in the crash.
Where does that leave us with CPTED?
(Slide 40)
Crime experts now routinely develop pro-active security plans for properties where no crime
has yet occurred. Every new NFL stadium (and even the old, existing ones) have all developed
plans to deal with terrorist attacks and many other potential problems (fires, thefts, assaults of
patrons, etc.)
More and more owners are asking for help from experts in trying to make their property and
their employees/customers safer. Some are doing so because they truly do want to make things
safer. Many are only doing it to safeguard themselves from lawsuits. If a business owner asks an
expert to make recommendations to make the property safer, and the owner properly follows
the recommendations, they have done a great deal to insulate themselves against lawsuits.
Hopefully that is not their sole motivation, but the reality is, it is their primary motivation. Safety
is secondary. Others may do it to save money on their insurance premiums. Most insurance
companies will give both business and homeowners a break on their premiums if they have
security surveys performed and they follow the recommendations.
This may become a two-edged sword however. On the plus side, if a business owner has a survey
done and then complies with all the recommendations he or she will, as stated above, go a long
way toward insulating themselves from liability. Even if damages are awarded they are not likely
to be treble damages or get into the area of deliberate indifference. They can affirmatively
demonstrate that they have gone above and beyond what many owners do by having a security
assessment done and following it.
The over edge of the sword is, if an owner has a security assessment done and then does not at
least make an attempt to implement the recommendations he or she most definitely does open
themselves up to higher damages and deliberate indifference. They have been given notice by an
expert that a potential problem exists and they deliberately ignored it. They were demonstrably
‘indifferent’ or uncaring about the potential problem. When that problem does actually happen
they are in for a world of hurt financially, if not also criminally.
So where does that leave us – the Crime Prevention Inspector?
(Slide 41)
First of all, be thorough. Do your homework. Research the neighborhood, dig out crime stats,
interview employees, owners and clients, write clear and comprehensive reports.
CPTED Lesson Plan – Property of Sgt. Steve Garst
Follow accepted CPTED and industry standards. Although most of what is strictly considered
CPTED is relatively new and still being developed, there are certain Crime Prevention best
practices and industry standards of acceptability in existence. Learn what those are and follow
them. Be in-step with your fellow practitioners and the industry, not out-of-step.
Stay current on case law. In today’s world with Internet everything, there are a number of quality
sites, some free, that report on cases as they are decided. Most allow the subscriber to pick the
types of cases they want to hear about. Be sure to choose premise liability cases as this will yield
the most relevant data. Look closely at the available list provided by the site. Some are more
comprehensive than others, or they may call things by different names. Pick all the alternatives
that are likely to yield cases related to CPTED and Crime Prevention issues. Monitor your
selections and cull out the ones not yielding useful, relevant data. Add those you find that do give
current, relevant cases.
Always be sure your reports contain specific and understandable descriptions of the deficiencies
and the related recommendations. If you are vague, the client will be also and the juries will be
confused. Confused juries generally award big damages, preferring to err on the side of caution.
Write in simple, plain English. Choose words carefully. It is often helpful to have a colleague read
your report before submitting it to the client. This catches many common errors and may help to
find areas of ambiguity. Be mindful of spelling, punctuation and other grammar. Sloppy reports
are generally characteristic of sloppy work overall, or they are often interpreted that way by
It is also a good idea to have liability insurance coverage. Do not rely solely on you department or
business policies. Remember that when the finger pointing starts a large department or company
may decide you are the sacrificial lamb and feed you to the wolves to save themselves. While
morally and ethically reprehensible, it is not illegal and is common practice, unfortunately.
Any questions?
At the conclusion of this section the students will be broken
up into three groups. The exact size of each group will depend on the number of students
in the class. Each group will be assigned a Case Review and Group Presentation. The
topics are three National Institute of Justice, Premises Liability Cases, all published in
April, 1966. One is entitled “Convenience Stores’, the next is “Shopping Centers and Malls”
and the final one is “Apartment Buildings.”
Each group will be assigned one of these three cases. The groups will not be allowed to
see or read those of the other groups. The assignment will be for each group to read the
facts of the assigned case and determine the relevant facts. They will then determine,
using current court reasoning, what the likely outcome would be for their assigned case.
This will be an overnight assignment which should take no more than one hour to complete.
Each group will then come before the remaining students the following morning and
present the facts of their case, along with the relevant issues and likely court decisions.
CPTED Lesson Plan – Property of Sgt. Steve Garst
They will be prepared to answer questions from the class and instructor at the conclusion
of their presentation.
This will give all students the ability to see how case law might be determined relative to a
variety of scenarios. It will help to develop their reasoning skills. It will illustrate to them
the need to be complete and thorough in their security assessments.
CPTED Lesson Plan – Property of Sgt. Steve Garst
(Student Motivation / Opening Statement)
If there is one single thing that can be done to improve safety, especially at night, that one thing
would generally be lighting. As anyone knows who has been involved in crime prevention for any
length of time, more crimes occur at night than during the day. Criminals like to use the cover of
darkness to hide their actions. To the extent that we can take away that advantage, and
substitute artificial daylight through lighting, we generally can make the area, and people in that
area, safer.
Exterior lighting generally falls into the first line of defense. Ask the class what the three lines of
defense are? (Perimeter, building exterior and building interior.)
(Implementation of Instruction)
Lighting – Generally
(Slide 2)
Proper lighting serves as one of the most effective perimeter barriers available. As we’ve already
said there are two types of barriers. Ask the class what they are? (physical and psychological)
Lighting somewhat serves as both, from a deterrence point of view. While not physically
preventing someone from coming onto the property, its presence certainly discourages those
with ill intent from coming onto the property. From this viewpoint it provides a physical
deterrence. It is more normally viewed as a psychological deterrent. That is because lighting, in
and of itself, does not physically restrict or prohibit someone from doing something.
Lighting partially restores some of the deterrence provided by daylight. Criminals prefer an
environment where they can go about their acts unobserved. Daylight automatically offers
somewhat of a deterrence because it is much easier to see over longer distances than during
nighttime. Nighttime affords a ‘cover’ for criminals. Artificial lighting restores some of that
visibility and thus restores some of the deterrent value.
As a whole, lighting is a very efficient deterrent. In many cases, the installation cost is relatively
nominal, especially when compared to other types of deterrent systems like cameras and alarms.
Sometime simply changing out the fixture or head of an existing light will provide the needed
additional deterrent features. The largest cost is generally the cost of operation. Even this can be
mitigated by the selection of the proper bulb, fixture and method of activation.
The one caveat to the effectiveness of lighting is that it must be functioning as intended. If a light
bulb is burned out and has been broken out it no longer affords the deterrent protection for
CPTED Lesson Plan – Property of Sgt. Steve Garst
which it was installed. Likewise, switches that do not operate properly, such as timers that are
“off” because of power outages or change in daylight savings time, blown fuses, as things of that
nature offer no deterrent value. Thus the importance of proper monitoring and routine
maintenance is required for lighting to be totally effective.
Not just more light, more appropriate light
(Slide 3 & 4)
One of the most frequent misstatements about lighting is that “you can’t have too much light.”
Ask the class if they believe this statement is true or false and to support their answer.
The fact is you can have too much light. Light that blinds drivers in a parking lot or street may
cause more problems by causing accidents or by posing hazards to pedestrians being run over
because drivers can’t see due to the glare. Bleed-over to adjoining property is also an issue.
People living near football stadiums, large commercial establishments and similar well-lighted
structures frequently complain of the excessive light preventing them from sleeping or other
activities. Example: Recall the example of the street in Arizona that put in more lighting, running
off drag racers, but obscuring the view of high dollar homes on the hillside.
The proper response is “more appropriate light.” Select the proper type of light fixture and aim it
properly. Select the appropriate light itself, after considering what needs to be illuminated, the
cost of installing and maintaining it, and the ease of maintaining it and the proper lumens or
watts. Determine the most effective means of activation. Should it be a switch, requiring human
intervention? Would a photo-electric cell be better so that the light is activated when it becomes
dark? All of these considerations should be taken into account in determining the ‘most
appropriate light.’
Lighting Terms
(Slide 5)
The following items are definitions of the most commonly used terms related to lighting. They
are certainly not all the terms, but they are the ones most frequently seen.
Watt: This is the term used to measure the amount of electrical energy. This is historically what
most people look for it trying to get more or less light. People who had a 100 watt porch light
knew that by replacing it with a 150 watt light, they would get more light. That may or may not
be the best solution. Watt, or wattage, is also one of the factors used to calculate the cost of
electricity. How to do this will be shown in a later slide.
Lumen: This term is used to express the output of a light source, which is the lighting efficiency
as measured by lumens of wattage. Similar to watts, the higher the lumens, the more light that
bulb will provide. Lumens is actually a better measure of the actual useful light than simply using
watts. Example: Take two 100 watt incandescent bulbs. Get one that has a clear globe and one
that has a frosted globe. The clear globe will project the same amount of light over a greater
distance, or will make objects in a room appear brighter or better illuminated than the frosted
bulb. The lumens rating on the clear globe will typically be higher than that of the frosted globe
even when both indicate the same watts. Lumens are now more frequently being printed on the
packaging of light bulbs to better inform users of the effective lighting they will get from a bulb.
CPTED Lesson Plan – Property of Sgt. Steve Garst
Footcandle: This is the unit of illumination defined as one square foot of surface area in which
one lumen of light is uniformly distributed. A light meter is commonly used to measure this
effect. It is placed at the area where the reading is needed and the light turned on, in otherwise
complete darkness. The meter will record, in footcandles, the amount of lumens striking that
surface from the designated source. Architects have standards or guidelines they use (see slides
6 & 7) to specify the amount of footcandles should be available at any given location for
blueprints of new buildings. These guidelines have been established over a period of years and
have been determined to be the best practices for effectively lighting a particular area to
optimize safety and usefulness.
Kilowatt: This it one-thousand (1,000) watts. Electrical companies typically indicates cuosumer
usage in kilowatt hours. This must be converted to/from watts to be able to calculate the cost of
operation for any electrical appliance. This will be illustrated in slides 8 & 9.
Lighting Trivia
(Slides 6 & 7)
These two slides merely illustrate the common measurements of footcandles. The first slide
shows how many footcandles is given off by natural light, ranging from starlight to direct
sunlight. You can see there is a wide range.
The next slide shows footcandles for a variety of locations an architect might typically use to
designate to a builder or owner how much light was needed at a given location. You can see that
any artificial lighting is significantly less than daylight.
Lighting Trivia – Continued (Calculation of electrical use)
(Slides 8 & 9)
These two slides merely show a practical application for calculating electrical usage. The formula
is self-explanatory.
Simply obtain the wattage of any appliance, not just light bulbs, usually from the appliance itself
or from the packaging. Multiply the wattage for that item times the number of hours per day it
operates. Divide the results of that multiplication by 1,000, to convert it to kilowatt hours, since
that is how the billing is represented.
Then multiply the number arrived at in the above calculation times the number of days in the
month the appliance will be operated to get the kilowatt hours per month.
Take the results of this calculation and multiply that times the cost per kilowatt hour which
comes from the electrical supplier and is usually noted on the bill somewhere. This last
calculation will show you the cost to operate that bulb or appliance on a monthly basis.
Types of Lighting - Incandescent
(Slide 10)
Incandescent lighting is the lighting most of us are familiar with. This is the old Edison light bulb
common around homes for decades. Because these bulbs have been around so long, they have a
very low initial cost when replacement bulbs are purchased at the store. They have a generally
good color rendition, meaning that colors across the spectrum appear as they should. Blues are
blue, reds are red, greens are green and so on. The down side is, they have a relatively short life,
especially when compared with newer bulbs, especially the compact fluorescent bulbs (CFL’s).
The average number of hours is generally listed on the package. The other negative is that they
CPTED Lesson Plan – Property of Sgt. Steve Garst
have a relatively low lamp efficiency. That is it costs more to operate than other bulbs and
generally do not cast light over great distances.
Types of Lighting – Compact Florescent Lighting (CFL) Bulbs
(Slide 11)
CFL bulbs are relatively new. They have been out just over a decade and when they first came out
were very expensive. Due to mass production and market demand, the price has dropped
appreciably. Now they are on par with incandescent bulbs, which they were designed to replace.
Most CFL’s are designed to be screwed in, just like incandescent bulbs. Earlier bulbs required a
warm-up time of several minutes before they reached their full lamination. Now, CFL’s are
instantly on to full brightness and can now even be used in dimming fixtures, unlike their earlier
counterparts, plus they now come in colors like red, green, blue and yellow. Congress has
actually mandated that all incandescent bulbs be obsolete and only CFL bulbs used starting in
2014. Currently all CFL’s are made only in China and are imported. All contain a miniscule
amount of mercury so EPA regulations dictate specific disposal methods. They are not supposed
to be thrown into a trash can without being double-sealed in re-sealable plastic bags. They say to
open the window and ventilate the area for at least fifteen (15) minutes and not to use a vacuum
cleaner. These bulbs have a very good color rendition, just like incandescent bulbs but they also
have a much longer life, up to ten (10) times longer. If an incandescent bulb had a useful life of
750 hours, a CFL bulb of the same equivalent lumens might be expected to last close to 8,000
hours. One of their big advantages is that a 28 watt CFL bulb can be substituted for a 60 – 75 watt
incandescent bulb and yield roughly the same amount of useful light (lumens.) That is one reason
why it is better to judge a bulb based on lumens rather than watts. Watts is equivalent to the
power usage. Lumens is equivalent to the light produced, which is what you really want from a
light bulb.
Compact Fluorescent Bulbs vs. Incandescent Bulbs
(Slide 12)
This slide illustrates that the cost of a CFL bulb (including original purchase and operation over
its life) will be less than a comparable incandescent bulb. This cost comparison was done when
CFL bulbs cost much more than now, so given today’s market prices, the cost over time is even
better than it was originally.
(MOVIE) From the file, run the movie on Ted Poe. From the Internet, Google Ted Pod Light Bulb
and pull up a YouTube video of his five (5) minute speech into the Congressional Record about
CFL bulbs.
Ted Poe was a District Judge in Houston Texas in the 80’s. He was elected to U.S. Congress and
serves the Houston area. He was (and still is) very pro-law enforcement and he was known for
his unusual sentences. He might make a mother stand on the street corner wearing a sign that
said “My son is a thief” and things of that nature if he determined that lack of parenting was
responsible for a juvenile committing a crime.
He makes several good points about CFL bulbs. Ask the class how many of them know that CFL
bulbs are mandated by Congress by the year 2014. The incandescent bulb will no longer be sold.
He also points out that they are currently made only in China. We import every single one of
them. The current generation of bulbs contain a small amount of mercury, the fumes of which are
toxic if inhaled in an enclosed space. Even though the reality is that the amount of mercury is so
miniscule as to impose any real health hazard, the EPA has still established stringent guidelines
as to the proper disposal of these bulbs, even to the extent of saying they should not be disposed
on in landfills, etc. because they will “pollute” the landfills.
CPTED Lesson Plan – Property of Sgt. Steve Garst
(Slide 13)
Halogen lighting is actually classified as an incandescent bulb. The base where the bulb itself
attaches to the fixture is generally radically different. Others have threaded bases. Halogen bulbs
generally snap into place. These bulbs have very good color rendition. They are able to project
light over greater distances that the equivalent incandescent bulb. They have a relatively short
life, like most other incandescent bulbs. One major drawback is that they burn extremely hot. Not
only do they heat up quick to a very high temperature, they take a longer time to cool down. In
areas where heat gain is already an issue, halogen lights may aggravate the problem even more
by adding more heat. Halogen floor lamps were removed from the market because they were so
hot they tended to catch curtains and other nearby objects on fire because of the intense
temperature. The bulb itself, partly because of the extremely high operating temperatures, is
very sensitive to oils coming into contact with the bulb. This generally happens when a person
installs the new bulb and does not wear rubber or latex gloves in the process. Oil from the skin is
sufficient to have the lamp heat it to the point of bulb failure.
(Slide 14)
Florescent bulbs generally have a good color rendition. Some bulb, depending on the type of gas
inside the tube, may give off a bluish, greenish or even pinkish glow. Those for most office
applications are white, some more intense than others. They have a good lamp efficiency and a
relatively long life. One thing that makes them fail is not the bulb itself going out, but the ballast
that causes it to burn. These lights have a device in the fixture in them called a ballast. This
device essentially converts the 110 volt electrical energy from the supplier to a much different,
higher voltage. This is needed to excite the gas inside the tube and cause it to light up. When the
ballast becomes defective, such that it can no longer increase the voltage to the necessary point
of exciting the gas, the bulb won’t light. There are generally (but not 100%) two ways to tell if it
is the bulb or the ballast that needs replacing. If the lighting is flickering, it is probably the ballast.
If the bulb is off, and not black on the ends, it is also probably the ballast. If the bulb is burned out
and is black on the ends it is probably the bulb. Florescent lights also cannot project light over
great distances. They are good inside an office but if they light up large areas, there is a need for a
lot more of them. They are also very temperature sensitive, meaning that they do not do well in
high or low temperatures. Temperatures at both extremes of the scale will cause the fixture not
to light. For that reason, they are used mostly for inside applications where temperature is better
High Intensity Discharge Bulbs (HID)
(Slide 15)
There are three basic types of HID bulbs; (1) mercury vapor, (2) metal halide and (3) high
pressure sodium. All three have pluses and minuses, which will be discussed in the slides to
follow. All have some common characteristics though. Every one of these types of lights require a
warm-up time. They do not come on instantly, so in applications where instant light is needed
when the switch is turned on, these are NOT the types of light to recommend. They are not suited
for use with motion detectors for instance, since motion generally demands instant light. They
are best suited for applications that will stay on for long periods of time and in places where they
will not be turned off and on a lot. Most HID lights have a screw in socket base, but not all. The
base however is considerably bigger than the standard incandescent light.
Mercury Vapor Lights
CPTED Lesson Plan – Property of Sgt. Steve Garst
(Slide 16 & 17)
Mercury Vapor lights are the oldest of the three HID type lights. Ask the class where they are
most commonly seen. They are most commonly seen around residences, barns and similar
residential locations where light is desired around a structure, garage, etc. but where the owner
does not want to bother the neighbor with excessive light. Most mercury vapor lights emit a
greenish-white tint, but some may be a bluish-purple. They are a more efficient light than
incandescent because they use less energy per watt. Mercury vapor bulbs have a relatively long
life, so they are good in applications that are difficult to get to when a bulb change is needed.
They average between 16,000 and 24,000 hours. Their lumen characteristics are generally good
as is their color rendition. Colors under mercury vapor light will not be as true as the other two
HID lights, but it is generally useable for recognition.
Metal Halide Lights
(Slides 18 & 19)
The outward appearance of the metal halide fixture is very similar to the mercury vapor. They
will have a ballast on top that causes the bulb to ‘fire” and the bulb itself below, covered by a
globe. The globe may be clear or translucent glass, or they may be metal, directing all the lighting
downward. These bulbs have a higher lumen efficiency than mercury vapor lights. They give off a
great deal of light per watt. They also have excellent color rendition. It is generally considered
the best of all the HID lights. They emit a very bright, white light. Colors appear very true. Ask the
class, if this is true, what are some good applications for this light? Car sales lots, basketball
courts, sports arenas, etc. One drawback is that they have a shorter life than mercury vapor. Life
span is generally from 6,000 to 24,000 hours. Of all the HID bulbs, this one is the most costly to
purchase, averaging $28.00 per bulb.
High Pressure Sodium Lights
(Slides 20 & 21)
High Pressure Sodium lights emit a golden white to pink color. This tint is usually not noticed
unless looking directly at the light itself. Like the metal halide light, it has a very high lumen
efficiency. The color rendition is relatively good but not as good as metal halide lights. Reds for
example may appear as brown. Still this is not always readily apparent. These bulbs have a the
longest useful life of any of the HID bulbs, averaging 24,000 hours. This makes them a good
application where they are very high up on a pole for instance and where the cost and time to
change them would be expensive and time consuming. They also maintain good light output over
the life of the bulb. Most all bulbs actually get dimmer over their useful life. While this is not
generally noticeable, it is a factor to consider. Because of its relatively long useful life, its cost to
replace and its lack of dimming over time, it is one of the most popular outdoor lights. Ask the
class if they know of an application for them. They should answer things like freeways, street and
general parking lot lighting and things of that nature.
Lighting Charts and Displays
(Slides 22 – 24)
Slide 22 simply shows a couple of examples of the ballasts and light heads that will be seen on
HID lighting.
Slide 23 shows a chart that does a side-by-side comparison of the three types of HID lights,
showing their lumen efficiency, average lifetime, color rendition and their normal use. Even
though the chart says that color rendition is only poor to fair for all these lights, the truth is metal
halides and high pressure sodium are still the most commonly used outdoor lighting used were
color rendition is a consideration.
CPTED Lesson Plan – Property of Sgt. Steve Garst
Slide 24 shows a chart that indicates the year each light came onto the market, along with their
lumen efficiency. The incandescent bulb is the oldest, obviously and was considered very good in
its day, especially when compared to the candles they replaced. The HIDs and florescent bulbs
came along around 1930 and you can see from the chart the lumens are much better that
incandescent bulbs.
Reasons to buy HID lights
(Slide 25)
Generally, HID bulbs have a lower lifetime cost. While they cost more to buy, they are less costly
to operate than comparable incandescent bulbs of similar wattage or lumens. They also do not
have to be replaces as often, so while it might be necessary to purchase 10 to 20 incandescent
bulbs during the same time as 1 HID bulb. Because they pull less amperage than comparable
incandescent bulbs, they conserve energy and they do not require as large of wiring as
comparable incandescent bulbs.
Reasons NOT to buy HID lights
(Slide 25)
All HID bulbs require a warm up time. That is, they may not come on immediately, or if they do,
they come on dim and brighten as they warm up. Most take anywhere from 5 to 10 minutes to
come to full brightness. In applications where instant light is needed, these bulbs would not be a
good option. They would not be appropriate in motion detector activated locations since they
would not come on immediately and the person or thing that caused the detector to activate
would likely be gone by the time the lights came on. They also need time to “re-strike” or come
back on after a power failure or when someone accidentally turns them off. Finally, they may be
overly bright. Bleed over of light onto neighbors property or the bedrooms may not be welcome.
The bleed over may also be a hazard if the reflected light blinds drivers for example and causes
an accident.
Low Pressure Sodium Vapor
(Slide 26 & 27)
Low Pressure Sodium Vapor lights activate the same as the other HID lights. They require a
warm up time to come to full luminosity. They do however have a relatively long life so they may
be good applications in hard to access spots. They are most often characterized by their
extremely poor color rendition. They give off a yellow color, much like a bug-light on steroids.
Since they do emit a yellow light they are in fact good to use where insects are a nuisance as the
yellow color tends not to attract bugs and insects as bad. On the other hand, since they cast a
yellow hue, the colors they reflect off of (cars, skin color, clothing, et al) all gives off a dull, dark
brownish color. It is almost impossible to distinguish reds from browns, or greens from blues
absent any other light source that these. One advantage they have over other HID lights is that
they remain at or very near their maximum luminosity over their entire lifetime, whereas most
other HID bulbs get dimmer over their useful life (even though it is not usually readily apparent).
As with other HID lights they are not useful for locations that require instant on so things like
manual and motion sensor switches are not suitable for use with these bulbs. The most
significant use for these bulbs are in locations like tunnels, highway overpasses and things of that
nature. Anywhere a person needs to see an object (like say…a train coming) but doesn’t really
care what color it is, will be a good application for these bulbs.
Lighting Controls
(Slide 28 - 32)
There are three basic kinds of lighting controls that turn fixtures on or off.
1.) The most common is the manual on-off switch. These are found in a variety of locations.
Their primary drawback is that they require human intervention. If a light is needed and
CPTED Lesson Plan – Property of Sgt. Steve Garst
no one is available to activate it, there will be no light. Conversely, if the light is on and no
longer needed, a human is needed to turn it off. If that is not done, significant amounts of
energy is wasted.
2.) A timer is another type of switch. It requires human intervention only to set the timer to
the correct time of day and to set the “on/off” stops. These are useful in situation where
light is routinely needed during certain times of the night and those times can be
accurately determined. The lights will come on at the pre-set time(s) and go off at the preset time(s). The drawback to them is that if there is a power failure someone has to
remember to re-set the time. If they fail to do this, lights may be on when not needed
during periods of daylight and be off when they are needed during periods of darkness.
Time changes to and from daylight savings time is another time that someone needs to
remember to reset the time. Another factor is that, over time, the pre-set stops may
become loose and slide to another position on the dial, or fall off altogether. This too
requires human intervention to correct.
3.) Photo-electric cells are the third major type of switching device. They require very little
human intervention. The light comes on when it gets dark and stays on until there is
sufficient daylight. About the only intervention needed is to verify that the bulbs do not
need to be replaced. The single disadvantage is that they will stay on all night and if not
needed, could expend a great deal of energy. An advantage is that if there is a severe
storm or inclement weather such that it gets almost dark during normal daylight hours,
the light will activate.
Slides 29 – 32 simply show a variety of types of motion and optical sensors.
Passive Infrared motion detectors are activated both by motion and changes in temperature
(body heat). Frequently used in alarm systems to detect intrusion, they are also useful as devices
to turn on lights when motion is detected. Many motion detectors, like the one on the right in
slide 29, can be set for sensitivity, direction of movement as well as having a timer that keeps the
light on for the pre-set time before it goes off.
Slide 30 shows a typical motion sensor activated light fixture common around homes and some
commercial establishments. The item on the right is not a bulb but a buzzer that is activated by
motion. It is simple to install by simply screwing it into an existing light socket. It is used as an
on-site detector of motion to notify both the intruder and the owner/installer that an intrusion
into a protected area has occurred.
Slide 31 shows motion sensors that can be installed as part of a lamp post system, making it
more difficult to spot. The right picture shows a light sensitive (photoelectric) cell. When light
falls onto the center surface the light is turned off and when it become dark, the light turns on.
Lighting Positioning
(Slide 33)
There are three basic methods for mounting light fixtures. Remember the rule just stated that no
lighting mounted lower than 18 feet is truly considered security lighting.
1.) Wall or roof mounted –Frequently mounted on the sides of building, up high enough to
illuminate the surrounding area. They may even be mounted on poles places on the roof
to raise them higher. There should be sufficient numbers of fixtures to allow for light to
overlap such that there are no dark or shadowy areas.
2.) Pole mounted – Often home or business owners are fortunate to have existing electrical or
other types of poles on the property. To the extent possible, with permissions granted by
the owners or utility companies (in cases where they are owned by others), lights may be
CPTED Lesson Plan – Property of Sgt. Steve Garst
installed on poles. These generally meet the overall height requirement for the pole but
caution should be taken when recommending placement of new light fixtures on poles to
ensure that they are placed above the 18 foot minimum.
3.) Ground mounted – As stated above these are never considered security lights per se. They
may be used in sufficient numbers to help serve as such, or may be used to augment true
security lighting in the immediate area. They are often good to help add lighting to
otherwise dark sidewalks, steps, aisles and similar items.
Wall Pack Lights
(Slide 34)
There are a variety of wall mounted light fixtures. Some are fixed positions, meaning that the
light is cast in a predetermined fashion, based on the manufactures design of the fixture and
globe, and is not changeable by the user. These lights may cause bleed-over of light to neighbors,
which may be unwelcome. To combat that issue, there are wall mounted fixtures that are
adjustable, like the fixture on the right. These allow the user to somewhat “aim” the light toward
the object to be illuminated. They may be lowered, for example, to light a sidewalk below as well
as the wall of the building, while shielding the neighbors from bleed-over of light, as well as not
blinding drivers as they drive through the parking lot or park. The lenses may also be used to
limit the lighting. Yellow lenses help to both reduce bugs and insects but also limit the intensity
of the available light, thus helping to eliminate bleed-over. Care should be taken not to cause “the
law of unintended consequences” to kick in when recommending yellow lenses. As with low
pressure sodium lighting, the yellow tint adversely impacts the ability to distinguish colors of
objects it is illuminating (cars, clothing, etc.) When identification of colors is a consideration,
yellow lenses should be avoided.
Street Lighting
(Slide 35 & 36)
There are a variety of types of street lighting, in terms of fixtures, mounting positions, and types
of light (metal halide, high pressure sodium, et al). As with any other consideration in lighting,
the correct and appropriate selection of each of these features is critical. One may select two
options that are appropriate (say type of light and mounting position) but select the wrong
remaining item (in this case the type of fixture) and thereby totally, or at least substantially,
adversely impact the desired result.
The heads on the fixtures are designed to protect the light itself as well as to direct the light
toward its intended point of illumination. Fixtures that have the light source completely recessed
will direct the light down and eliminate direct light placement on adjoining surfaces. These types
of head eliminate the loss of light upward, where in most cases it is not needed nor desired.
Adjoining high rise buildings and such do not want, or need, to look down on light that is
projected upward. Conversely, there may be situations where it is desired to have some light
projected horizontally, to eliminate blind spots and shadows. In these cases, it may be desirable
to have a fixture, or globe, extend below the surface of the fixture, allowing some light to project
The height of the location of each fixture is also a consideration. Appropriate light, fixture and
location may be properly selected, but if it is mounted too low it may not adequately illuminate
the area. Conversely, if mounted too high, it may cause bleed-over to adjoining property, blind
drivers, cause glare to pedestrians, and so forth.
Lighting heads may be used in multiple assemblies. Frequently, a light pole will have two, three
or even four separate light fixtures mounted on it. This helps to eliminate the cost of additional
poles. It also helps to have more available light on the surface without the need to add a single
CPTED Lesson Plan – Property of Sgt. Steve Garst
fixture with a much more intense bulb. Multiple heads also help when lights start to burn out.
There is still some available light in the area even if one or more bulbs go out.
Slide 36 depicts a variety of light fixtures. The reflector lights help to direct the light downward
as well as outward. These would be useful in parking lots to both help drivers see without being
blinded, but to also give light to pedestrians as they walk across the parking lot.. Flood type lights
allow light to be directed toward a more distant object, like the loading dock, pool area, side of a
building or fence line, etc.
In addition to the fixture, light source and height, the surface onto which the light is projected
will have an impact. The same light projected onto an unpainted concrete surface will yield much
more ambient (reflected) light than will the same light projected onto a black asphalt surface.
Consideration should be given to the type of surfaces to be illuminated and their colors.
Street, Walkway and Accent Lighting
(Slide 37 - 42)
The purpose of this visualization is to demonstrate that walkway and path lighting is never
considered security lighting. These types of lights are too easily defeated by breaking,
unscrewing or otherwise disabling the fixture, defeating the lighting. No light below 18 feet
should be considered as security lighting. In many cases however, homeowners especially may
not have many options for mounting security lighting higher than 18 feet. In these situations,
adding additional fixtures that are active by different methods and on different wiring circuits
means that criminals have to deal with and defeat several different sources of light in order to
darken the area. The hope is that someone will notice when these start to go out or will notice
that several of them have been disabled before illegal activity occurs. (Remind students of the 4
“D’s” – deter, detect, delay, deny. The addition of several fixtures attempts to accomplish several
of these. Path or accent lighting may, as noted earlier, be used to supplement security lighting in
the area but alone, should not be considered security lighting. Each slide shows variations of
pathway and accent lighting, but by all means do not show all the types that are available.
Slide 40 shows lights that are a part of bollards. Bollards are frequently used as security
measures to prevent vehicles and similar large objects from entering the area. Adding lighting to
them serves to “soften” the effect of the security measure, while adding a measure of safety for
pedestrians by giving more light. As with any ground-mounted application however, they alone
are not considered security lighting.
Slide 42 illustrates different types of fixtures. It should be easy to see that the same type and size
of bulb mounted in a ball jar fixture will yield a significantly different effect than will the same
light mounted in a can cylinder. The ball jar will illuminate the area around it, whereas the can
cylinder will direct light toward a more specific area such as a sidewalk or entry door.
Light Mounting Chart
(Slide 43)
This chart is included merely to illustrate that there are charts commercially available for a
variety of light sources to show the proper mounting height for that light to adequately project
light over desired areas. Remember thought that the type of fixture, lumens of light, etc. all affect
this. Be sure to select the proper chart that conforms with the selected light source. Select the
chart for the type of light and its lumens or wattage. Look at the chart to see the distance light
will be projected and find the desired distance. Using the appropriate arc for where light is
desired, then look at the chart below for the proper height.
Everlast Induction Fixture
CPTED Lesson Plan – Property of Sgt. Steve Garst
(Slide 44)
The new kid on the block. Though not considered an HID light per se, it is designed to compete
directly with them. Since this new light source has the same applications as for most HID bulbs.
The exception for this fixture is that it has a substantially longer life and it yields significantly
more lumens per watt. Where a comparable metal halide light might last 20,000 hours, this bulb
will last 100,000 hours. That would mean that even though this bulb costs more initially, it will
be the equivalent of buying 5 of the metal halides. Thus, it would be more cost effective over time
if its initial cost is anything less than 5 times the cost of a comparable metal halide. Also, the
lumens is much higher. At over 9,000 lumens for a 100 watt bulb, it will take a much smaller bulb
to give off the same lumens of light. A smaller bulb automatically costs less to operate.
Motion Detector Bulb
(Slide 46)
This illustration is but one of the more recent designs in bulbs. It incorporated the features of a
CFL bulb along with the operational features of a more traditional incandescent bulb. It takes a
much smaller wattage bulb that an incandescent bulb to yield the same amount of light. It is now
instant on, at full illumination. In the original days of CFL bulbs, they required a warm up time
before they reached full luminosity. Even though more costly than incandescent bulbs the price
is coming down significantly. These bulbs are dimmable now, so that they will work with a
rheostat switch if desired. They detect motion at a variety of distances and can be pre-set to stay
on an established amount of time after they are activated.
As with all technology, light bulbs are changing significantly. Not only are new light sources
being developed, they are much more energy efficient and cost effective over the life of the bulb.
Conclusion – Lighting Recommendations
(Slide 46)
As was stated in the Liability and Assessment section, recommendations as to the types,
locations, et al of lighting must be specific. Remember that the home or business owner does not
have the expertise regarding proper lighting. If they did, they would not be calling on someone to
make recommendations to them. If lighting is already substandard or inadequate, given the
opportunity, the owner will probably mess it up again and not fix or upgrade it properly without
specific instructions.
A minimum and maximum recommendation may be given. If money and other considerations
are not an issue, then do the maximum. If there are restrictions of any nature, then at least do the
minimum. This gives the owner some options but either recommendation should be an
improvement over what they currently have.
Remember that “more light” may not be the answer. More appropriate light, properly directed, is
generally most critical. Simply adjusting what is already there may solve the problem.
Any questions?
CPTED Lesson Plan – Property of Sgt. Steve Garst
(Student Motivation / Opening Statement)
Windows will fall under the second line of defense. (Ask again what the three lines of defense
are? Building perimeter, building exterior and building interior.) Historically, windows were
used to allow people to see in or out and to provide sunlight into the interior. In more recent
times, these uses have been expanded to include energy conservation and beautification.
Windows can add, or detract, significantly to a buildings look or aesthetics. They can likewise
contribute to, or inhibit, bringing light, heat and cooling into or out of a building. Since they are
effectively a hole in the wall, security considerations need to be additional considerations.
(Implementation of Instruction)
Non-CPTED Considerations
(Slide 3)
The locations of windows with relation to the compass points are one consideration. Looking at
the U.S. Department of Energy’s (D.O.E.) web site, they list a variety of things to consider when
choosing windows and picking their locations.
For example, windows that face north generally allows light to enter the room with the added
benefit of very little heat gain. Since the sun rises in the east and sets in the west, there will be no
direct sunlight entering the window from the north. As such there will also be virtually no glare.
Any light entering from a north view will be reflected light from nearby surfaces. Depending on
how large those surfaces are, and what color they themselves are, the amount of reflected light
may be significant or insignificant.
Southern facing windows, at least in the northern hemisphere of the Americas allow a lot of
reflected light into the room during the winter. Since the sun is in the southern hemisphere
during the winter, more direct (as opposed to reflected) light will enter. This not only adds light,
thus reducing the need for artificial light, but it can also allow heat to enter, helping to reduce
heating costs.
East or West facing windows are the most susceptible to heat gain. Morning sun enters eastern
facing windows, with the possible attendant heat gain, and even more say in the afternoon via
the western facing windows. They also add the most glare since sunlight will be directly entering
the room since it is not dependent on reflective surfaces needed for north/south directionality.
CPTED Considerations
(Slide 4)
From a CPTED perspective, windows should be considered as a means for insiders to see
approaching danger. A clerk, for example, in a convenience store should be able to see someone
approaching carrying a weapon or pulling a mask over their face. Having this advantage could
allow reaction time to either lock doors or call for help. Other considerations in seeing out would
be for things like approaching weather. The ability to see a funnel cloud could potentially give
persons time to seek shelter. Having a window also has a psychological effect for potential
CPTED Lesson Plan – Property of Sgt. Steve Garst
criminals. If they see windows, there is a perception that someone may be watching. This
potential may be the factor that keeps them from committing a crime on this property and go
somewhere else.
Likewise, from the outside looking in, windows give folks on the outside the potential of avoiding
problems. If a customer approaches a store and is able to see inside and see that someone is
holding a clerk at gunpoint, it may prevent them from becoming a victim themselves. It may also
provide them the opportunity to call for help. In addition, police officers on patrol can easily see
into a store and potentially see trouble.
Care should be taken however so that ‘the law of unintended consequences” doesn’t kick in.
Windows without blinds or shades may allow criminals to see into an otherwise secure area. For
example, folks often open their blinds at home during Christmas so others can see their tree. This
may also allow others to see the presents under the tree, nearby high-dollar items such as TV’s
and entertainment centers, plus it may allow someone to even see into other rooms beyond the
room where the tree itself is located, raising several privacy issues or concerns.
Conflicting Views
(Slide 5)
Conventional recommendations from the D.O.E. site will tell owners to choose window location
with regard to the ordinal points of the compass, without regard for or consideration of security
and safety. From a CPTED standpoint, this is not always good, since CPTED guidelines generally
recommend that windows should always face the primary street or other points of public entry.
Window Terminology
(Slides 6)
Heat Gain/Loss
This relates to the direct conduction of heat gain or loss through the window glass
or frame. It relates to the amount of heat transferred into the room from radient
heat from the sun as well as for heat lost from stoves, heaters or central heat to the
exterior. It likewise relates to the gain or loss of heat as a result of air leakage. Air
leaks around locations where the glass is embedded into the frame or where the
window itself mounts to the frame. All windows that open have some amount of
tolerance. If they didn’t people would not be able to open them. These tolerances
allow for heat gain/loss.
Window Terminology
(Slide 7)
This is the rate at which a window, door or skylight conducts non-solar heat flow.
It is generally expressed in British Thermal Units (BTU’s). This is one of the older
measurements of the energy efficiency of windows and is generally noted
somewhere on the original packaging of the window. The lower the u-factor, the
more energy efficient the window.
Solar Heat Gain Coefficient (SHGC)
This is the amount of solar radiation admitted through a window, door or skylight
that is transmitted either directly or absorbed and released as heat inside the
building. This measures the amount of direct sunlight that falls onto the window
which directly transfers heat inside either from the rays directly or be virtue of the
glass heating up from the exposure and radiating heat inside. As with the u-factor,
the lower the SHGC, the more energy efficient the window.
CPTED Lesson Plan – Property of Sgt. Steve Garst
Window Terminology
(Slide 8)
Bullet Resistant Glass
This is glass that is generally much thicker than ordinary glass, often specially
treated in some manner during the manufacturing process such that it can
withstand a direct impact from a bullet and remain intact. To be effective it should
not allow the bullet to penetrate the glass nor should it allow spalling.
This relates to a condition where small fragments of glass break off the back side,
or side opposite the impact. It occurs when a glass is struck and the object does not
penetrate all the way but the impact is sufficient enough to cause some of the glass
to pop off the back side.
Fire Integrity
This refers to the ability of the window to remain intact during a fire. Certain
buildings (like public schools, prisons, etc) require specific lengths of time that
doors and window must remain intact before melting or deforming during a fire.
Service life
This refers to the amount of time that a product meets its designated performance
criteria. Generally this does not come into play for glass. It does come into play for
polycarbonates however. These are adversely affected by sunlight. After about 7
years of exposure to UV rays, polycarbonates become more brittle and discolored.
They tend to become yellow or brown.
Window Terminology
(Slide 9)
Standard glass
Standard glass is glass that does not have any strengthening or security features
added. It is used in locations where security is not a factor. This glass is more
commonly used for things like picture frames, display cases and things of that
nature. Seldom is it used for windows. When broken it breaks into sharp, pointed
shards of glass which can be harmful, even deadly.
Tempered glass
This is standard glass that has been subjected to rapid heating and cooling several
times making it 6 to 7 times stronger than regular standard glass. When broken it
tends to break into relatively small harmless pieces. This type of glass is commonly
found in regular home windows.
Wired glass
This is glass that has a wire mesh embedded between two panes of standard glass
during the manufacturing process. This does not add any appreciable strength to
the window but the wiring does hold the glass in place when broken. Glass like this
was traditionally used in public schools so that if a glass was broken, the wire held
the glass in place, often preventing cutting or other more serious injury to staff and
Window Terminology
(Slide 10)
Laminated Safety Glass
This is two pieces of tempered glass bonded together during the manufacturing
process with a thin plastic inner layer (generally polyvinyl butyral or PVB). The
plastic inner liner holds the glass together when broken. It generally generates a
CPTED Lesson Plan – Property of Sgt. Steve Garst
“spider web” effect with broken and is difficult to completely penetrate the glass. It
is commonly used in automobile windshields, storefronts, etc.
Security film
Polyester film applied to the inner surface of glass with special adhesive. It
increases the strength by about 300%. It is easy to retrofit so it is a good aftermarket application. It is an effective anti-spalling agent. Because of the cost it may
be more expensive than simply replacing the glass with bullet resistant or similar
glass. One downside is that it can be scraped or scratched giving an unsightly
appearance over time if damaged.
Window Terminology
(Slide 11)
Glass or glazing
Glazing generally refers to the type of material used to attach or retain the glass in
the frame. In the older windows it referred to the putty used to hold the glass in
place in a wooded frame. Confusingly, it also refers to the installation process itself
and currently even refers to the glass.
The on-line Wikipedia definition of it is: “the transparent part of a wall, usually
made of glass or plastic.”
Window Terminology
(Slide 12)
This slide is simply a graphic to illustrate the considerable types of glass and glazing
available today. This is not an all inclusive list but it will cover the main types commonly
found or in use. Most of those have already been defined or discussed above. Most of the
rest will be covered below.
Types of Glazing and Glass
(Slide 13)
There are essentially 6 major types of glass material. Each are listed and will be discussed
in subsequent slides.
1. Gas fill
2. Heat-absorbing tints
3. Insulated
4. Low-emissivity (Low-E) coatings
5. Reflective coatings
6. Spectrally selective coating
Gas Fill
(Slide 14)
These consist of two plates of glass (generally tempered safety glass) which are bonded together
with a small space in between. The space is filled with one of two basic types of gas. The purpose
is to reduce heat flow through the glass. The two panes themselves add some degree of heat
gain/loss. The addition of the gas fill further restricts the heat that is able to pass through the
two glass panes.
One gas used is Argon. This is most common, especially in the lower end windows. It is the least
expensive of the two. It is also nontoxic, clear and odorless so if it leaks, or the window is broken
no one is harmed from the gas.
The second most commonly used gas is Krypton. It has many of the same inert characteristics of
Argon, but it costs more. The advantage is that is does have better thermal performance so the
heat gain/loss is less than for a Argon filled window in a comparable location.
CPTED Lesson Plan – Property of Sgt. Steve Garst
Heat-Absorbing Tints
(Slides 15 & 16)
Most tints change to color or appearance of the glass. Many times tint is selected primarily
because of the appearance it will give to a building. In comes in a variety of colors and so is easily
adaptable to conform with a variety of building exterior effects. Gray or bronze tints reduce
equal amounts of heat and light into a building. It is the most common. Blue or green tint allows a
greater penetration of visible light with only a slightly reduced heat transfer. Black tint absorbs
much more light than heat and is generally avoided in hot climates.
When considering application of any tint, consideration should be given to the familiar “law of
unintended consequences.” A tint may be chosen to conform with a color and design scheme,
together with a consideration for reduction of heat gain from the sun into the building, but if the
tint is too dark, far more energy may be used for artificial lighting than is saved in cooling costs.
The other effect however is that tint absorbs a percentage of the solar heat gain and reduces
glare from direct sunlight. These tints may be further combined with spectral selective coatings
to be discussed shortly.
Insulated Glazing/Glass
(Slide 17)
This refers to windows with two or more panes of glass, commonly referred to as double-glazed
(if two), triple glazed (if three) or storm window. These may be gas filled (noted above) or
simply filled with air, leaving a void in the center that adds a small amount of insulation value to
prevent heat gain/loss.
Low-Emissivity (Low-W) Glass
(Slide 18-20)
This consists of a microscopically thin, virtually invisible, metal or metallic oxide layer deposited
directly on the surface of the glass. It may be applied to one or all panes if it is a gas filled or
insulated glass. It is specially designed to reduce infrared radiation through the glass, resulting in
a “cooler” (to the touch) pane of glass. It is applied on the side of the glass where the heat is that
is desired to keep in or out. In other words, if it is applied to the outside of the glass its purpose is
to reduce heat gain into the building from the outside. This application is typically used in hot
climates to prevent summer sun and heat from entering the building. If it is applied to the inside
of the glass, the purpose is to hold heat inside, from stoves, central heat and such. This
application is typically found in colder climates.
Low E glass may be installed during the manufacturing process or it may be an after-market
application. There are generally two ways to apply this coating. One is called a soft coat. This is
the least desirable because it degrades easily when exposed to air or moisture. It is also easily
damaged and cannot be stored for a long period of time. The other application is a hard cost. It is
most frequently applied during the manufacturing process, but may be applied after-market. It is
more durable than the soft coat, but the after-market application generally has a poorer energy
performance that the soft-coat.
Reflective Glass
(Slide 21)
Generally applied during the manufacturing process, it is a thin, metallic, reflective coating added
to glass to reduce solar radiation. It reduces glare but it also reduces clarity. It may give a wavy
or slightly opaque appearance. It is generally silver, gold or bronze in appearance. One major
downside is that it actually blocks more light than heat so reduction in cooling costs may be
offset by increases in electrical lighting.
CPTED Lesson Plan – Property of Sgt. Steve Garst
Spectrally Selective Glass
(Slide 22)
This must be done in the manufacturing process. It is optically designed to reflect specific
wavelengths of light, usually in the infrared solar spectrum to block out heat but still allowing the
visible spectrum of light. The light waves we are able to see are generally not harmful but are
useful and do not produce heat. The light waves that are harmful, like UV rays, can damage skin
and eyesight and also emits the heat we feel from the sun. Spectrally selective glass is expensive
but because it allows visible light while restricting heat gain, it can have a significant impact on
energy costs, usually greatly reducing heating, cooling and lighting within a building. It can be
combined with tinted glass to improve aesthetics and have even more dramatic climate effects.
Types of Safety Glass
(Slice 23)
This slide merely lists the three primary types of safety glass, which will be discussed in detail
following this slide.
1. Laminated
2. Tempered or toughened
3. Embedded wire
Laminated Glass
(Slide 24)
Laminated glass, as explained earlier, is two sheets of tempered glass bonded with an inner layer
of polyvinyl butyral (PVB) in between, designed to hold the glass together if broken. An added
benefit is that the bonding also helps to insulate against sound. This combination also blocks up
to 99% of the sun/s ultraviolet rays. Its primary applications are for store fronts and automobile
windshields. This type of glass is also used in schools to replace the old wired glass, since it
incorporates all the noted features plus adds the required measure of fire protection (integrity.)
Toughened or Tempered Glass
(Slide 25)
Standard glass that has been processed by a controlled thermal or chemical treatment, making it
4 – 6 times stronger than annealed glass (glass that is heated to reduce stress). When broken it
breaks into small square or round pieces with no sharp shards, greatly enhancing safety of
persons. Applications include automobile side windows, unframed windows (large plate glass)
and cell phone screens.
Embedded Wire Glass
(Slide 26)
As noted earlier, has a embedded wire mesh between two layers of glass, which is usually
tempered. They generally also include a fire resistant layer of film designed to increase fire
integrity. It is not widely used in industry now, but is still found in places like prisons. It is break
resistant, tends to hold together when it is broken by the wire, which also adds a level of
protection, plus the added fire protection.
Glass Alternatives
(Slide 27)
Overview slide. There are two basic types of glass alternatives. The first is acrylics and the next is
polycarbonate, both of which will be discussed further in the next couple of slides. Protective film
also falls into the glass alternatives category, since properly selected films add strength and
integrity to existing windows.
CPTED Lesson Plan – Property of Sgt. Steve Garst
(Slide 28)
Acrylics are much lighter than glass but they are up to 17 times more break resistant that plate
glass. They greatly enhance safety and are a good fit for doors and such where a lot of breakage
or break-ins occur. Acrylics do not deteriorate over time so they have a relatively long useful life.
While more burglar resistant than ordinary glass it is not as break resistant as polycarbonate.
(Slide 29)
Polycarbonates give outstanding strength. It is virtually unbreakable and will withstand
repeated blows from a hammer without damage. It is 300 times more impact resistant that plate
glass and from 20-30 times more impact resistant than acrylic. Another of its advantages is that
it is very lightweight, especially when compared to regular plate glass. The major disadvantage is
that its useful life is only about seven years or so, depending upon the amount of direct sunlight
it gets. Sunlight deteriorates the surface causing it to discolor. It will begin to turn a yellow color
and will eventually turn a light brown. One minor disadvantage is that an image viewed through
it will generally have a little distortion. The image will not be as clear and sharp as regular glass.
Protective Film
(Slide 30)
There is a variety of protective films available. Some are commercially installed by the
manufacturer. A great many are after-market products. Depending on the type of film, the
characteristics may be such things as protection against graffiti, in that it may be scratch
resistant. All film strengthens the glass to some degree, some more than others. Some films
characteristics provide extra strength against impact from blows, up to and including bullets.
The much more expensive, higher grade films even provides protection from bomb blasts. One of
the added benefits of film, over and above crime incentives, is that they frequently provide added
protection against wind damage and even earthquakes. Since film is relatively easy to install and
comes in rolls of varying lengths, it is a great aftermarket application and even though
sometimes rather costly, still may be less expensive that completely changing out the existing
window material.
Window Operating Types
(Slide 31)
There are essentially six basic types of window operations – i.e. the way they operate to open or
close, or even remain stationary and not open at all. The six basic types are: awning, casement,
fixed, hopper, single or double hung, and single or double hung sliding. Each type will be
discussed in more detail to follow.
Awning Type Windows
(Slide 32)
Awning window, much like a regular awning, is connected at the top of the opening. Hinges at the
top allow the window to be pushed open from the inside and closed by pulling the handle to
bring the window back inside the sash. The top thus remains relatively fixed, except for the
hinges, that the sides and bottom provide the opening. Since it presses against the frame when
closed, it provides one of the better methods to reduce air leakage since less tolerance is needed
to be able to open and close it.
Casement Type Windows
(Slide 33)
A casement window has many of the same characteristics as an awning type window except that
it is hinged on one side or the other. It opens and closes by pushing or pulling on it, while the
hinged side remains fixed in position in relation to the window frame. Like the awning window it
CPTED Lesson Plan – Property of Sgt. Steve Garst
is energy efficient in that there is generally less air leakage around the frame due to the tight
Fixed Type Windows
(Slide 34)
Fixed windows are the most energy efficient in that there is little or no air leakage around the
frame since these windows do not open. They are generally seen in locations where light is
desired but no ventilation. The lack of ability to open it, both for ventilation, as well as providing
potential means of escape for things like a fire, is one of the drawbacks.
Hopper Type Windows
(Slide 35)
Hopper windows are like the awning and casement windows but differ only in the placement of
the hinge. Hopper windows are hinged from the bottom, open at the top and are generally
opened and closed by manually pushing/pulling on the handle of the window. It has the same
characteristics regarding little air leakage. These types of windows were seen extensively in
older building that did not have air conditioning. When placed above doors or otherwise placed
near the ceiling, they allow good cross ventilation by allowing hot air to escape, drawing cooler
up and through the space. With the advent of central air and heat units, use of this type of
window internally is less common.
Hung Type Windows
(Slide 36)
Hung windows are the kind we traditionally see in homes today. They are composed of two
sections, or sashes, that move (or are fixed) in relation to the other. In most homes, the top
section is fixed and thus not moveable, and the lower section may be raised or lowered to allow
ventilation and such. These types of windows, in which one of the two sections does not move
and the other does, are called a single hung window. Windows in which both sashes move is
called a double hung window. These types of windows are not nearly as good at controlling air
leakage as most other types. The reason for this is, the manufacturer must leave sufficient
tolerances, or gaps, between the moving sash and the window frame, otherwise the user would
not be able to open and close it. It is these more generous tolerances that allow the air leakage.
Sliding Type Windows
(Slide 37)
Sliding type windows are exactly the same as hung windows except that both sashes move.
Neither one is fixed, so one section may be raised up from the bottom and the top can be pushed
down, either one at a time or together. The other characteristics are exactly the same as for hung
CPTED and Windows
(Slide 38)
This is somewhat of a review of previous slides.
Windows provide a source of surveillance. They may be formal in that they were placed there
with the specific purpose in mind of allowing authorized users to see others. A good example is a
one-way glass from a managers office overlooking the store floor. They may be informal it that
they were provided primarily to reduce the amount of artificial light, but their presence also
provides the ability of legitimate users to see in or out. An example may be a window in a second
floor of an office building, designed specifically to reduce electric costs for lights. The added
advantage is that it may overlook a parking lot the allows secondary surveillance of the lot by
legitimate users inside the building or may merely give the perception to outsiders that someone
may be watching. Surveillance is the principal weapon in protection of defensible space. Those
CPTED Lesson Plan – Property of Sgt. Steve Garst
with criminal intent are less likely to attempt their crimes if they have the perception that they
could be seen. Legitimate users may feel safer by being able to view others coming and going.
Architects are intimately involved in this aspect. If they design the building improperly and do
not provide windows, or enough windows or windows in the appropriate places, they can
severely and adversely impact the safety of the building and its occupants. Conversely, proper
design can significantly improve actual and perceived safety of users.
Window Guidelines
(Slide 39-40)
Windows give two way visibility to areas open to the public. Convenience stores for example
provide the ability of the clerk to view customers who may drive off without paying for gas or see
the person walking up to the store with a mask and a gun. Conversely, a customer outside may be
able to see in and notice that someone has a gun pointed at the clerk and thus avoid walking into
the store and becoming a victim also. In both cases, it may give legitimate users added time to
call 9-1-1 or take other appropriate action to avoid being victimized.
It can be used to limit visibility to areas closed to the public. The example of the store manager
overlooking the store is one. Even private residences and commercial establishes may install
windows with tint or film or shades that allow those inside the ability to see out while limiting
outsiders the ability to see in. That way, the outsider never knows if they are being watched or
not, but the perception is always there they someone could be watching.
Selection of the proper window (r-value, low- e, etc.), the proper tinting (light emission, glare,
etc.) and/or proper film (strengthen, reflectivity, etc.) are all critical. The CPTED practitioner
should make friends with a good window and tint expert, preferably one that is not a salesman
interested in commissions. An expert will be able to give proper advise on a variety of window
issues and thus save the customer lots of money and the CPTED practitioner lots of
embarrassment and will help find the appropriate window for the location. Care should be taken
though to insure that windows are not placed where visibility is not desired, such as dressing
rooms and non-public areas of a business.
Window Guidelines -continued
(Slide 41)
Windows are useless if they aren’t treated properly. Sometimes the issue is not the window but
training regarding what to do or not do with it once it’s there.
One guideline is to instruct users to leave at least ¾ of the window unobstructed. If signs,
displays and things of that nature are desired, they should not cover more than a fourth of the
window surface. Even those should not be placed at eye level. The 3-7 rule should be followed,
that no covering should be above 3 feet and nothing below 7 feet. The objective it to leave an
unobstructed view at eye level through the window. The beer ad of the month, or the ice bag
machine, or the stack of seasonal firewood should never obstruct the window, especially the
critical eye-level area.
Sometimes simply turning shelving a different direction may help. If windows are available,
facing the shelves so that customers driving up may be able to see down them may be on option,
depending on the situation.
Window Guidelines - continued.
(Slide 42)
This summarizes previous slides and discusses selecting the appropriate window for the location
and desired effect on security, the proper use of drapes and coverings and the architects proper
placement of them in the building scheme.
Window Guidelines - continued.
(Slide 43)
CPTED Lesson Plan – Property of Sgt. Steve Garst
As mentioned, sometimes the issue is in training the user. People should be taught that drapes
and curtains should be closed, especially when they are away. Special times of year need to be
considered as well, such as Christmas when people want to display their tree. They should be
cautioned as to what other items or areas of their home they are also exposing unintentionally.
Signs may be used in conjunction with windows to add to the value of visibility. A simply
“Visitor” sign may obviously be meant to move visitors to the desired entrance, but an ulterior,
unstated motive may also be to guide visitors past windows behind which legitimate users may
be observing.
Many folks need to be told to call law enforcement if they see something suspicious. It is better to
call and not need the police, than to need them and not call. If something seems out of the norm,
it probably is and calling to have it investigated is usually always best.
Maintenance is always an issue and will be discussed in more detail elsewhere in this course but
property that is littered or “run down” in appearance invites unauthorized users onto the
Window Guidelines - continued.
(Slide 44)
Further instruction should also include the admonition to homeowners especially, to keep doors
and windows locked. Even open windows can have a secondary lock that prevent, or at least
slows, unauthorized users from walking by and opening it further. Some higher end windows
have the ability to lock at various intervals which is another added safety feature.
When alarm systems are installed, if the window itself does not have a contact point, the interior
room where the window is located should at least have a monitor or sensor to detect movement,
sudden change in temperature or pressure, or otherwise activate if the window is breached.
An extension of the 3-7 rule is to not place stationary objects in places that block the window.
Plants or other decorations on the window sill provides the same blocked view and a bush
Window Guidelines - continued.
(Slide 45)
An additional guideline that goes with the 3-7 rule is that all plants and other vegetation should
be kept (maintained) at least six (6) inches below the window sill. This allows open visibility and
some time between maintenance checks for the plant to grow before starting to obscure the
As always, lighting is always a deterrent and can be used very effectively, or in some cases
ineffectively, to enhance windows. For example, ground effect lighting may be nice to enhance
the decorative effect of the building at night, but it may also provide shadows and other
undesirable effects that can deter or detract from the windows effectiveness.
Fences, tree limbs, new construction and an assortment of other issues can take away some of
the positive effects of windows. A window that looks directly at a privacy fence may provide
more of an advantage to someone trying to see inside than it does for someone trying to see out.
Window Guidelines - concluded.
(Slide 42)
A final reminder that all opening smaller than nine (9) inches are a security concern as openings
of that size allow children to enter, opening the way for adults to follow. Almost all windows are
greater than 9 inches square and so should be treated as a security concern. Going back to one
original premise of the three lines of defense – anything given up on one line of defense must be
made up for at the next. More windows may also necessitate the need to add an alarm or other
security feature that might not otherwise be needed.
CPTED Lesson Plan – Property of Sgt. Steve Garst
A reminder also that any opening less that eighteen (18) feet from the ground is a security
concern. Every window on the ground floor obviously falls into that category, but second story
windows do as well. Take that into security considerations.
Any questions?
CPTED Lesson Plan – Property of Sgt. Steve Garst
(Student Motivation / Opening Statement)
Like windows, door and most other openings, fall into which line of defense? (Answer – second)
Ask again, what the three lines of defense are? (Building exterior, building perimeter, building
interior.) Many people, especially in residential applications, tend to skimp on doors and buy the
cheapest. This not only compromises environmental concerns, such as poor insulation value, but
significantly compromises safety and security. A weak door provides an easy, or easier, means of
access to a property than almost anything else.
(Implementation of Instruction)
Doors – Generally
(Slide 2)
Doors are obviously the primary legitimate points of entry and exit into/out of any building. As
such it should be selected with care, giving appropriate consideration to safety. A cheap door is
easy to breach because the door itself may fail, or it may allow the screws or other hardware
installed in it to fail. In today’s world there are a multitude of doors in a various materials that
simulate wood, but add significantly more in terms of strength, durability, energy efficiency, and
of course, security. A door is the second most common point of unauthorized entry into a house.
(Ask what is first – windows.)
To be considered minimal security, a door must be at least 1 3/8 inches thick.
Openings – Generally
(Slide 3)
Ask the class how many sides an ordinary, regular shaped building has. The correct answer is six
(6). It has the four walls (the most common answer), it has a base or floor, which may or may not
be an issue, and it has a roof, also which may or may not be an issue.
Remind the class that any opening greater than nine (9) inches or any opening below (18) feet is
a security concern and doors generally always meet one or both of those criteria.
A successful CPTED practitioner thinks like a criminal to come up with “what if” scenarios and
questions and then implements plans and strategies to thwart those possibilities.
Where Do Burglars Enter
(Slide 4)
Ask the class if they know the most common entry points for burglars. (Windows are most
common, followed by doors.) Some of the more common ways doors are entered are by 1.) being
left unlocked, 2.) being kicked in, 3.) hammering the lock out, 4.) picking the lock, 5 & 6.) using a
prying tool to pry the door away from the jamb, 6.) drilling the locks out, 7.) breaking a glass in
or near the door and reaching in to open from the inside, 8.) finding a key the homeowners has
supposedly “hidden” and 9.) by using a duplicate usually illegal key. These keys may be taken off
the owners key ring without their knowledge by an auto repairman or other person with access
to the keys, or any similar method.
CPTED Lesson Plan – Property of Sgt. Steve Garst
Where Do Burglars Enter
(Slide 5)
Most will find a door that is hidden from view or that appears easy to defeat. Rear doors to
residences, especially those with privacy fenced back yards, are a preference. Burglars study
their trade just like anyone other “profession.” They know a good door, locks, alarm, camera, etc.
when they see them and pick the ones they know give the easiest access. Doors that are in
remote or hidden locations need be given extra attention with regard to security.
By the Statistics
(Slide 5)
Statistics, as of about 2008, show the following percentages of how entry is made via a door.
Through unlocked door
Forced entry by impact
Prying or jimmying
Pass key or picking lock
Entry attempted but failed
Not adding to exactly 100.00% is due to statistical rounding and other minor errors.
Door Assemblies
(Slide 7& 8)
These two graphic slide shows the basic components of a door and frame. Point out the main
features as noted on the graphic and the proper terminology.
Common Types of Doors
(Slide 9)
Slide is an introduction to just a few of the various types and styles of doors that are available –
wood, the one most common in years past, metal (more accurately, metal-clad) and fiberglass
being the used today in residential construction. In limited applications, there are French doors,
various types of glass doors, and sliding patio doors. All will be covered in more detail in
subsequent slides.
Wooden Doors
(Slide 10)
There are two basic types of wooden doors. Hollow core doors are for interior use only and
should never be used for exterior applications. These doors are, as the name implies, mostly
hollow. They consist of a honeycomb web of cardboard type material cut into strips the width of
the door. These are glued in place in between thin strips of plywood veneer. In some instances,
paper fill may be used instead of the cardboard strips.
Solid wood doors are generally wood laminates. Today, it is unusual to see single, solid lengths of
wood. Laminates are generally stronger than a single piece of wood anyway due to the glue and
other binding materials used in the laminating process. Some solid core wooden doors have a
foam filling inside a wood veneer but are still considered wooden doors.
Wooden Doors
(Slide 11 & 12)
These two graphics illustrate the two types of wooden doors. The first shows the honeycomb
pattern interior of a hollow core door and the next shows the wood block or laminated material
of a solid core door.
Wooden Doors
(Slide 13)
This graphic shows a typical wooden doors exterior. Assembly of these doors generally starts by
taking the two outside vertical boards and placing them in a frame. The bottom style is dropped
CPTED Lesson Plan – Property of Sgt. Steve Garst
in place. The next three panels, two recessed and one the same thickness as the outside pieces,
are dropped in place between the exterior boards. A series of grooves and ridges allow the
joining or insertion of these pieces. The second horizontal board is dropped in place and each
level continues until the door is assembled. Each of the joints are usually glued or mitered so that
they stay in place once assembled. In some cases, glass panes are inserted in panel locations
where wood might otherwise be used, either for aesthetics or other decorative purposes.
Metal Steel Doors
(Slide 14)
Metal doors are more properly referred to as metal clad doors. A solid metal door would be
extremely heavy. Solid metal doors are generally only used in commercial applications. Even
metal clad doors may be heavier than wooden doors of the same size. More exotic, and thus more
expensive, metal clad doors may be made of copper, zinc or other metals.
The interior of these doors generally consist of polyurethane foam, which helps to make the door
lighter but also adds insulation value and sound deadening to the door. The interior may also be
a composite material such a pressed or laminated wood. These doors provide better protection
against fire than a wooden door and thus have applications where fire barriers are a
consideration, such as public schools.
Metal doors are resistant to shrinkage, cracking and warping, thus avoiding some of the issues
that commonly plague wooden doors. They are therefore easier to maintain than wooden doors.
Metal Aluminum Doors
(Slide 15)
Aluminum doors are also more properly called “clad” doors. They have all the same
characteristics as other types of metal doors, with the added advantage of being lighter. Other
than that, the characteristics described immediately above for steel doors are basically the same.
Metal and Composite Doors
(Slides 16&17)
These slides illustrate the internal composition for metal clad doors that have a foam or other
composite material inside. (Point out the various descriptions provided in the slide graphic.)
Metal and Composite Doors
(Slide 18)
This graphic merely illustrates one of the many varieties of metal clad doors available, this one
with side panels to provide a more luxurious look.
Fiberglass Doors
(Slide 19)
Like metal, fiberglass doors are more properly referred to as “clad” doors. A fiberglass skin of
material is adhered over a composite or polyurethane inner core. It has many of the same
characteristics of metal clad doors such as being weather resistant, low maintenance, will not
warp or splinter. The added benefit is that they are generally much lighter. Fiberglass skins
comes in a variety of “grains” and can be painted or stained, so virtually any type of wood can be
Fiberglass Doors
(Slides 20&21)
These two graphics give views of merely two of the hundreds of types of fiberglass clad doors.
French Doors
(Slide 22)
French doors consist of two doors which are hinged on opposite sides and swing independently
of one another. One side is normally bolted closed while the other is commonly used for routine
CPTED Lesson Plan – Property of Sgt. Steve Garst
passage. When needed, the opposing door can be unbolted and opened, essentially doubling the
size of the opening. This is useful to accommodate large groups of people all at once or to allow
passage of larger furniture and equipment than could otherwise be accommodated through the
single door. They are available in all the styles mentioned; i.e. wood, metal or fiberglass.
French Doors
(Slides 23-25)
These three slides illustrate only three of the vast availability of French doors. As illustrated, they
may be solid, partially glass, all glass and a host of other styles.
Cremone Bolt
(Slide 26)
A Cremone bolt is probably the most common type of fastener used to secure the inactive door in
a set of French doors. While the styles differ, the basic commonality is that a heavy duty rod
extends upward to the top of the door and a corresponding rod extends to the bottom of the
door. They are fastened in the middle by a knob of some sort which the user turns to engage or
disengage the rods. When the knob is turned, one rod goes up while the other simultaneously
goes down to lock the door in place, or unlocks it. The bolt engages into a hole in the floor and
another in the door frame at the top.
While fairly secure, one major disadvantage is that, over time, the hole in the floor may fill with
dirt and other debris to the degree that the bottom bolt will only partially engage, if it engages at
all. This compromises the integrity of the entire door assembly with regard to keeping
unauthorized user out. Likewise, the top may become misaligned and not engage into the top
opening which further compromises the lock.
The side of the door that normally opens should be secured with a quality deadbolt lock that
fulfills the requirements of a security lock and fully engages the reinforced section of the
normally closed door
A Cremone bolt may be mounted on the outside of the door, in which case they also serve as a
decorative feature, or they may be fully concealed within the door itself, with only the knob that
engages/disengaged the rods visible.
(Illustration shows one style of Cremone bolt.
Glass (In doors)
(Slide 27)
Glass in a door is generally always a negative. While it allows light to enter and also provide
visibility as to someone approaching from the opposite side, the general caveat of any glass
within 40 inches of an opening should be considered a security risk. Glass is generally much
easier to defeat that virtually any other type of material used in doors. Special reinforcements
are available, but add significant cost to the glass. Glass is also generally a much poorer energy
barrier than other solid materials.
Sliding Patio Doors
(Slide 28)
There are two major problems associated with glass patio doors. The first is, all that glass. As
noted, glass is almost always a security concern and a patio door is nothing but glass. Also, the
lock supplied by the manufacturer is generally insufficient to provide any kind of attack designed
to defeat it. The aluminum frame that most patio doors are manufactured with are inherently
weak as well. Several things are needed to strengthen a glass patio door.
As noted in the previous slide, patio doors are most commonly defeated by lifting the door out of
the track. Consequently, some type of locking device is needed to prevent this. There are several
methods that work.
CPTED Lesson Plan – Property of Sgt. Steve Garst
A Charley Bar is usually attached (bolted) to the outer frame of the door assembly and has a rod
that is hinged to it. The bar can be dropped down 90 degrees, bracing the door against the
opposing frame. While this does little to prevent lifting the door out of the track, it does prevent
sliding or shaking the door to wiggle it out of the frame.
A variety of security hooks are available. Most attach to the door and have some type of locking
mechanism that engages the frame itself.
Pinning is a method of drilling a hole through the door and frame, allowing the insertion of a pin,
nail or other feature. This prevents both the lifting and sliding of the door. If this method is
chosen care must be taken to drill through the door close enough to the outer perimeter of the
door that it avoids drilling through the glass itself. The door must be in the closed position and
the hole drilled through both the door and frame simultaneously, otherwise the two holds may
not line up properly. It is advisable also to drill at a slight angle so that when the pin is inserted, it
settles into the hole rather than vibrating out or being shook out on purpose.
A method of securing the door not noted in the slide is accomplished by placing screws along the
header of the door. All patio doors need a tolerance at the top to allow them 1.) to be installed
and 2.) to allow them enough room to be able to slide it open and closed. Opening the door and
drilling a series of screws into the frame in the space directly above the door, and leaving the
heads of the screws exposed just enough to allow the door to slide closed but not enough to
allow lifting it out of the track, is a good method to prevent lifting the door out of the frame.
Sliding Patio Doors
(Slide 29)
One warning commonly issued by the patio door manufacturer is to be sure that the sliding half
of the door is installed on the INSIDE of the structure. This seems like common sense, but the
presence of the warning seems to indicate that someone, somewhere installed it backwards.
Sliding Patio Doors
(Slide 30)
This illustration shows the method of placing the screws along the top of the frame, directly
above the moving door itself, to prevent lifting.
Sliding Patio Doors
(Slide 31)
This illustration shows one type of lock that attaches to the track of the door at the bottom and is
secured in place by a lockable hook into the door, that prevents both lifting and sliding.
Sliding Patio Doors
This illustrates a Charley Bar, showing how it is installed and deployed.
(Slide 32)
Sliding Patio Doors
(Slide 33)
An illustration showing another type of lockable device that secures the door to the track to
prevent lifting and sliding.
Sliding Patio Doors
(Slide 34)
Picture of a commercially available door pin. Removed, it allows the door to function. When
positioned in the hole drilled in both the door and frame it completely immobilizes the door.
Sliding Patio Doors
CPTED Lesson Plan – Property of Sgt. Steve Garst
(Slide 35-37)
Three photos in a hotel room on the 18th floor of a hotel in Corpus Christi. First picture shows the
bolt not engaged and hanging from its fastener. The hole is visible above it. The second photo
shows the door slightly ajar, to see both the frame and the door hole. The final picture shows the
door closed and the pin engaged in position.
Sliding Patio Doors
Illustration of another style of security pin.
(Slide 38)
Sliding Patio Doors
(Slide 39-40)
First illustration shows a typical style of patio door. One side slides to open and close. The other
side is stationary.
Second illustration shows a not so typical patio door with multiple functioning openings. This
style of door would be particularly difficult to secure. (Ask why – multiple openings, all sections
movable, etc.)
Garage Doors
(Slide 41)
Garage doors come in a huge variety of styles and methods of operation. All should have a keyed
lock. It is preferable to have no keyway on the outside. This makes it more inconvenient to
legitimate users since they would have to go inside to open a locked door, but the absence of a
keyway outside prevents picking the lock.
Like entry doors, they may be wood, metal clad, fiberglass or other materials. The pluses and
minuses of the various types of garage doors are essentially the same as entry doors of the same
Because of the constant shaking of the door while closing/opening panels in a wooden door may
loosen over time. Sometimes these panels loosen to the point of exposing daylight through the
opening, giving a place for unauthorized users to pry the panel apart or out. They may even fall
out on their own if not properly maintained over time.
Most doors now have electric openers. One of the first thing is to change the default code, unless
it is a type that has automatic code learning that changes every time a signal is transmitted. The
user should unplug or otherwise disengage the opener when gone for an extended period of
time, like a vacation. They should also engage the manual lock.
The emergency pull cord should also be removed to prevent “cord grabbing.” This happens when
the door is in the closed position, leaving the cord right against the door. A wedge is inserted
between the door and the facing, yielding an opening wide enough for a wire or coat hanger to be
inserted. This wire is used to grab the cord, pull it, thus disengaging the latch from the bar,
freeing the door to be raised freely by hand.
Garage doors
(Slides 42-45)
The first illustration shows a traditional wooden garage door and warns about checking the
panels over time for shifting. Also, doors with windows should be covered with a film or other
material to prevent someone from looking in.
The next three slides show typical metal garage doors of the type normally found in hardware
stores. The first is the lower end and has only a single metal skin, no reinforcing inner skin and
no insulation. In addition to energy loss, these doors are much more noisy than other types of
doors. They are lightweight but cheap.
CPTED Lesson Plan – Property of Sgt. Steve Garst
The next shows a little higher grade of metal door. While it still has only one layer of metal skin,
it contains a sheet of polystyrene. This provides some insulation and also makes the door
The final photo shows a higher end door with both an inner and outer metal skin, along with a
polystyrene core that makes the door more study and quieter.
Garage Doors
(Slide 46)
A reminder that a garage door is an exterior door and has all the same security issues as any
other entry door, possibly more. They come in a variety of styles and types of material. All should
have a quality deadbolt lock, preferably with no outside keyway. They should not have windows
and if they do, they should be covered to keep unauthorized persons from looking inside. As an
exterior door, they should be contacted to any existing alarm system. All the issues related to
hinges, screws, bolts, etc. common to entry doors should be considered when viewing security
issues of garage doors.
Garage Entry Doors
(Slide 47)
This is the door that goes from the garage into the house itself. This door should be treated like
any other exterior door. That is, it should be solid core with a quality deadbolt lock. Ideally, it
should have no windows and if the house has an alarm system, this opening should be contacted.
Consider all the same issue of screw length, exposed hinges, etc. that may be seen in other
exterior doors.
Hinge Pins
(Slide 48)
All hinge pins should ideally be placed inside the structure. This is generally not an issue with
residences since most exterior doors open inward. This almost automatically places the hinge
pins on the inside of the door.
Commercial doors often have the hinge pins on the exterior, because fire codes often require that
they open outward. (Ask why – answer – to prevent people from piling up against a door that
opens inward and thus can’t be opened when a crowd of people are pushing against it from the
Hinge Pins
(Slide 49)
There are a variety of methods to fix a problem of hinge pins being exposed outside. The reason
it is an issue is that unauthorized users will simply drive the pins out, releasing the door
completely from the frame on the hinge side.
One method is to purchase and install/replace hinges with pins that are non-removable. These
pins are permanently affixed to both sides of the hinge. Installation requires placing the door on
the frame exactly as it will be in its operating position, which often requires professional
installation. Replacement of existing hinges is easier by simply removing and replacing one hinge
at a time until all are replaced.
Another method is to weld the hinge pin in place. Simply tack weld the pin to one side of the
hinge preventing its removal without breaking the weld.
Drilling a hole through one side of the hinge, until the pin itself is reached and threading the hole
with a set screw. Screw it down until it is firm against the pin. When closed the set screw cannot
be accessed and it keeps the pin in place.
Another method is to “pin” the door. This involves drilling a hole in one side (either the door or
the frame) and then inserting a screw on the opposing side, leaving about ¼ of an inch of the
CPTED Lesson Plan – Property of Sgt. Steve Garst
screw exposed. When the door is closed, the screw goes inside the hole. Even if the pins are
removed, the door still cannot be removed from the opening because the exposed screw
prevents it.
A final method is to buy and install commercially available hinges that have the same type of
feature designed into the hinge. One side of the hinge will have an opening. The corresponding
other side will have a tang, stud or similar protrusion that engages the hole when closed. This
also pins the door in the same manner as the screw method above.
Hinge Pins
(Slide 50)
This illustration shows a security hinge pin that has a set screw in place to hold the pin.
Installation is done as any normal hinge, after the set screw is loosed, allowing removal of the
pin. After installation, and the pin is reinserted, the set screw will is tightened down to prevent
the pin from sliding.
Hinge Pins
(Slide 51)
This picture shows a commercially available hinge with a stud that protrudes to engage a hole in
the other side of the hinge when closed. Even if he pin is removed the device prevents
disassembly of the door from the frame.
Hinge Pins
(Slide 52)
This picture simple shows a normal hinge assembly, with both halves of the hinge and the pin
Door Pinning
This slide describes “pinning” a door, as described above under slide 49>
(Slide 53)
Door Pinning
An illustration of hinge pinning.
(Slide 54)
Latch Reinforcements
(Slide 55)
The weakest part of the door assembly is usually he strike area. This is because the door frame of
most residential houses is only a one-half inch thick board, which has a hole cut in it to receive
the bolt of the lock. This leaves only a small piece of wood (usually less than one-half of an inch)
to hold the lock. This is easily split out when kicked or forced.
This means that all strike plates need to be reinforced with some type of metal plate. There are a
variety on the market. The best ones extend the area by several inches or more above and below
the hole for the bolt. There are a minimum of three holes above and below for the screws that
fasten it to the frame. These holes preferably should not all be in alignment with each other. If
they are, all the screws may be in the same grain of wood, which may make it easier to splinter
the wood by impact. All the screws holding the strike plate to the frame should be a minimum of
three inches.
Door Frame Illustration
(Slide 56)
Pictures illustrate the small area between the hole for the bolt and the edge of the door frame,
making it easy to kick. Picture to the right illustrates the gap between the door and the frame
which further weakens this area. The wider the gap, the less of the lock bolt is engaged in the
CPTED Lesson Plan – Property of Sgt. Steve Garst
strike plate, making it easier to spread apart or kick and bend the bolt if fastened only by the
edge of the bolt. Strike plates should serve to fill in part of any gap that is present.
Door Frame Illustration
(Slide 57)
A picture of one type of reinforcement that covers the knob assembly side of the lock, thus
strengthening the door around the bolt itself.
Strike Reinforcement
(Slide 58)
Kicking a door is one of the most common methods used to defeat the strike plate area, since the
strike is generally the weakest part of the door assembly. High security strikes help.
“Strikemaster” is one brand that places a metal plate along virtually the entire length of the edge
of the door, which can significantly strengthen the assembly. While we never recommend a
specific manufacturer, this one illustrates this type of assembly. There are other manufacturers
that have similar assemblies that work.
Strike Plates
(Slide 59)
The picture to the left shows a common strike plate furnished by manufacturers with most locks.
Note that there are only two screw holes and a small piece of metal that will cover the wood part
of the frame. The picture to the right shows a high security strike plate. Note that there are three
holes above and below the bolt opening and they are not in alignment. The longer metal and
staggered screw holes help to strengthen the frame. Screws that are at least 3 inches long should
be used to attach it.
“Strikemaster” reinforcement
(Slide 60)
An illustration of the “Strikemaster” brand of strike plate. Note that almost all of the door frame
is covered by metal with this plate and there are a good number of screw holes available to
attach it to the frame.
“Strikemaster” reinforcement
(Slide 61)
This is an embedded movie that should play made by the manufacturer to show the impact
resistance of this strike plate.
Doors in doors
(Slide 62)
Two of the most common opening found in doors themselves are doggie doors and mail slots.
Mail slots are not as common anymore, but may still be found in commercial applications and
possibly in apartment complexes. Doggie doors are still found and come in a variety of sizes.
Numerous cases exist where people have squeezed through doggie doors to gain access or have
used small children to enter via the doggie door and open it from the inside to allow an adult
unauthorized entry. Depending on where they are located on the door itself, either may possibly
be used to allow an arm to reach inside and unlock or open the door. Newer, higher end mail
slots now have baffles inside that allow mail to drop but prevent larger objects from reaching in
or being inserted inside to open the door. Newer doggie doors now have the ability to lock them
closed when not being used and some have electronic receivers that receive a signal from the
pets collar so that the door cannot be opened until the pet is nearby. This of course would not
preclude an unauthorized user from removing the collar and using it themselves for
unauthorized entry. Both doggie doors and mail drops should be avoided altogether if at all
possible. If nothing else, they weaken an otherwise strong structure by cutting an opening in the
solid door.
CPTED Lesson Plan – Property of Sgt. Steve Garst
Peep holes
(Slide 63)
All doors should have a peep hole, even if there is glass in or near the door. Using one allows the
user inside to see out without letting anyone know that someone is inside. Moving a curtain to
look out a window lets someone outside know the house is occupied. There may be times when
this is not desirable to the homeowner. All peepholes should be installed low enough that shorter
people can use them, such as elderly people or older kids. They should also have at least a 190
degree field of view to allow the user to see anyone crouched down below or to one side of the
door. Viewers with a narrower field of view do not allow such viewing.
Reverse Peep Holes
(Slide 64)
Be aware that reverse peep holes devices are on the market and available via the Internet for less
than $50.00. Holding them up to a peep hole in a door allows the outside user to look back into
the residence. This can be thwarted by the homeowner by installing a peephole that has a
swinging cover on the inside that drops by gravity to cover the opening. When used, the user
simply pushes the cover to one side or the other to look out and when released it automatically
drops back in place. If a peephole is already installed that does not have such a device, the use of
a picture or any other type of covering can be used.
Security Shutters
(Slide 65)
A graphic that simply shows security shutters. Merely serves to illustrate that things can be made
relatively safe given enough money. These shutters would be expensive.
CPTED Entry into Doors
(Slide 66)
A door is an opening in an otherwise secure wall. People frequently skimp on doors and tend to
try and save money by buying cheap ones. This is not the place to cut costs. Buy good doors.
Also buy quality locks and keep them locked even when people are home. Commercial locks may
differ considerably depending on the type of business, hours of operation and a host of other
If involved in the design of a property, entry doors should face the street and should be readily
apparent. Main entry doors that are located around the side of buildings, that are hidden from
view and that are not readily apparent as the main entry location present dangers. People need
more direction to find them. It inhibits the owners ability to see or get out and if hidden, present
a good place to hide and work on illegal entry by unauthorized users.
Above all, never use hollow core doors as entry doors.
CPTED Door Guidelines
(Slide 67)
In commercial applications, designate one prominent door as the primary entry/exit door for the
public. All other doors should be locked at all times. Removal of the exterior door knob or handle
on non-entry doors reinforces the message that these doors are not for entry. If they are gone it
removes one of the ways that people may gain unauthorized entry, by pulling and forcing them
open. Also, remove door mats, pots, furniture and any other easily movable object nearby, inside
or out, that can likely be used to prop the door open. Don’t forget about landscaping items, like
wood chips, rocks, construction debris, or even dropped objects like ballpoint pens, et al that can
be used to wedge the door open. Consider installing an audible alarm notification device that
alerts when a remote door is opened. Some are instant notification. Others are set on timers and
only activate if a door is kept open for the time set on the timer.
CPTED Lesson Plan – Property of Sgt. Steve Garst
CPTED Door Guidelines
(Slide 68)
Think like a criminal. Do an assessment and determine doors that can easily be defeated. Play
“what if” games. Once deficiencies are noted, identify solutions to correct the deficiency before
there is an actual problem.
Think about the person who locks and unlocks the building. Is this person trustworthy? Have
they gone through a background check when hired and then again annually to verify that they
are still clear. Think about all the issues with keys (covered in another module) and discuss some
of them here.
Make sure that entry is limited to specific doors and even at specific times of day and days of the
CPTED Door Guidelines
(Slide 69)
Remember all the rules for landscaping. All plants and shrubs should be kept a minimum of 24
inches away from doors. Remember that the plant you put in the ground today will grow. Three
years from now, if not properly maintained, will its growth put it within the 24 inch guideline?
Remember the “3-7 rule”. Ask what that is. (No tree limbs or other obstructions below 7 feet and
no shrubs or bushes above 3 feet to create a zone at eye level to be able to see in and out.)
Consider thorny plants near doors. These discourage people from trying to hide within them
because of being stuck by the thorns.
Trim bushes up from the ground at least six inches to be able to see under the plant. Leave open
spaces between bushes and/or remove ever other bush to allow visibility between plants. That
leaves landscaping for beautification, but leaves open spaces to see in and out.
Remember to trim all bushes at least six inches below the window sill so as to not block the view
of the user inside.
CPTED Door Guidelines
(Slide 70)
In commercial applications, adequate signs help guide visitors and guests to correct doors. These
signs should adequately convey the desired message, without being cluttered or contain too
much information. Too much information may also be conflicting or confusing. Consider they
way they will be viewed and read. Will they be read by pedestrians walking or by drivers going
by at 40 miles per hour? Obviously, the size of the font and the contrast of the letters to the
background, along with appropriate text, must be considered based on the likely user.
Likewise, adequate and proper lighting can have a significant impact. Lighting a pathway better
than another can help guide persons down specific paths for example.
CPTED Door Guidelines
(Slide 71)
Just a reminder slide that CPTED guidelines say that any opening more than 9 inches square is a
security concern. All entry doors fit into this guideline. Some doggie doors and similar openings
do as well.
Likewise, any opening less than 18 feet from the ground is a security concern. First floor doors
obviously meet this criteria, but so do most second floor doors as well. Think balconies and other
exterior doors above ground level.
General Perimeter Recommendations
Most of these are reminders from previous slides…
Lock exterior doors, even when home.
CPTED Lesson Plan – Property of Sgt. Steve Garst
(Slide 72)
Remove door mats and other things that can be used to wedge doors open.
Install door alarm notifiers as needed.
Provide adequate signs for visitors
Routinely check roof hatches, skylights and other possible entry points
Other Entry Points
(Slide 73)
Sewers, manhole covers and storm drains
Consider these as possible entry/exit points to the building or just the grounds. Secure them as
needed by tack welding, locking or otherwise securing them closed to all but authorized users. At
the least consider them as temporary places of concealment or places to hide contraband or
other fruits of the crime.
Roof hatches and skylights
Establish procedures for keeping roof hatches closed and secured from the inside to prevent
unauthorized entry. Inspect skylights to ensure they have not been damaged by the elements or
by persons or animals, compromising the integrity of the building.
Shafts, vents, ducts, fire escapes
View all of these just like sewers and drains. They may provide ingress, egress, or hiding places
for persons or contraband. Inspect all of them and if they are a security concern address it.
Remember, any opening larger than 9 inches is a security concern and in today’s world, opening
even smaller are potentials for problems.
Skylights - Generally
(Slide 74)
Skylights are a great way to bring natural lighting into the building. They also may provide places
of unauthorized entry. Some skylights are permanent and do not open. Other open. Some are
small while others may compose an entire ceiling. Almost all of them can provide a means of
unauthorized entry into the building.
An illustration of a curb mounted, permanently fixed skylight.
(Slide 75)
More stylish skylights are pictured here.
(Slide 76)
(Slide 77)
These are illustrations of ventilating, or opening, skylights. These are obviously more of a
security concern than the fixed, curb mounted style.
Daylighting Skylights
(Slide 78)
Illustration of large expanses of skylights, essentially making the array an entire roof or room
Entrance Canopies and Atriums
Illustration of glass canopies and atriums.
(Slide 79)
Skylight Guidelines
(Slide 80)
Use non-opening skylights in areas that are easily assessable. Be careful of walls or nearby
structures that can be climbed or scaled to gain access to the roof and then the skylight. Consider
CPTED Lesson Plan – Property of Sgt. Steve Garst
parts of the building itself, fences, nearby items like basketball goalposts, trees or any other
items that can be used. Remove those items and if not possible to remove them, consider other
alternatives to prevent them from being used to gain roof access. Be watchful of moveable items
that may be used for access, such as ladders or other nearby moveable items that can be used to
gain roof access.
Skylight lens come in a variety of materials. Consider laminates and polycarbonates that are
much harder to break than other materials, even if it means having a maintenance plan to
replace them every 7 years or so due to discoloration from the sun.
Consider placing alarm contacts on them so that if they are broken, the alarm will sound.
Roof Hatches
(Slide 81&82)
Roof hatches obviously provide easy access to the roof. This aids workers who need roof access
to easily get up and down. It may also provide a place for unauthorized entry. All roof hatches
should be kept closed and locked from the inside when not being used. They should be inspected
frequently to ensure ease of operation and that no tampering has occurred or any other activity
that could compromise the integrity of the opening.
It is also a good idea to place these access ladders inside a secure room. Frequently they are
located in custodial closets and places of that nature. That is good because it is frequently these
workers who need access most often. These rooms themselves should be locked, providing an
additional layer of protection to prevent unauthorized access.
Hatches should never be left open and unattended. Not only does it allow easy illegal entry for
criminals, it also exposes the building to the elements (should it come a heavy rain while open)
or to critters and other varmints that may enter the building.
Other Holes – Window Air Conditioners
(Slide 83)
Window air conditioners are a special problem. Even if properly secured, which many are not,
they still may provide easy (or easier) access into a building. Most window air conditioners
install from inside the room, but opening the window and sliding them into a frame that has been
installed around the window. All it takes is a good shove from the outside and the entire unit
simply falls onto the floor, leaving an opening the size of the unit for entry. 3 inch screws should
be used to fasten all four sides of the frame to the wall. The unit itself should also be fastened by
lock or other means to the frame, essentially making them one piece. A cage or other covering
may be installed around the outside to prevent direct access to the unit, preventing someone
from pushing it into the building.
Other Holes – Sewer and Drains
(Slide 84)
These are illustrations of a couple of different types of covers that may provide ingress, egress of
hiding/concealment in and around a building. All should be considered a security risk and
measures taken to remove that specific risk.
Other Holes – Floors
(Slide 85)
Ask how may sides a regular rectangular building has? Most say 4, some say 5 (including the
roof) but the correct answer is usually 6. This is especially true for building on blocks or pier and
beam. Floors do not generally have opening, unless air and heating ducts enter there, and so may
be difficult to enter. Still, working under a building gives good cover and concealment, even
muffling noises to some degree, allowing time to make an opening. Consider the possibility of a
basement and any entrances into the building itself that it may provide.
CPTED Lesson Plan – Property of Sgt. Steve Garst
All buildings on pier and beam should have a permanent covering from the bottom of the
building to the ground that is sufficient in itself to give some level of protection from
unauthorized access but that also makes it readily apparent that it has been breached when
removed or damaged.
Other Holes – Floors
(Slide 86)
A picture of a “portable” building at a school that shows permanent panels extending from the
bottom of the building to ground level. Removal of any one of these panels would become readily
apparent and should be investigated immediately.
Other Holes – Roof Access Ladders
(Slide 87)
The most common of these are fire escapes which are not seen that often any more in modern
construction. Others that are common are ladders that are permanently mounted to the side of
the building and generally does not extend all the way to the ground, requiring a ground ladder
to access it. These provide easy access, especially where a truck or other vehicle can be driven
below it, allowing almost immediate access to the ladder and thus the roof. Consideration needs
to given to either removing them completely, or securing them in a sufficient manner that
prevents unauthorized access.
Other Holes – Roof Access Ladders
(Slide 88)
Picture of an old style fire escape (Point out the possible issues. – Gutter that could possibly be
scaled to reach the ladder, bushes that would provide cover and concealment, windows on lower
floors that may provide access, the nearby driveway that a tall vehicle could maneuver close to
the ladder, etc.)
Other Holes – Roof Access Ladders
(Slide 89)
Picture of a permanently mounted access ladder. (Ask students to point out deficiencies. –
Possible solutions - It is too low to the ground. Is easy to reach even on foot or by small
stepladder. It is near a curb allowing a vehicle to come very near it. The locked “cover” only
covers the lower section. It would not take much to gain access above the locked piece. Maybe
move the piece up to the top of the ladder or placing a similar cover over the entire ladder. The
students may have other workable ideas. Remember to keep them realistic and cost effective.)
Other Holes – Roof Access Ladders
(Slide 90)
A picture of a tower with a limited access ladder. Ask if the students see any deficiencies. –
Possible answers – the slats are too far apart allowing spreading to gain entry. They are too
lightweight, they cover only one side of the ladder, which would still allow someone to climb,
possibly falling and then initiating a law suit for an “attractive nuisance.” The students may come
up with their own answers.
Other Holes – Roof Access Ladders
(Slide 91)
Another picture of the same ladder showing the opening at the bottom. While it has a lock, the
flimsy materials have obviously been pulled and pried allowing a small opening to form.
Continuation of that may eventually cause the lock or hasp to fail or bend it sufficiently to gain
Other Holes – Roof Access Ladders
CPTED Lesson Plan – Property of Sgt. Steve Garst
(Slide 92)
A picture of a fairly well guarded access ladder. Not only is there a cage for safety in climbing, it
appears to be surrounded by a fence about 18 feet high. Ask students to point out deficiencies –
Possible answers – the lower fence to the left allowing someone to climb around the taller fence.
Other Holes – Roof Access Ladders
(Slide 93)
When viewed from another perspective, it is now apparent that the ladder is enclosed within its
own 18 foot tall fence, separate from the other, thus the lower fence is no issue. The gate is
locked and the fence meets all the guidelines for a proper chain link security fence.
Any questions?
CPTED Lesson Plan – Property of Sgt. Steve Garst
(Student Motivation / Opening Statement)
It was stated that a person should not sacrifice quality or try to save money on exteriors doors.
The same can be said of locks. The lock assembly is generally the part of the door that is easiest
to defeat. Frequently though, defeat comes easily by not maintaining proper key control to the
locks. The following will address some of those issues and suggest ways to improve.
(Implementation of Instruction)
Locks - Definition
(Slide 2)
Slide provides the legal full definition of a lock. Lists the various types of devices – mechanical,
electrical, hydraulic or electronic. Obviously it is designed to prevent entry into something – a
building, container, etc. It acts as a device to temporarily attach two separate objects together
and holds them together until some internal mechanism is altered allowing the parts to separate
or release.
Locks - Generally
(Slide 3)
Most building codes do NOT require locks. They are installed as a matter of good sense and
public demand.
Ask how most locks are selected. Most are done by the builder and is based on cost.
Do quality locks make a difference? Yes. Burglars are professionals in their trade. They recognize
good and bad locks. A good lock may simply make them move on to another target while a
substandard lock may invite them in.
Standard Door Knob Pass Lock
(Slide 4)
This lock set is little more than a simple handle to open and close doors. They generally open
with a key from the outside and have a push knob or thumb turn on the inside that is pushed or
twisted to lock and is unlocked by twisting the door knob itself, releasing the lock or by turning
the thumb turn back to the unlocked position. Only a very small portion of the bolt extension
engages the strike. This is because it is necessarily short to begin with. It needs to be because it is
designed to automatically retract the bolt when the door is pushed shut, allowing it to reengage
the strike, holding the door closed without locking it. The other reason is that the clearance
needed for the door to clear the facing leaves a void that they bolt must extend across before it
engages the strike. It is NOT considered a security lock. If installed by the builder it is generally
lower grade and low cos. It MUST be accompanied by a deadbolt lock for security purposes.
Standard Door Knob Pass Lock
(Slide 5)
Picture that illustrates a standard pass set lock, with a key on the outside and a thumb turn on
the inside.
CPTED Lesson Plan – Property of Sgt. Steve Garst
Single cylinder Deadbolt
(Slide 6)
One of the more common types of deadbolt locks is the single cylinder deadbolt. It is activated by
turning a key or knob without activation of a spring internally. It opens from the outside with a
key and from the inside with a thumb turn. Crime prevention guidelines state that this lock
should not be used if located within 40 inches of a window, obviously because someone could
simply break the window, reach in and turn the lock to open it. In most areas of the county this
guideline violates life safety or fire, codes which prohibit a key operated only lock. The reason is
that if the key is removed, which it should be, and a fire ensues, people would be trapped inside
the building unless a key could be readily produced and used. When making recommendations
as to locks know the local fire and health safety codes of the area and never make suggestions
that violate them. Fire and health safety trumps crime prevention dogma.
To be considered a security deadbolt it must have a throw (the extension of the bolt from the
lock itself into the strike) of at least one inch. Longer is better, but hard to find commercially.
These locks can be keyed to alike to the standard lock pass set, allowing the user to have only
one key to operate both locks.
Single cylinder Deadbolt
(Slide 7)
Illustration of a single sided deadbolt lock. It takes a key to operate it from the outside, but can be
opened by turning the thumb turn on the inside.
Double cylinder Deadbolt
(Slide 8)
A double cylinder deadbolt is exactly the same as a single cylinder deadbolt in every way except
one. It requires a key to operate it from both sides. Crime prevention guidelines say this IS the
lock to use if within 40 inches of a window, but fire and health safety often prevent it. When that
is the case, a single cylinder deadbolt should be used.
Double cylinder Deadbolt
(Slide 9)
A picture of a double cylinder deadbolt. Note that both sides take a key to operate the lock.
Captured Key Deadbolt
(Slide 10)
This is a relatively new lock on the market and as such it is more difficult to find and costs more
when it is found. It is a unique “combination” of both a single and double cylinder deadbolt lock.
The inside has a cover that when in place makes the lock look like a double cylinder deadbolt,
requiring a key from both sides. The difference is that when the key is turned on the inside, it
simply removes the cover. It does not open the lock. It reveals a thumb turn mechanism that then
works exactly like the interior side of a single cylinder lock and when turned, opens the door.
The theory is that when someone is home, the cover is removed and left off allowing the lock to
operate just like a single cylinder deadbolt. When away, the cover is replaces, essentially making
it operate like a double cylinder deadbolt. It is a great option for use where fire and health codes
prevent double cylinder deadbolts on doors.
Captured Key Deadbolt
(Slide 11)
A picture of a captured key deadbolt. Then the key is turned, it removes the covering, exposing a
thumb turn mechanism to operate the lock.
Jimmy Proof Deadbolt
CPTED Lesson Plan – Property of Sgt. Steve Garst
(Slide 12)
This is an exterior mounted lock that is rarely seen today, except in older homes or for
decorative purposes. It comes in either a single or double cylinder configuration. The most
common is single, using a key on the outside and a thumb turn on the inside. Most relock
automatically when the door closes so care needs to be taken not to lock oneself out. Some have a
lever that can be thrown to hold the bolt open when the door closes to eliminate that issue. Most
are billed a pick and drill resistant because they have chips internally that lock up a drill bit
Jimmy Proof Deadbolt
(Slide 13)
Picture of a jimmy proof deadbolt lock. It is also called a drop bolt lock because, as stated
previously, it usually locks automatically when the door closes.
Rim Lock
(Slide 14)
A rim lock is NOT considered a security lock. No longer seen much, except in older homes or for
decoration purposes, the original of these often used a “universal” skeleton key to operate. If
used it should be installed with carriage bolts and nuts that go all the way through the door. The
head of the carriage bolt should be on the outside to prevent someone from simply removing the
nuts and removing the lock from the door.
Rim Lock
(Slide 15)
A picture of a rim lock showing the mounting holes to put it on the outside (interior) of the door
and a set of skeleton keys that are frequently used.
Mortise Lock
(Slide 16)
A mortise lock is generally seen in a commercial setting, more so than in residential. It may
sometimes be found in more upscale residential settings. Since the mechanism is installed
internally within the door, it normally requires professional installation. The door itself must be
hollowed out to allow insertion of the locking mechanism. While it would seem that this would
weaken the door, it does not. Even though the door is hollowed out, the metal lock is inserted
completely within the opening, thus the otherwise hollow opening is filled with a solid object. It
comes in both a single or double cylinder configuration.
Mortise Lock
(Slide 17&18)
Both slides are illustrations of a mortise lock. The portion that is recessed within the hollowed
out part of the door is easily seen in both pictures. In the first picture, the lock and knob
assembly are installed on the exterior of the door, with the remainder installed internally. In the
second picture, almost all of the assembly is internal, with only the facing part of the lock body
on the doors exterior. This picture also shows the strike plate.
Chain Lock
(Slide 19)
This lock is more for show than anything. It is NEVER considered a security lock as it is too easily
defeated. Small screws hold both sides of the lock on the door and facing and are easily forced
out when pressure is placed on the door. When in use, it allows for a partial opening of the door
to look outside, with the illusion that the user is still safely inside because of the lock. This is
wrong. Once the door is opened, a significant portion of the deterrence is lost and when forced
from the outside, if the chain itself does not break, the screws will most likely pull out of the
facing or the door. These locks are virtually worthless and should NEVER be recommended for
CPTED Lesson Plan – Property of Sgt. Steve Garst
any application. A door peeper is a better investment. If there is doubt, never open the door to
look out.
Keyless Locks
(Slide 20)
Keyless locks are most often seen in commercial applications, but some high end residential
applications are also sometimes seen. Most are excellent high security locks and they come in a
variety of styles. Some are operated by biometrics, punched number codes, retina scans,
fingerprint scans, sometimes in conjunction with a key or some other multiple method of
verification. Having more than one method of operation guards against someone finding a key or
learning a code, but without having the second set of information or object, still cannot gain
entry. Most of these higher security locks are virtually pick proof, bump proof, and highly
resistant to hack saws and other mechanical devices used to defeat them. Most have internal
means to record who entered when, if each authorized person is given their own unique code to
use and since most require no key at all, do not ever require rekeying. They are simply changed
by programming in or our users as needed.
Keyless Locks
(Slide 21- 24)
These graphics show a variety of keyless locks to show the various ways they allow entry and to
show just a fraction of the various styles available. The last picture is a biometric fingerprint
scanner which also requires a code along with the scan.
Anti-Saw Bolts
(Slide 25)
This is a feature found on many higher end security locks. In the center of the bolt itself is an
independent round pin. It moves completely separate from the surrounding bolt, except for
extension and retraction. If someone tries to saw through the bolt, they may be successful until
they reach the free-floating round pin. At that point, the pin simply rolls with the saw, not
allowing the teeth of the saw to grip and thus preventing cutting of lock completely thru. The pin
may not be foolproof, in that eventually, with enough sawing, the person may be able to get the
pin wedges and cause it to bind up enough that the saw will begin to cut through. Thus, even if
the entry is DENIED, one of the other D’s still applies. Ask which – Delay.
Hardened Steel or Beveled Casings
(Slide 26)
Any good quality security lock will have an exterior covering around the keyway which is
beveled, or sloped, at about a 45 degree angle. The purpose of this is to prevent a wrench or
pliers from gripping the surface, twisting it off, to expose the keyway. It is also hardened to resist
impact from hammers and similar objects that attempt to break it away from the assembly.
Anti-Drill Feature
(Slide 27)
This is a feature that must be installed by the manufacturer at the time the lock is made.
Essentially, small hardened steel chips are strategically placed inside the locking mechanism
itself. If someone tries to use a drill bit to drill into the keyway to remove it, at some point the
drill bit engages these small metal pieces. As happens any time a drill bit hits multiple fragments
of steel at one time, the bit simply jams, stopping the drill and preventing more drilling without
removing it and trying again. This feature is generally found in more expensive locks usually in
commercial applications.
CPTED Lesson Plan – Property of Sgt. Steve Garst
(Slide 28)
To be considered a security padlock it must contain ALL of the following features.
First, it must have a hardened steel body. These come in a variety of shapes and styles but all are
hardened steel.
Second, the shackle, or the moveable portion of the lock that actually fastens the two halves of an
object together, must be at least 3/8 inch thick and also must be hardened steel
Next, it must lock heel and toe. The “heel” refers to the part of the lock where the shackle enters
and swivels around when open to allow engagement of the locking halves. This side of the
shackle cannot be removed from the lock body. It is always contained within it. The “toe” refers
to the side of the lock where the shackle disengages from the lock body when opened and
engages or is inserted into it, when locked. Each side of the shackle will have a rounded notch cut
in it so that when the lock is pushed into the closed position, small ball bearing assemblies drop
into the slots. This is what keeps the lock from opening. When the key is turned, it allows these
bearings to be released, freeing both notches, and thus allowing both sides of the shackle to open.
Cheaper locks that are not security locks only have a notch on the toe side. This allows for
“shimming” or sliding a small piece of metal or similar objects around the shackle and down into
the opening of the body while also pulling up on the shackle at the same time. The metal piece
will eventually slide between the notch opening and the bearing allowing the lock to open. If
both the heel and toe have notches to lock it makes shimming must more difficult.
Finally, it must have a key retention feature. This means that the key itself is captured and held
by the lock until the lock is locked. Only then can the key be removed. This helps to prevent
someone forgetting to relock an object if they are otherwise unable to retrieve their key.
Strike Plates
(Slide 30)
The area around the strike plate is generally the weakest part of the door. This is because of the
hole that is drilled into what is normally only a ½ thick piece of wood to begin with to
accommodate the bolt of the lock. This leaves very little solid object protecting the area. That is
the reason for a metal strike plate; to strength that area around the door frame.
The problem is, most strike plates supplied by the manufacturer only marginally helps. Only two
holes, both immediately on either side of the drilled opening and in straight alignment with each
other, accommodate two screws, which again, as supplied by the manufacturer are very short,
unusually no more than ¾ of an inch, if that. Straight alignment will place both screws into the
same grain of wood, making it much easier to split out.
High security strike plates are much heavier gauge steel, and cover more surface area on the
door facing. They have multiple places for additional screws and some of the holes are offset, so
that all are not in a straight line, and thus in the same grain of wood.
Manufacturers of quality high security strike plates also generally furnish much longer screws,
up to 3 inches or more, which allows them to penetrate both the door frame but the wood stud of
the frame of the house. This makes it much more difficult to force the door open.
Strike Plates
(Slide 31-34)
These series of illustrations show a variety of strike plates. The first shows what is commonly
furnished in a traditional lock kit. Point out the two holes and small surface area.
The next shows a stronger strike plate, with offset holes and larger surface area.
The third shows yet another strike plate, with significantly more metal surface area and more
offset holes.
The final shows the latter more secure strike plate adjacent to the one normally supplied to show
the contrast between the two.
CPTED Lesson Plan – Property of Sgt. Steve Garst
Burglar Bars
(Slide 35)
Burglar bars (not the kind associated with windows) are generally steel bars that are designed to
fit under the doorknob and extending to the floor at an angle, on the inside of the door. Pushing
on the door from the outside merely wedges the door tighter against the bar. Many are
adjustable, to accommodate doors with knobs at higher or lower locations. Some even come with
an alarm or buzzer built it, so that if someone does push on the door, the alarm will sound, giving
additional time and warning of danger.
These devices are better than nothing, but are generally designed as a secondary, or delaying
device, as opposed to a quality door and lock. The main advantage is that they are portable and
can be moved quickly and easily from door to door or taken on a trip to help secure hotel room
doors among other things.
Burglar Bars
A picture illustration of a burglar bar and its placement.
(Slide 36)
Building Access
(Slide 37)
Every building must have at least one point of entry and exit. Most have way more than that. To
add security to the building and its occupants, the bulk of those doors should be exit only doors.
Entry to everyone, but especially the general public or illegitimate user, must be limited. When
conducting security assessments or otherwise assessing a building’s security, the examiner must
ask whether the doors are locked and limit access and to whom and when. They must determine
if those doors can be easily defeated by examining the structure of the door itself, the locking
mechanisms on it and the hinges and strike plates. Once that is determined, the examiner must
determine what precautions are in place to prevent defeat and if none, what needs to be done.
One final consideration, and one frequently overlooked or discounted is, who locks and unlocks
the building. Many times, a custodian is given unfettered access to entire buildings but never
subjected to annual criminal background checks.
Key Control
(Slide 38)
Keys must be controlled. There must be a system in place to account for keys being issued, used
and returned. Ask the student who all may have keys. A building may still have a key to a recently
built home. All the subcontractors on that job may also, since all needed legitimate access at one
time while the building was being built. How about a car mechanic who can take a key off a ring
or duplicate keys while they are in his possession. Consider in-home help, such as maids, pool
maintenance persons, and a host of others. Parking valets also have temporary access to all the
keys left on the key ring when the car is turned over to them to park. Past or current employees
may all have keys. Even keys that say “do not duplicate” still get duplicated. How does anyone
know for sure who all have keys to their building?
Key Control
(Slide 39)
There is no way to know with absolute certainty that 100 percent of the keys can be accounted
for 100 percent of the time.
Ask the building owner when the last time the building was rekeyed. Generally it is never, or a
long time ago.
CPTED Lesson Plan – Property of Sgt. Steve Garst
Numbering keys is one way to know to some degree how many keys are out there. A log of all
keys needs to be maintained, that shows which key was given to who and when and when it was
The log needs to show what doors this key opens.
There must be a mechanism in place to report lost keys and there must be a system of
investigation and follow-up to find lost keys or otherwise re-secure the building
All of these require much thought and consideration and must be established in written company
policy, which includes understandable sanctions for violations.
Key Control Guidelines
(Slide 40)
As mentioned, written records must be maintained. The records themselves must be locked up
and open only to authorized persons. These lists must include all locks, including padlocks.
Duplicate or unissued keys must also be kept locked up and available only to authorized persons.
Keys that are available to check out and such must be permanently tagged for identification and
a log kept of when and to whom they are given out and when and who returned them.
Key Control Guidelines
(Slide 41)
Master key, grand masters, great grand masters etc. must all be closely guarded. These keys give
greater access to entire organizations than do single office keys and such. These should be
especially guarded and it is best not to keep duplicates on site. Rather, have the codes available
to authorized person, who can given those keys to a locksmith and have keys made only when
Locks should be rekeyed on a recurring basis. It should also be done immediately after a crime
occurs which involves entry without obvious force. Building should be rekeyed when any
essential employees who have legitimately been issued master keys, leaves the organization.
Key Control Guidelines
(Slide 42)
Hiding keys is a practice that should always be avoided. Burglars know the most common hiding
places, such as under flower pots or door mats or above door sills. The hide-a-key rocks and
similar devices also easily stand out to burglars. Avoid all of these. Rather, leave a key with a
nearby relative or a trusted neighbor. Even a lockbox is preferable to hiding keys in the open
unprotected. Better still, install a lock that does not need keys, such as codes or biometric locks.
Locks – and what else?
(Slide 43)
Proximity cards are a great option to use in place of keys. Optical readers are installed on doors
in place of keyways. Cards are issued to employees as needed. These locks are programmable.
Access can be given only to specified doors and even restricted to time frames (after 8 AM and
before 5 PM for example) or to days of the week (such as weekdays but not weekends.) A record
is maintained every time the card is used, so it is easy to see what card opened what door and
what time. If lost, the card is simply programmed out and no longer works if found and
presented. Employees can be charged for the cost of replacement cards to encourage
responsibility and to keep costs down for the employer.
These same cards can be used for photo id’s for employees. That can be taken further by use of
color codes or even orientation (landscape/portrait) to indicate other things. For example, one
color may be assigned to the shipping department, another to accounting, another to
manufacturing, and another to visitors, etc. so it is easy to see if someone is in another
department. All employee cards may be printed landscape for example, while all visitors are
CPTED Lesson Plan – Property of Sgt. Steve Garst
printed in portrait, so that even from a distance it is apparent if the person is an employee or
visitor. The same could hold true in schools, where staff has one orientation and students
another. The card could become the “credit” card for students, allowing them access into ball
games, charge lunch or check out books from the library.
All of that, and a key to authorized sections of the building that are easily controlled since each
card number is logged when assigned and all the pertinent information of the legitimate user is
captured for immediate reference when issued.
Any questions?
CPTED Lesson Plan – Property of Sgt. Steve Garst
(Student Motivation / Opening Statement)
Fences are generally designed for one of two things, or both. The keep things and people out or
in. They may be designed by security or privacy. They may be for beauty or to show ownership.
Not all fences accomplish their purpose. Many fences designed to be security fences are woefully
deficient. This section will provide guidelines to determine when a fence is truly a security fence
versus just any other fence.
(Implementation of Instruction)
Types of Fences
(Slide 3)
There are literally hundreds of different types of fence types and construction methods. The
most common is chain link and wooden fences. Recently, vinyl and similar synthetic material
have become more popular as they withstand the elements better, last longer, require less
maintenance and a host of other reasons. This slide merely shows some, but certainly not all, of
the fences most commonly seen.
Chain Link
(Slide 4)
This pictorial show a type of chain link, also called cyclone fence, commonly seen. This particular
fence is only about four feet tall and so cannot be considered a security fence. It is too easy to
jump over for one thing. It can be used to show ownership as it is obvious from the picture where
the property lines for the house are located. The picture on the left shows a cyclone fence with a
solid wall or barrier of some type behind it. It cannot be determined within the context of this
photo if it is a security fence but normally fences that block the view in or out of the property are
considered privacy fences, not security fences.
Wood Fences
(Slide 5)
This shows two types of wooden fences, a picket fence and a privacy fence. In reality, both should
be considered two different types of privacy fences. Neither can be considered security fences.
Vinyl Fences
(Slide 6)
This slide merely shows three varieties of vinyl fences currently being installed. None of these
fences are considered security fences but are rather privacy, or semi-privacy fences.
Metal Fences
(Slide 7)
This merely shows only two of many types of metal fences. The welded wire at the top does not
meet all the requirements of a security fence to be considered so, and the bottom one might,
depending on the actual height of the fence and how far into the ground the posts are set into
CPTED Lesson Plan – Property of Sgt. Steve Garst
Metal Fences
(Slide 8)
These types of fences are approaching what might be considered security fences, again
depending on the requirements that will be discussed momentarily.
Security Fence Guidelines
(Slide 9)
To be considered a security fence, it must meet all of these guidelines and possibly more,
depending on its overall height and assorted other factors.
First, it must be a minimum of 8 feet high, meaning that the fabric must go from the ground up to
at least 8 feet to the top.
All posts must be no more than 8 feet apart.
All posts must be cemented in concrete (covered later).
The fence must be as straight as possible. Ask why. Answer – Fences with curves and angles
make it easier to use the fence itself to climb or scale it.
Terminal posts (larger than line posts – thus stronger) must be places at all corners and gates.
The ends of the fence and at the gates should be braced horizontally any time the fabric is 6 feet
of more. (Of course, if less than 8 feet, it can’t be considered a security fence.) If the fabric is over
8 feet high, it must have a top rail.
Security Fence Guidelines
(Slide 10)
This graphic merely illustrates the points made in the preceding slide. It adds the point about all
posts being a minimum of 24 inches set in concrete, with holes and additional 3 inches in depth
for each additional foot of post height.
Security Fence Guidelines
(Slide 11)
Additional requirements to be considered a security fence are that:
All braces must be horizontal to the nearest line post.
The post holes must be a minimum of 24 inches deep for an 8 foot fence. For every additional
foot in height of the fence above 8 feet, the corresponding post hole must be an additional 3
All post holes must be filled with concrete.
If the fence fabric is over 12 feet high, a center rail is required. This is to help keep the fabric
from sagging due to its weight.
Security Fence Guidelines
(Slide 12)
This graphic illustrates all the points so far including the ones just made. Go over each again.
Security Fence Guidelines
(Slide 13)
Additional guidelines state that:
The fabric must be a minimum of #9 gauge. The higher the number the lower the gauge and thus
the lighter the fabric and thus easier to defeat. The opening must be no bigger than 2 inches. Any
larger makes it too easy to gain a hand and toe hold to climb.
The fabric must be installed within 2 inches of solid ground. If the ground is sandy, the fabric
should be buried below ground level.
The fabric must be twisted and barbed at the top. This it to discourage attempts to jump up and
hold on to the top or try to pull oneself over the fence.
CPTED Lesson Plan – Property of Sgt. Steve Garst
The fabric must be attached to the top rails and all posts with a minimum of #9 gauge wire, the
same as the fence fabric. All bolts should have a peened top. Ask what “peened” means. It is a bolt
with a rounded top that prevents a wrench from grabbing and turning. The underside of the bolt
head is where the “nut” or square section of the bolt is located. This part inserts into a
corresponding hole in the bracket which prevents it from turning when the nut is tightened.
Peening originally happened with a regular bolt was used and then a ball peen hammer was used
to distort the edges to prevent a wrench from grabbing once it was finally installed, hence the
term “peened” bolt.
The twisted barb at the top of the fence must extend about the top rail (if any). If it did not,
persons would simply have a smooth rail to hang on to rather than the jagged edges of the fabric.
Strands of barbed wire, usually three, needs to be installed at the top. It is normally angled at a
45 degree angle AWAY from the area being protected.
Security Fence Guidelines
(Slide 14-16)
These three graphics illustrate the guidelines given previously. Go over each.
Security Fence Guidelines
(Slide 17)
Some guidelines are not MANDATORY per se, but are given as good rules of thumb to follow to
gain maximum efficiency from the security fence. Some of those are as follows:
All fences should be located to provide maximum visibility. Fences that are hidden or concealed
in some way provide cover for person to have time to defeat them. Legitimate users need to be
able to see the fence line if at all possible.
Ideally, fences should be located 100 feet from the nearest building or object of protection. The
more the better generally. Fences that have to be placed closer due to property restrictions need
to utilize other CPTED measures to allow for the deficiency.
At a minimum, security fences should have at least 20 feet of cleared space on either side of the
fence. It should be mowed and otherwise maintained. This provides a zone of visibility that
allows legitimate users to see down either side to observe unauthorized activity.
If 20 feet minimum is not possible, either raise the fence or otherwise compensate for that
deficiency. Maybe more light in that area, or perimeter alarms, cameras or patrols, for example.
Security Fence Guidelines
(Slide 18)
Privacy fences generally are not security fences. A solid barrier provide two bad things. It gives
illegitimate users a place to hide and it prevent legitimate users from seeing what is going on.
All gates must have quality latches and all must be locked, preferably from the inside.
Proper maintenance is imperative. Gates that are falling or that won’t open because of grass
clipping and dirt that have piled up over time, or fabric that is falling or has trees growing up
through it are notices to criminals that the property is not being watched by the owner and
maybe they won’t be either.
Security Fence Guidelines
(Slide 19)
The horizontal boards on wooden fences are an additional security concern. They are necessary
to have because the vertical boards that become the fabric of the fence must have a place to nail
or fasten. These horizontal boards become ladders that persons can use to scale the wall. Ask
students for suggestions on how to prevent this. Some answers might be to cut the boards along
the top their full horizontal length back to the vertical board. This will leave a 45 degree angle on
the top of the boards preventing a place to hold or stand. Another might be to take an additional
CPTED Lesson Plan – Property of Sgt. Steve Garst
2 X 2 and cut it lengthwise on a 45 degree angle. This will yield two boards of the same length,
both cut on a 45. These can then be screwed or nailed to the tops of the existing horizontal
boards. These are not the only solutions. There are more.
Visibility Issues
(Slide 20)
As already stated, a solid barrier has two drawbacks. They provide a shield for unauthorized
activity and they prevent visual inspection of the property by legitimate users. Solid barriers
should be avoided when considering security issues, especially fences.
Landscaping and Shrubbery
(Slide 21)
All landscaping should be selected with ultimate visibility in mind. What does it look like now
and what will it look like 10 years from now when fully grow and not properly maintained? All
shrubs should be located a minimum of 24 inches away from doors and entrances. This is to
leave an open space near the door so people can’t hide nearby. All shrubs should be maintained
at a height of at least 6 inches below the window sill to prevent obscuring the view out the
All trees and tall plants should be trimmed up from the ground a minimum of 7 feet to allow
people to see beneath them.
The combination of these two guidelines creates the “3-7 Rule” in CPTED. That is, no shrub or
bush should be allowed to grow taller than 3 feet and no tree limb should be allowed to grow
below 7 feet. The purpose is to create a 4 foot window of visibility through the plants at normal
eye level for most adults.
Landscaping and Shrubbery
(Slide 22)
One method used when plants have matured is to remove every other plant. This opens it back
up and allows folks to see between them, preventing person from hiding.
Shrubs should be trimmed up from the ground 6 inches as well. This allows persons to see under
the bush to make sure no one is behind it.
Plants that are near doors preferably should be thick or thorny type plants. If they are prickly or
sticky, persons will be discouraged from trying to hide behind them.
Any questions?
CPTED Lesson Plan – Property of Sgt. Steve Garst
(Student Motivation / Opening Statement)
Alarm systems and camera systems have undergone a significant metamorphosis in the last
decade. They are increasingly reliable and cost effective. This is especially true when the two are
used in conjunction with one another. This section will review some of the main points relevant
to each.
(Implementation of Instruction)
Intrusion Alarms – Overview
(Slide 2)
Any security survey or other safety inspection where an alarm is present must carefully consider
the status of the alarm system. In cases where none is present, consideration should be given to
the need, and cost effectiveness, of recommending one.
Consideration should be given to whether or not it can be armed and disarmed as originally
designed. Does the code, or codes, work properly and are the users properly trained to use it?
A determination must be made to see if is monitored 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. Does the
monitoring company respond appropriately and have they been kept current on codes and
qualified users who are authorized to be on site.
Questions should be asked as to when the code or codes were last changed. A log should be kept
of what codes have been given and to whom. The list should be reviewed frequently for
employees who have left and it should be kept in a secure location with limited access.
A survey should be conducted to see if the sensors are located in the proper locations. Many
times, offices changed or sections of the building are used for purposes for which they were not
originally intended, potentially necessitating moving alarm sensors.
One of the major considerations for an existing system is, is the alarm still fully functional and
does it still perform as designed. Many times, sensors go bad for one reason or another and the
user takes them offline, effectively disabling the system, at least in the area normally covered by
the sensor. To be effective, all sensor points of an alarm system must be fully functional at all
Consideration should be giving to whether or not all the keypads work and are able to arm and
disarm the system as designed.
These are just a few of the many considerations that should be given to alarm systems.
Fire Alarm – Overview
(Slide 3)
Essentially the same considerations should be given to fire alarms as to intrusion systems. To
whom do they dial in, does it even work, are all sensors functional and so forth. One additional
piece of information specific to fire alarms is the need to have zone maps mounted nearby. These
explain the alarm codes and explain, for example, if the alarm code says “zone 3” exactly what
CPTED Lesson Plan – Property of Sgt. Steve Garst
part of the building compromises that zone. More modern alarm panels incorporate that date
directly into the alarm panel itself, but older systems do not.
Alarms – Generally
(Slide 4)
There are three main components of an alarm system. They are the 1) control unit or brain, 2)
the annunciation or notification system and 3) the detectors or sensors themselves. Collectively
these compromise the main components of an effective alarm system.
The control unit is often referred to as the brain of the system. The main electrical components
are located here, such as the main power supply, the auxiliary backup power, shunt switches (on
older systems), the alarm circuitry, and all the sensory controls.
The power supply obviously provides the panel and other components with power to operate.
When power fails or is disconnected, the alarm generally is designed to send a failure signal to
the monitoring system and on the local panel to alert someone to check that feature.
Circuitry is generally compromised of two types – and open loop or closed loop system.
On open loop system generally maintains all contacts in a open position, meaning that the
contacts are not touching. When contact is made the alarm is sent. In this configuration, alarm
contacts do not touch and thus no signal is transmitted. When these contacts are closed, such in a
pressure sensitive mat for example, an alarm is sent.
A closed loop system is the most common. Before the alarm can be set, all contacts are closed.
For example, doors and windows and other areas of protection must be closed in order for the
system to form a complete, or closed, loop completely through the system back to the control
panel. If any one contact is not complete, it will not allow the alarm to be set until the open
contact is located and corrected. An alarm sounds when someone breaks the contact, triggering
the alarm.
A supervised system is generally more sophisticated and are generally use in higher end systems
where security is a key factor. Banks for one use supervised systems. These are capable to
providing both a closed and open configuration, as well as triggering alarms when conditions
outside the norm are not met. For example, if the cash vault door is supposed to be closed and
locked at 4:00 PM each day, and for whatever reason that fails to happen, an alert will be sent to
Alarms – Generally
(Slide 5)
Annunciation Systems are the part of the system where some remote authority is notified
automatically any time the alarm system is triggered. It generally dials in via a secure, dedicated
phone line, altogether newer systems are using wireless technology and even things like
microwaves to send the signal. Some may be “silent” in which no alert in made on site that would
alarm the criminal or possibly put employess and customers in danger. These are frequent in
banks and similar institutions. They want to notify local law enforcement of a problem without
causing the criminal on location to overreact.
Others are local and include a loud siren, bell, whistle or similar device designed to notify
everyone on the premises, as well as surrounding businesses or residences, of a potential
problem. They are designed to call attention to others people in the area to draw attention and
hopefully gain descriptions of suspects, getaway cars, or have someone dial for help. They are
even sometimes effective to cause the criminal to give up on the completion of the activity and
In both cases, each should dial into a local monitoring agency so that they can have help on the
way. In some situations, the monitoring is done at the local law enforcement agency, where the
CPTED Lesson Plan – Property of Sgt. Steve Garst
signal dials in directly to them. This eliminates the middleman, and often decreases response
time. Many systems have local notifiers, such as bells, sirens, lights, and other devices that call
attention to everyone in the immediate area.
Sensors come in a variety of devices. Touch or contact type are found it most older alarms. These
are actually contacted points, where a sensor in a door for example touches a sensor in the frame
to complete the contact. As long as the these points touch, and the alarm is armed, it will activate
when the contact is broken.
Sensors that “hear” are another type. Glass breakage or other noise monitoring sensors sense
noise that is out of the ordinary and are triggered when these events occur.
“Sight” sensors just as passive infrared sensors that sense when someone enters a room or that
detects change in ambient air temperature trigger the alarm.
The most effective of these combine them into a redundant system. For example, a contact
sensor may be used in conjunction with a sight sensor. Here, the contact would have to be
broken while at the same time the other sensor might detect movement or a slight difference in
ambient temperature. Redundant systems help to reduce the incidence of false alarms.
Alarms – Generally
(Slide 6)
The five basic types of sensor available on the market today are: 1) contact or plunge sensor that
requires contact or a switch that can be pushed to activate, like a panic alarm, 2) glass breakage,
already discussed, 3) floor pressure mats or switches that activate when someone steps on them,
or when pressure is removed from them, like lifting a safe, 4) metal foil, which operate
essentially like a contact switch, but are generally found on windows and 5) alarm screen
devices, which as the name implies are attached to a window covering screen and activate when
the screen is cut or removed.
Alarms – Generally
(Slide 7)
Space or motion sensing devices come in several styles. Photo electric cells actually detect
movement, much like the lens of a camera. These can easily be disguised as other objects, like
clocks, exit signs, thermostats and a whole host of other items.
Ultra sound or microwaves are high end applications and are generally found in commercial
applications. They may be composed of visible or invisible beams of light that when broken
trigger an alarm.
Passive infrared or PIR’s are the ones most commonly seen in homes, schools and some
commercial applications where only general security is concerned. They are mounted usually
near the ceiling and register an alarm based on a change in the heat signature of the room. When
activated, they sense the overall temperature of a room. When a heated object, like a person,
enters the room and that heat signature changes, the alarm is triggered.
Alarms – Generally
(Slide 8)
Alarms generally make contact with the central monitoring system or company in several ways.
Regular phone line dialers, over dedicated lines so that no other call can take precedent,
automatically dial in to a monitoring location when one of the sensors is activated. Multiplexing
connections generally do in via computer systems that are monitored in some way via the
Internet. Microwave or cellular connections make contact two ways. Microwave sends a single,
usually via line of sight, to a remote location that picks up the signal and converts it to an alarm
notice. Wireless connections user dedicated phone numbers dialed over cellular phones rather
CPTED Lesson Plan – Property of Sgt. Steve Garst
than wired, line phones. The technology is still new and evolving in this area and certain “bugs”
are being worked out to reduce the frequency of false alarms.
Alarms – Generally
(Slide 9)
There are several mechanical ways in which alarms fails. The most common is a broken foil. This
simply means that one contact is no longer coming in contact with another. It may have been
knocked out of alignment with normal use or may have be tampered with.
Battery failure is another. All quality alarms have batteries that are recharged routinely via the
hardwired electrical system. If electrical power is lost, the back-up batteries take over, keeping
power to the system. These last only a short time before needed to be recharged. Eventually, they
no longer accept a charge and should be routinely checked to determine that they are charged,
and charging, normally. If not, they should be replaced. A common fault, or cause of false alarms,
of an alarm system is failing back-up batteries. They may even call 9-1-1 as a failsafe or simply
send a false alarm to the monitoring company. Older systems do not normally indicate that the
problem is failing batteries. It can only be determined by a technician troubleshooting the
system. The newer, more modern systems indicate on the panel display that the batteries are
failing and need to be replaced.
Bad controls, key pads, or sensors that have been “shunted” out of the system are common
failures. A shunt switch, or ability within the keypad to take one or more sensors off-line is
always an issue. A frustrated, or lazy, user may simply elect to take a failing sensor off line rather
than take the time to find and fix it. This may cause it to remain off line indefinitely. It is not
totally uncommon to find systems where every sensor has been taken off line over time. The
effect is that the keypad can still be set, giving every indication that the system is armed, when in
fact not a single sensor is active. Effectively in this instance, no alarm system exists at all.
Loose wires are a common issue. Most often it happens with rodents, who are attracted to the
low voltage wire emitted by these systems, chew through one of the wires making it impossible
to arm that section, or the entire alarm. These conditions are often difficult to detect, and then
correct as they must be traced down line by line and then accessed and fixed.
Accessibility was just addressed. Malfunctions in systems in ceilings, walls, and other hard to
reach places made repairs very difficult.
User error is however the most frequent reason for false alarms. People forget the code, enter
the code incorrectly, are not given no codes when changed or simply forget to disarm the system
upon entry are just a few of the many reasons that human error triggers the majority of false
Alarms – Concluded
(Slide 10)
As mentioned, the most effective alarms incorporate redundant systems. Having something like
both a heat sensor and a motion sensor greatly reduces false alarms.
Heat sensors should be added in attics. Fires often start, and/or travel through attics. Sensors
there give a more rapid detection of an issue and multiple sensors throughout the attic can help
to indicate the direction the fire is heading.
Strobe lights should be made a part of any alarm. Indeed, most city ordinances and all school
laws require them. This not only aids he hearing impaired, but it calls added attention to the fire
alarm problem.
Cameras – Overview
CPTED Lesson Plan – Property of Sgt. Steve Garst
(Slide 11)
Cameras now play a significant role in our society. It is almost impossible in today’s world to go
anywhere in public and not cross the path of a camera. Cameras are more widely accepted by the
public and because they have repeatedly proved their effectiveness in thwarting, or solving
Among other things, they have been proved to deter criminal activity. Criminals tend to take
their activity elsewhere when they know cameras are watching.
When criminal activity does occur, cameras do a great job of documenting it, often times helping
to identify the offender and solve the problem.
Insurance companies sometimes give premium reductions to companies who install them and
their deterrence presence often helps to keep property loss, and even crimes against persons,
Personal injury incidents often fall because people who would otherwise make a false insurance
claim about falling or such do not when confronted by the presence of cameras.
Over the years, cameras have increasingly been accepted by courts at all levels as using them in a
court of law to prove or disprove defendants actions. Indeed, police cars almost all now have
cameras and their evidentiary value has proven itself time and again.
In situations such as school, or even work-place claims of actions/inactions, the picture (and
sometime) voice evidence captured on camera does a lot to diffuse parent or other proposed
actions once what actually happened is documented and seen.
Camera Consideration
(Slide 12)
Cameras and camera systems have some down significantly in price and increased dramatically
in capabilities in recent years. High resolution (great quality), low-lux (ability to see in very low
light) are now very cost effective. Even the other hardware, such as wiring, computers, hard
drives, storage media and all are better quality, able to store more date, last longer and are more
reliable. Increased memory capacity eliminates the ability to save tapes or back-up data as often
and allows searching back dated materials over a greater period to time.
One of the single most costly items regarding camera systems, especially a retrofit where
systems are being placed in existing buildings, is the cost of the wiring. It must either be placed
in conduit or it must be Plenum wiring that is a coated wire that does not give off toxic fumes in a
fire. It must also be installed down existing walls or across enclosed ceilings making labor a
major cost, but increasing the danger of damaging the wires as they are pulled across sharp
objects in the ceilings and walls.
Camera Consideration
(Slide 13)
You must consider the cost of the system and what you want it to do. As this slide shows, Kip
Kinkel at Thurston High School could be seen walking across the parking lot carrying a long
object, but the camera system was so old, not only could you not identify Kinkel but is was not
possible to recognize that he was carrying a rifle. A camera system must continually be
monitored and upgraded as technology increases in order for it to reach its full potential.
Camera Consideration
(Slide 14)
Likewise, at Columbine, the custodian was responsible for changing the VHS tapes for the camera
system each morning. On the morning of April 20th, 1999, he forgot. When he remembered, he
went to do it. After removing one set of tapes and before inserting the new ones, he got
sidetracked. During that 20 or so minute blank of no tape, the two criminals planted both
propane bombs in the cafeteria. Both would have been clearly visible had the tape been running.
CPTED Lesson Plan – Property of Sgt. Steve Garst
Again, good upgraded equipment (perhaps hard drives that archive automatically and thus not
needed tapes to be changed) along with training (emphasizing to custodians that nothing should
detract them for routinely changing the tapes and completing the job once begun) may have
helped avert, or at least mitigate that tragedy. Similarly, systems that still use tapes should at the
very least replace these tapes after only a few recordings as video quality is significantly
diminished once they have been recorded over time and again.
Cameras – A Final Point
(No slide)
Cameras that are used in conjunction with alarm systems significantly increase security. When
an alarm is activated, the camera nearest the location begins to save the recording it has been
archiving prior to the alarm notice. In many, many cases, alarms are triggered and cameras go
back and save footage minutes prior that actually show the crime in progress. Some systems go
so far as to have either one, or two-way, voice communication directly with the source, allowing
dispatchers and law enforcement personnel to talk directly to, and hear, the suspect. When
properly tied in to law enforcement data terminals in vehicles it is often possible for an officer to
never have to enter the building but rather follow the cameras, going to the expected location of
exit already knowing how many suspects to expect to exit, and apprehend them as they exit,
without the officer ever having to enter the building. This is a tremendous officer safety issue.
Camera Recommendations
(Slide 15)
The placement of cameras must always be considered in terms of expectations of privacy.
Bathrooms, shower and locker rooms and such are obviously not proper locations for cameras. A
whole host of other locations are relevant however. Hallways, parking lots, entrances, exits,
loading docks, parking garages, streets, walkways and a host of others are all appropriate
locations. Care should be taken both as to proper location, but also the proper type of camera
(color/ black and white / stationary / pan-tilt-zoom) and a host of other considerations should
be made. Even future maintenance locations as at issue. Will they be hard to reach down the road
for maintenance issues needing a bucket truck, or are they placed at a height and location where
they could be easily defeated. In short, much consideration must be given to the proper camera,
system and location to be fully effective.
Any questions?
CPTED Lesson Plan – Property of Sgt. Steve Garst
(Student Motivation / Opening Statement)
It has long be known that colors can affect the behavior and attitudes of people, at least in the
short term. Considerable studies were done back in the 50’s and 60’s on this topic but in recent
years not much has been seen on the topic. Likewise, the perception of movement through the
use of signs, arrows and even subtle and sometimes not so subtle pictures have been used to
affect people’s behavior. This section is not designed as an in-depth study into any of those
concepts. Rather it is designed to introduce the student to the possibilities that each offer as food
for thought in future CPTED recommendations.
The bulk of this section is presented in the form of pictures to illustrate concepts discussed or
covered in previous slides.
(Implementation of Instruction)
The Use of Color
(Slide 2)
The question can be posed, with mixed answers, “Does color affect people? Discuss that with the
class. The correct answer is the YES, color has been shown to affect the behavior of people.
The second question can then be posed of “If color affects people, can colors be used to influence
the behavior of people and thus the CPTED principal of “effective use” of space? The answer to
that question should also be discussed, but the ultimate answer is, YES it can, at least to some
degree. For purposes of this discussion, only three basic colors well be used, primarily in the
interest of time. Each will do well to represent the properties and thus behaviors that each color
evokes. My natural extension, other colors can and will evoke responses peculiar to them.
(Slide 3)
Ask the class what emotions they identify with this color.
Note that for effect, it may be possible to dim or turn out completely the lights in the room. This
generally intensifies the color, but also demonstrates the principal (to be discussed later) that
the same color will take on different qualities, or hues, depending on the environment and other
conditions in which it is placed. After gathering some feedback as to the emotions go to the next
(Slide 4)
Red, among other things, is associated with:
 Heat, fire, blood, passion, ;love, warmth, power, excitement and aggression. (Have you
heard the expression “He told me that and I saw red.” (anger)
 It can elevates blood pressure and respiratory rate
 It is emotionally intense and dominating
CPTED Lesson Plan – Property of Sgt. Steve Garst
It make people anxious
It causes people to loose track of time (there are no clocks in Vegas for example.)
It can be an appetite stimulate (so don’t paint the kitchen red if losing weight.)
(Slide 5)
Again, ask the class to identify emotions associated with the color yellow. You can use the same
effects of turning off lights and such to brighten or darken color and show contrast.
 Among other things yellow can:
 Cause excessive eye irritation and speed metabolism
 Produce sensations of brightness and warmth
 Represent playfulness, creativity
 Attention getter, but you don’t want a lot of it
 Most visible of all colors
(Slide 6)
(Slide 7)
Ask what color they see. Turn off the room lights if needed for full effect and truer color.
(Slide 8)
Among other things, green symbolizes:
Nature and money
Life, youth, renewal and hope
It is the easiest color on the eyes
Has a calming effect on the nervous system (hence the “green room” on the Tonight
Dark Green – cool, masculine, conservative – implies wealth
Emerald green – symbolizes immortality
Olive green – peace
Colors Can be Deceiving
(Slide 9)
The same color can look different depending on its location and proximity to other colors. Colors
that contrast well may make a color look sharper or bolder. Colors that have poor contrast
sometimes seem to blend together and have little sharp detail. The same color will look different
depending on the light source under which it is displayed. That is one reason why a color picked
out at a store under fluorescent light will appear a shade or two lighter or darker when viewed
under incandescent light at home. Direct sunlight will make colors appear brighter than the same
color under almost any other artificial light.
Colors Can be Deceiving
(Slide 10)
Ask if the color in the center is the same or different in the top part of the picture. The center is
the same but appears different when placed next to colors of differing contrast.
Colors Can be Deceiving
(Slide 11)
The same holds true here. The red center is exactly the same color, shape and size but appears
differently due to the background against which it is exposed.
CPTED Lesson Plan – Property of Sgt. Steve Garst
Colors Can be Deceiving
(Slide 12)
This slide gives a good example of what the same color would look like under two different light
sources – incandescent and fluorescent.
The Use of Art to Create Movement or Motion
(Slide 13)
Ask the class if they believe that art can be used to cause people to do or not do certain things. In
other words, can art affect behavior? The answer is “yes.”
The Use of Art in Hallways
(Slide 14)
Studies have been done is various places to suggest that pictures can suggest (subconsciously)
certain behaviors. In this picture, a peaceful waterfall suggests movement. Placed in a hallway, or
other area where movement of persons is desired, as opposed to sitting or some other behavior,
a picture such as this can be used effectively to subtly influence behavior.
The Use of Art in Hallways
(Slide 15)
The artwork should be selected carefully however as the desired movement may be much faster
than desired, as suggested in this picture of stampeding horses.
The Use of Art in Rooms
(Slide 16)
In rooms, behavior can also be influenced just as in hallways. If the desired effect is calmness and
serenity, a picture such as a sunrise or moon over a distant ship sitting quietly in the background
may evoke a quiet demeanor in most people in the room.
The Use of Art in Rooms
(Slide 17)
Conversely, a high speed fast action picture make evoke just the opposite effect, causing people
to get up and run around agitatedly.
The Use of Art in Rooms
(Slide 18)
A serene picture of fish swimming quietly, suggests quiet repose. This is one reason many
doctors put aquariums in their waiting rooms. It tends to quiet anxious patients. Art of the same
nature evokes the same type of response.
The Use of Art in Rooms
(Slide 19)
Again, art can have the opposite effect of serenity if it shows action or anxious tension, as in a
lightning storm likely to provoke a stampede.
The Use of Art in Rooms
Another picture that would evoke a serene setting.
(Slide 20)
The Use of Art in Rooms
(Slide 21)
If these two pictures were high school mascots, ask the class which one they would want to have
placed over the opposing team’s locker room door, making it the last thing they see before hitting
the playing field. They would want the team mascot on the left, showing the opposing teams
mascot in a docile, passive pose to evoke the same feeling in the players. Just the opposite is ture
for the home team. Over their door, the school’s mascot should be courageous and ferocious, to
fire up the players to play hard and win.
CPTED Lesson Plan – Property of Sgt. Steve Garst
The Use of Arrows
(Slide 22)
Arrows and similar means of direction have been used for years. Some are painted or embossed
on walls. Some of the most effective have actually been laid as part of the floor tile. For example,
a company that has one public entrance but four divisions could have color tile laid as lines in the
floor – yellow to manufacturing, green to accounting, blue to shipping and red to manufacturing,
or any other similar color scheme. All someone would have to do to get to a specific department
would be to follow the appropriately colored line to the department they need.
Any questions?
CPTED Lesson Plan – Property of Sgt. Steve Garst
(Student Motivation / Opening Statement)
This is a food for thought section. It merely gives a few ideas to start discussions and get folks
thinking about solutions for problems.
For those persons in crime prevention that are fortunate enough to be in on the planning of a
building while it is being designed, they can have the greatest impact. The proper orientation of a
building, the proper placement of doors and windows and the inclusion of alarms and cameras
during the initial design can be the most cost effective and best way to go. Unfortunately, most
crime prevention personnel work on buildings that are already built and probably already
having crime issues. These are more difficult to solve and generally are more costly to fix. The
primary thing is to explore ideas with other specialists, architects, owners, workers, clients and
assorted other persons associated with the building to implement workable solutions to
problems. This presentation is composed primarily of a series of pictures and floorplans that first
present a problem, and then the following slide that gives at least one possible solution. In all
cases the student should be asked their opinions for options to consider before going to the
“solution” slide. There are no wrong answers. There are frequently answers that are more costly,
or go to an extreme that is unnecessary for the item being protected. Consider all suggestions
and discuss each as they are brought up.
Be cautious that some students may object to some solutions saying it creates a different
problem. This may be true and should be discussed. It should be pointed out that there are few
perfect solutions. Anything made or designed by man can be defeated by man, so tradeoffs are
frequently needed to effect a workable solution for the problem presented.
(Implementation of Instruction)
Manager’s Office
(Slide 2)
This may be the typical layout of many offices in commercial establishments or even schools. The
person sits with their chair behind the desk and faces their door. There may be a small work
table or meeting area where they have a choice to sit during meetings. Ask the class what could
be done to avoid being trapped in this scenario.
Manager’s Office
(Slide 3)
One low cost solution may be to simply switch the orientation of the desk. About the only cost
associated with it would be time of people needed to move furniture around and the cost of
moving phone and computer lines and hookups. Even the original configuration could be used if
the office manager always directed the guest to the chair fartherest from the door, while the
office manager sits nearest the door.
Bathroom Design
CPTED Lesson Plan – Property of Sgt. Steve Garst
(Slide 4)
Old style bathrooms frequently had alcoves or two doors to gain entry. The interior room was
generally used by custodians for mops and storage of bathroom supplies. The double entry made
it difficult to hear if someone inside was calling for help or if some other issue was happening. It
also makes it difficult to negotiate two doors, especially for those with handicaps.
A better design is some type of serpentine entrance with no doors but with enough curves to
prevent persons who pass by from seeing inside. It is easier to hear and much easier access. In
fact, accessibility by the handicap is most probably the driving force for the serpentine designs of
most modern restrooms in commercial buildings, not crime prevention or safety. They just
happen to benefit from the new design.
School building issue
(Slide 5)
This layout shows a two story building with a long hallway from one end to the other, connected
in the middle by a commons area. The hallway is about 200 yards long (2 football fields). Fights
and other gang related activity is happening at either end of the hallway, upstairs. There are no
windows at all in this building except at the hallway ends downstairs, in the commons area, and
along the main offices up front. Otherwise, it is solid brick. Come up with a solution.
School building issue
(Slide 6)
One low cost solution was to flip the store rooms and book rooms at the ends of the hallways
with the Associate Principals offices. The only cost was custodial time to move the furniture,
books and other supplies and the cost to move phone lines and computer drops. The gang
activity and fights stopped.
School building issue
(Slide 7)
A more complex problem. Two entrances down hallways. No one in the office area could see
either door. Someone could be inside the building and in either of the bathrooms without anyone
knowing about it. Also, tall file cabinets blocked the view into and out of the offices along the
front, which were for the principal, assistant principal, attendance clerk, clinic and assorted
other offices. Come up with a solution.
School building issue
(Slide 8)
This fix was a little more costly but was done during a time when the building was getting new
flooring. All that was needed was to drill out the concrete in a trough, enough to move the
receptionist desk to the library wall and turn in 180 degrees. This then had the desk facing the
doors. One door was designated as the only entrance and the other designated as exit only and
kept locked, eliminating the need to constantly monitor both doors. The file cabinets were turned
90 degrees so that they no longer blocked the view into or out of the offices. An additional fix
might also be to remove both innerwalls along the entrances that separates the front office
section from the hallway itself, so everyone would immediately be visible upon entry.
Commercial or School building issue
(Slide 9)
In today’s world most businesses and schools want every visitor to check in before going into the
rest of the building. In the first graphic this is discouraged. Two outside entry doors allow
unfettered entry and exit and allow persons to walk down either hall without first checking in at
the receptionist desk. Another issue was that the receptionist desk was behind a solid glass wall,
so that the receptionist could not physically follow the person to stop them. Point out also that
benches are also placed in the hallways. This encourages people to sit, not walk, so hallways that
CPTED Lesson Plan – Property of Sgt. Steve Garst
were designed for movement of people become congested with people stopping to rest and/or
visit. What is a better design.
The second half of the slide improves is somewhat. One entrance directly faces the receptionist,
making eye contact more likely. Assuming a door is available to the receptionist to go get anyone
who bypasses the location makes it a little better, but still leave the front desk unattended for
that time and may make it dangerous for the reception to track down someone with ill intent.
One improvement is to move the chairs offset to the hallway so there is no direct blockage. One
other improvement not shown may be to place walls across the hallway on either side of the
entry door that is controlled remotely by the receptionist. Only when she allows someone to
open the door can people pass. Still, someone could piggyback onto a legitimate user and still
bypass the system.
Commercial or School building issue
(Slide 10)
This shows a far superior design. Everyone must pass directly by the receptionist desk. With the
moveable wall behind the receptionist, (as illustrated by the dotted line), visitors would have to
wait until entry or exit was allowed by the receptionist. If the receptionist had to leave the area
for a moment, for a bathroom break for example, the inner door would remain closed and all
visitors would have to wait for the return. All chairs for visitors are placed in an area specifically
designed for waiting and in no way inhibits movement down the hallway behind. This is a much
more secure design.
Informal Gathering Area Issues
(Slide 11)
Note: This is an overlay slide. The basic structure is shown first to show the problem and ask for
solutions. The solutions suggested, along with the lighting, fencing, landscaping and formal
gathering areas come up with clicked.
This shows a building where trees and other open areas form an informal gathering area that
was not originally intended by the building owner. Perhaps drug dealers or others have begun to
hang out near the back and do their drug deals. Suggest some solutions.
Solutions may be to make formal gathering areas. Provide a place for smokers who legitimately
use the building to go outside and smoke, while at the same time being able to observe and
report illegal activity. Perhaps an outside eating area for lunch or any similar reason to
encourage legitimate users to come outside and become observers/reporters. The addition of
fencing and landscaping will discourage intruders and also help to establish ownership and clear
boundaries. Lighting almost always helps become a deterrent to illegal activity at night.
Parking lot
(Slide 12)
Assume a school parking lot with no curbs and nothing within the interior to slow drivers down
and make them take certain routes. Offer some suggestions.
Parking lot
(Slide 13)
Adding cueing lanes to force traffic to line up to enter and exit are useful. In a pinch, even cones
or other types of temporary devices could be used. Adding curbs to prevent jumping out into the
street from any location is useful. If that is too expensive, a fence or landscaping could be used
instead. Adding gates at strategic locations could further aid in traffic movement by opening and
closing select gates at appropriate times to allow traffic to flow or to restrict flow. Addition of
lighting is also a good suggestion.
CPTED Lesson Plan – Property of Sgt. Steve Garst
Safe and Unsafe Locations
(Slide 14)
Many times safe activities (cheerleader practice for example) may be place in unsafe locations
(like at the back of a building that is out of sight to the public.). There are any number of
scenarios like this. Ask the class to think of others.
Safe and Unsafe Locations
(Slide 15)
Sometimes the easiest solution is to simply swap locations of activities. Say for example that
athletes leave their cars parked in the rear lot of the school while away at games and the cars are
being burglarized. Move them to the front lot instead where people driving by can see. If there is
a driver’s education program for example, move it to the back lot. That way legitimate users are
always going past the location and keeping an informal eye on it. Ask the students for other
examples of problems and solutions to this type of thing.
(Slide 16-18)
This series of slides suggest that large tables can potentially create problems in cafeterias. They
encourage large groups (like gangs) to congregate at one table. Large tables encourage students
to leave backpacks and other non-lunch items in the middle of the table making it hard to
legitimately eat. Smaller tables eliminate the ability for large groups to gather and make it easier
to negotiate through them when needed. Rules that discourage bringing backpacks and other
items to the cafeteria make it easier to enforce when there is no space to allow them to
accumulate. Ask the students for their thoughts and ideas.
(Slide 19)
Where to you place the vendors and sellers of merchandise or ticket sales for the prom or
football game. Many schools and even commercial buildings take hallway space for them. This
should not be done. Not only does it make it more dangerous in an emergency, because the
hallway is partially blocked, it makes normal movement of walkers more difficult. Remember
that the main use for a hall is to move people. Anything that restricts that is a potential problem.
The best placement for these types of people are in alcoves or out of the way locations that do
not block halls. Designate specific rooms if possible. Ask the students for their ideas and
Any questions?
CPTED Lesson Plan – Property of Sgt. Steve Garst
(Student Motivation / Opening Statement)
In today’s world special consideration needs to be given to terrorism and related issues. There is
not time in this short presentation to comprehensively cover the topic but some considerations
are given here as food for thought. In addition, consideration must be given to different types of
traffic calming techniques so quite a few are reviewed here briefly just to give a flavor for what is
available and to provide a basis for the student to do additional research. Finally, there is a short
look at some of the new and innovative ideas being considered especially for traffic calming.
(Implementation of Instruction)
Weather and Shelter-in-Place
(Slide 2)
Having a simple and easy method to notify persons in a weather related emergency is always an
issue in any setting. One simple method to implement, whether in schools or commercial
settings, are a system of red and green dots.
Rolls of red and green dots are readily available and are relatively inexpensive. A roll of 500
usually can be found for less than $50.00. They should be a minimum of 4 inches in size. Once
purchased, a team needs to go to every room in the building and determine if that room is safe to
use in a shelter in place situation, especially one that is weather related. Rooms that are good to
use are interior rooms, especially those without windows, although windows alone would not
necessarily exclude a room if there are insufficient rooms without windows that are available,
such as a school. Avoid rooms with big expanses of ceiling like gyms and large cafeterias. Large
rooms accumulate water and other debris quickly and more quickly collapse or are blown off
than other roof sections. Also avoid hallways. In a tornado, the doors will be sucked off and the
debris will be thrown down the exposed hallway like a wind tunnel. It is better to keep kids in
rooms with windows, placing them on the floor along an interior wall, behind rows of desks. The
desks will help to deflect flying debris and they will be more protected than in hallways.
Once safe rooms are identified, a green dot should be placed over the entry door, on both sides of
the doorway. This identifies the room as a safe room. Conversely, rooms which are determined to
be avoided as a shelter room should have a red dot placed above the doorway on both sides.
They should be placed near the ceiling, as high as possible. This allows them to be seen from a
distance and also places them high enough that it is difficult for kids to remove or tamper with
them. Then, when an emergency exists, all that is needed is for someone to make an
announcement saying simply “we have a weather related emergency. Go immediately to a room
with a green dot above the door.” This is simple to train, even for young children. It even works
where no training has been done, such as after school events when parents and others are
present that may not have been through a drill. They simply look for the dots above the door. If
they are already in a room with a green dot they know to stay put. If they are in a room with a
red dot they simply need to leave the room and look for a door with a green dot and go there.
CPTED Lesson Plan – Property of Sgt. Steve Garst
(Slide 3)
Any time security assessments are done, consideration must be given to questions and concerns
of terrorism. Special attention must be given to a vast majority of issues.
Labs and chemical storage needs to be considered. This is not only classroom or labs where
chemicals may be used for experiments, but also includes things like where custodians store
cleaning solutions and similar products. Consideration must include means of how to properly
store chemicals. For example, chemicals cannot simply be stored alphabetically. They must be
stored by types. All acids together, all bases together and so forth. OSHA has established
guidelines on how to properly store chemicals, in designated containers and in designated
cabinets. Failure to follow these guidelines could result in serious HAZMET situations which
become very costly to contain and clean up. All chemical storage locations must have periodic,
routine inspections to insure that they are being properly maintained and guidelines established
for proper disposal of materials that have expired, before they become issues. Failure to follow
proper storage procedures, which must include keeping them safe and secure from unauthorized
use by anyone, may result in catastrophic issues as a result of terrorism.
All businesses must work with the local fire and police agencies to ensure that “as built” building
plans are on file with these agencies. These plans prove invaluable in emergencies. Accuracy of
the plans is critical and any time the building is remodeled or even minor changes are made such
as removing and adding doors and such, must be updated with these agencies. The plans should
include detailed instructions as to where all the major cutoffs are located for water, gas,
communications, electric, et al, and details given as to how to get there by multiple routes if
possible and exactly what type of control operates the cutoff (i.e. – switch, valve, lever, button,
Consideration should be given to parking. Historically, businesses have their employees park
away from the building, allowing visitors to park close to the entrances. In today’s world maybe
that should be reconsidered. Maybe it would be safer to allow those we employ (and thus should
have checked out to some degree or know their history) to park closer and have those we do not
know park further away.
For schools especially, consideration is usually always given to situations that occur during class
time. Seldom is consideration given to events that may happen on the way to and from school
(the bus routes, etc.) before take up, after dismissal, during after-hour events or during lunches.
Consideration must be given to all these situations and plans developed to deal with each.
(Slide 4)
Protocols must be developed for how mail and other packages are delivered. There are many
recorded instances of delivery uniforms (UPS, FedEx, etc.) being stolen and used fraudulently. It
would be easy to simply order these uniforms as well via the Internet. Procedures must be
established that delivers packages and mail to a central location, where persons who work there
have been trained to look for subtle anomalies that may indicate package bombs or other similar
issues. Only after packages have been vetted and inspected should they be allowed to be
delivered directly to the recipient.
There is an old cliché that says “practice makes perfect.” This is inaccurate. “Practice actually
makes PERMANENT.” In a crisis situation, people will do what they have been trained to do even
if it is wrong. For example, one of the FBI’s single biggest loss of life of agents happened in a
gunfight with multiple agents and suspects. During their firearms training, FBI agents had been
taught to account for all their spent brass cartridges, primarily to keep the range clear of debris.
CPTED Lesson Plan – Property of Sgt. Steve Garst
They had been trained after each round of fire to collect their spent brass and line them up to be
certain that all fired rounds were located. This is exactly what they did in the actual gunfight.
Dead agents were found with their spent rounds carefully lined up beside their dead bodies
when it was all over. As a result, the FBI changed their method of practice for firearms. People
will do as they are trained, so drills are essential. Routine drills of all nature must be performed
on an on-going routine basis to ensure success during a crisis.
(Slide 5)
Remembering that most building have four walls, a roof and a floor, consideration must be given
to all these areas as possible avenues of attack. Accordingly, multiple entries at all locations
should be identified so that they are recognizable from a distance and from the air and ground. A
good method is to get with the local law enforcement agency. Each of them will have established
numbering systems used by their SWAT teams to identify doors, windows and other entry
locations. To the extent this same numbering system can be used, it will give responders a leg-up
on proper response with less confusion.
One good method is color coding. For example, if a location has multiple entrances from a
roadway and each has a gate, each gate could simply be painted a different color. If there is no
gate, colored signs could be erected at each entrance. Then, in an emergency, the only direction
needed is to tell the responder to go to the appropriately colored gate or entrance sign.
Traffic Calming Methods
(Slide 6)
There are two basic method for calming, or slowing, traffic. Ask the class if they know what they
are? One is to control the volume of traffic. The other is to control the speed. Some methods
employ both methods. Volume control is usually handled by narrowing of streets or diversion of
traffic to other routes. Speed control is usually handled by vertical deflection (speed bumps) or
horizontal deflection (chicanes – artificial feature in roadways creating extra turns, etc.)
Volume Control
(Slide 7& 8)
Full Closure
First slide shows two examples of full closures. The next slide (8) discusses the pros and cons.
Advantages are: it definitely does reduce traffic since the street is closed. It also usually still
allows for pedestrian or bike traffic to continue to move while stopping all motor vehicles.
Disadvantages are: it usually required legal proceedings, it may adversely affect emergency
response to the area, it is usually costly, it may limit access to businesses and it displaces the
traffic to other areas, which may create the same or more issues there.
Volume Control
(Slide 9& 10)
Half Closure
First slide shows two examples of half closure of streets, leaving one side open to traffic. The
second slide discusses advantages and disadvantages.
Advantages are: it is very effective at reducing traffic volume and still leaves pedestrian and
bicycle access to the area.
Disadvantages are: It may cause unnecessary longer routes for drivers to get to/from an area, it
may adversely affect emergency response, depending on the design, drivers may still be able to
circumvent it and it may limit access to businesses.
Volume Control
CPTED Lesson Plan – Property of Sgt. Steve Garst
(Slide 11-13)
Diagonal Diverters
The first two slides show examples of diagonal diverters. The third slide discusses advantages
and disadvantages.
Advantages are: It does not require closure, only redirection of traffic, it still can provide twoway bicycle access, it does not limit pedestrian traffic, and it does reduce traffic volume so it is
Disadvantages are: It may cause circuitous routes for drivers, it may be expensive to build, and
may require construction of corner curbs and other devices that are more costly.
Volume Control
(Slide 14-16)
Median Barriers
The first two slides show examples of median barriers. The third slide discusses advantages and
Advantages are: It can greatly improve safety at the intersections of major and minor roads and
it greatly reduces traffic volume in crossing of busy streets.
Disadvantages are: It requires that the available street be wide enough to accommodate the
change, it limits turns to specific directions to and from side streets, and it may inhibit
emergency response.
Volume Control
(Slide 17)
Star Dividers
This shows a visual of a star divider. It acts to divert traffic from all directions into the
intersection making them go only a certain way, left or right.
Advantages are: it is effective in slowing traffic and still allows pedestrian and bike access.
Disadvantages are it may adversely affect emergency responders, it may cause drivers to have to
take a circuitous route to get to a location and requires that the street be wide enough to
accommodate the design if done after the fact.
Volume Control
(Slide 18)
One way – two way
This graphic depicts a device that changes a street from a two way to one way by forcing
oncoming traffic to divert to another roadway, while allowing the other lane to continue.
Advantages are: It is effective in diverting traffic and still allows movement of pedestrians and
Disadvantages are that they are costly, they require sufficient street width to accommodate
building them, may cause delays in emergency response and may cause more circular routes for
Volume Control
(Slide 19)
Truncated diagonals
This graphic shows a truncated or shortened one way-two way diverter that still allows for right
hand turns.
It has essentially the same advantages and disadvantages as the one way diverter, except that it
has the additional advantage of allowing turns.
Speed Control
Vertical deflection – Speed Humps
CPTED Lesson Plan – Property of Sgt. Steve Garst
(Slide 20 & 21)
The first slide is a graphic depicting two types of speed humps. A speed hump is similar to a
speed bump (not shown), which is much narrower. Speed humps generally have some dimension
of width to them so that the vertical deflection is not as severe as with a bump.
Advantages are: they are relatively inexpensive to build after the fact, they are relatively easy for
bikes to negotiate, and they are very effective at slowing traffic.
Disadvantages are: it may cause a rough ride, it may cause drivers to lose control if they notice
the hump too late and have to brake abruptly, they may force larger vehicles, like trucks to drive
at a much slower speed than other traffic, which generally increased noise and emission
pollution, and they are somewhat unslightly.
Speed Control
(Slide 22& 23)
Vertical deflection – Speed Tables
Speed tables are much the same as speed humps except that the top is longer, creating a flat top
for a short distance, as opposed to an abrupt up/down deflection.
Advantages are: it is smoother on larger vehicles. It is effective in slowing traffic but not as good
as humps or bumps.
Disadvantages are: they can be expensive to construct, they may have the effect of increasing
noise and emission pollution, and they may be unsightly.
Speed Control
(Slide 24 & 25)
Vertical deflection – Raised Crosswalks
This is much like a speed table, except that it continues completely across the street usually at
curb level to allow pedestrians to cross without added difficulties.
Advantages are: it increases safety for pedestrians, it is effective in slowing traffic (but not as
great as for humps or bumps) and can have a positive aesthetic effect if designed properly.
Disadvantages are: they can be expensive, they may increase noise and emission pollution, and
they have an adverse impact on drainage along the curb line because they go completely across
the street, making the need to create pipes or other drains to accommodate the water.
Speed Control
(Slide 26 -28)
Vertical deflection – Raised Intersections
The first two slides are graphics depicting typical raised intersections. Raised intersections are
like other speed tables except that they encompass the entire intersection, thus they affect
(control speed) on all roads that intersect them.
Advantages are: they increase safety for pedestrians and vehicles, they can slow traffic on two
streets at once, and they can have good aesthetics if properly designed.
Disadvantages are: they tend to be expensive to construct, they are less effective than speed
humps or bumps because they level out for longer distances, and like raised crosswalks must
provide for a way to control water runoff.
Speed Control
(Slide 29 & 30)
Vertical deflection – Textured Pavement
The first slide depicts a typical textured pavement, such as a brick street or other material that is
greatly dissimilar from adjoining the roadway.
Advantages are: they can reduce speed over a greater distance, they can slow traffic on two
streets at once if they cross intersections, and they can have a positive aesthetic impact if
properly designed.
CPTED Lesson Plan – Property of Sgt. Steve Garst
Disadvantages are: they are generally very expensive to build and to maintain and if used at
crosswalks, it generally causes difficulty for wheelchairs, the visually impaired and those with
similar disabilities to cross.
Speed Control
(Slide 31 & 32)
Horizontal deflection – Traffic Circles
The first slide depicts two different, but typical, traffic circles. The next describes the pros and
Advantages are: they are very effective in moderating speed of vehicles and generally improve
safety if properly designed, they slow traffic on all the streets that intersect them, and they can
have a positive aesthetic impact if properly designed.
Disadvantages are: they can be difficult for larger vehicles to negotiate, they may eliminate some
on-street parking, and because they are generally landscaped in some manner, continual
maintenance of the area is required to maintain visual safety for users.
Speed Control
(Slide 33 & 34)
Horizontal deflection – Roundabouts
The first slide depicts two different, but typical, roundabouts. The next describes the pros and
cons. They are used on higher volume streets to allocate right-of-way between competing
Advantages are: they are very effective at moderating speed, they generally enhance safety over,
and are usually less expensive than, traffic signals, and they can have a positive aesthetic impact
if properly designed.
Disadvantages are: they can be difficult for larger vehicles to navigate, they may eliminate some
on-street parking, and because they are generally landscaped in some manner, continual
maintenance of the area is required to maintain visual safety for users.
Speed Control
(Slide 35 & 36)
Horizontal deflection – Chicanes
Chicanes are artificial features in roadways creating extra turns, etc. They may be curb
extensions on both, or alternating sides of the street creating “S” shaped or similar curves in the
The first slide depicts a couple of typical chicanes.
The next discusses the pros and cons.
Advantages are: they are very effective at moderating speed, and are generally more easily
negotiated by larger vehicles.
Disadvantages are: they must be carefully designed so as to not create driver confusion or
encourage deviation into the wrong lane, it requires curb realignment which is generally
expensive and they may eliminate some on-street parking.
Speed Control
(Slide 37 & 38)
Horizontal deflection – Realigned Intersections
The first slide depicts two typical realigned intersections. These are generally done in lieu of
typical “T: intersections.
Advantages are: they are very effective at reducing speeds and forcing drivers to stop to look
than normally happens at “T” intersections. The increased angle in one direction forces drivers to
CPTED Lesson Plan – Property of Sgt. Steve Garst
make a more exaggerated body turn to look as opposed to a mere head turn at regular
Disadvantages are: They may require additional right-of-way to build the additional roadway.
Curb realignments may be very costly. The one thing that is an advantage, forcing drivers to do a
body turn in one direction to see, may be more problematic for older drivers or those with
physical impairments that make it difficult to turn.
Speed Control
(Slide 39 & 40)
Horizontal Narrowing – Neckdowns
The first slide show one example of a neckdown, or narrowing of the street, effectively reducing
the roadway from curb to curb. The next slide discusses the pros and cons.
Advantages are: there is improved pedestrian space, through traffic and turns are more easily
negotiated than other forms of calming, it creates on-street parking areas and it greatly reduces
speed in the area.
Disadvantages are: It may require bicyclists to merge with traffic and may actually reduce some
on-street parking at the site of the narrowing. Larger vehicles may also have more difficulty
moving through them, causing them to move at even slower speeds.
Speed Control
(Slide 41 & 42)
Horizontal narrowing – Center Island Narrowing
The first slide shows two typical types of center island narrowing, where both sides of the street
must narrow to accommodate the center divider. The next slide discusses the pros and cons.
Advantages are: it increases pedestrian safety in the area, it can have a positive aesthetic impact
if designed properly and it does very effectively reduce traffic volume in both directions.
Disadvantages are: since there is no horizontal or vertical deflection, speed may not be greatly
reduced, only volume. They may also eliminate some on-street parking.
Speed Control
(Slide 43 - 45)
Horizontal narrowing – Chokers
The first two slides show pictures of typical choker type controls. These may be formed on one
side of the street only or may be on both sides, depending on the roadway being controlled. The
last of the three slides discusses the pros and cons of these devices.
Advantages are: they are usually easily negotiable, even by larger trucks and vehicles, they can
be aesthetically pleasing if properly designed, and they are effective at reducing both speed and
volume of traffic.
Disadvantages are: since there is not vertical or horizontal deflection, speed may not always be
greatly reduced, they may eliminate some on-street parking, and they may require bicyclists to
merge with traffic.
(Slide 46)
Speed hump with choker
A graphic slide that illustrates a speed bump that also incorporates a choked down section of
roadway at the same location. Advantages and disadvantages are the same as for each
Diverter with closure
CPTED Lesson Plan – Property of Sgt. Steve Garst
(Slide 47 & 48)
This combination incorporates both a diverter that forces traffic to move in certain directions
while at the same time closing a section, usually one direction, of the street. Both slides illustrate
variations of this combination.
(Slide 49)
Raised Intersection with Neckdown
This illustrates a typical design where the entire intersection is raised for vertical deflection
(slowing) of traffic while at the same time narrowing the street to further force drivers to slow
down, while also reducing the volume.
(Slide 50)
Center Island with Choker
An illustration of a center island divider which narrows the roadway, thus reducing volume and
sometimes speed, with the added effect of a choker which can also produce the same effect.
When combined, the added effects of both volume and speed are well controlled.
(Slide 51)
Center Islands with Speed Tables
Similar to a raised intersection with neckdown, this arrangement places a center island in the
roadway to reduce the volume of traffic in both directions and adds a speed table to force when
traffic that does come through to slow down, thus reducing both speed and volume of traffic.
(Slide 52)
Raised crosswalk with choker
This illustrates the choking, or narrowing, of the street, which automatically reduces traffic
volume, combined with a raised crosswalk, which provides vertical deflection thus reducing
speed. It adds the convenience and safety of a more protected crosswalk as traffic is forced to
slow at the site where pedestrians are crossing.
(Slide 53)
Center Island with Speed Hump
This illustrates the effect of having a center island with narrows the roadway in both directions
controlling volume, combined with a speed hump that provided vertical deflection to control
Optical Illusions
(Slide 54)
This illustration shows one of many different designs being tested around the world. These are
actually graphic overlays, not actual bumps at all. It give the approaching driver the visual
illusion that they are approaching a speed bump, causing them to actually slow down, while not
actually causing any vertical deflection. This is great for ambulances carrying patients since they
aren’t bounced around when they pass over the object. An additional advantage is that they can
be peeling up and moved to another location. The disadvantage is that if they are left at a single
location for any length of time, drivers who regularly use the route get used to them being there
and do not slow down at all. Variations of this show potholes and similar objects that give the
illusion that the driver needs to slow down to avoid something disruptive in the roadway.
Speed Cushions and other Devices
CPTED Lesson Plan – Property of Sgt. Steve Garst
(Slide 55)
Other types of speed and volume control devices are being tested around the world. One design
still uses an actual speed bump, but it is narrower, which allows wider axle vehicles to pass
across them without ever actually contacting them, while narrowing vehicles like cars must slow
since at least one side of the wheels will contact the device.
Also being tested in England are rapidly inflatable speed bumps, that do nothing at all when cars
approach at normal speeds but they inflate rapidly when sensors detect a vehicle moving at a
faster speed. The main disadvantage here is that unsuspecting drivers may become involved in
an accident if the bumps suddenly inflate and they hit them at high speed and lose control, or
brake suddenly to avoid them and either lose control or cause another car to hit them from
Any questions?
CPTED Lesson Plan – Property of Sgt. Steve Garst
Planning for student to practice or apply new knowledge
(where applicable)
The student will have individual and group discussions during all eleven section by interacting
with the instructor and classmates, viewing issues (pictures and graphics) of various types and
making appropriate suggestions for solutions.
Students will be asked to give a brief, informal presentation citing CPTED issues they have seen
at the location where their class is being held, or alternatively at the hotel where they are
staying, and their recommendations for solutions.
Students will view a short video of a home, as if it were a safety inspection, and from it complete
a brief home inspection survey report.
(Final check of student’s comprehension of material presented.)
Participants must pass an end of course test that will include questions from this block of
 National Crime Prevention Institute
Texas Crime Prevention Association
“Handbook of Loss Prevention and Crime Prevention – fourth edition” by Lawrence J.
“Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design” by Timothy D. Crowe
Terrorism Prevention and Response” by Cliff Mariani
“School Violence Threat Management” by Kris Mohandie
“Practical School Security” by Kenneth S. Trump
“Not in My School” by Ted Hayes and Bill Kruziki
“School Administrator Facility Examination Handbook” by Michael D. Rowland
CPTED Lesson Plan – Property of Sgt. Steve Garst
“Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design – Malls and Shopping Centers” – by
Timothy D. Crowe
“Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design in Parking Facilities” – National
Institute of Justice Research Brief – April 1996
“The Expanding Role of Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design in Premises
Liability” – National Institute of Justice Research Brief – April 1996
“How to Read Blueprints” Institute for Criminal Justice Studies, Texas State University,
San Marcos, Texas – class handout
“Designing for Homeland Security” webpage by Atlas Safety and Security Design, Inc.
“The Impact of Terrorism on School Planning” by Kenneth S. Trump
“Understanding Human Behavior Leads to Safer Environments” American Institute of
Architects (AIA) article February 2007
“Designing Safe Schools” by Randall Atlas – ERIC documents
Color” Institute for Criminal Justice Studies, Texas State University, San Marcos, Texas –
class handout
“Graffiti Prevention – Lights, Landscapes, Access” on-line at
“The Role of Maintenance” Institute for Criminal Justice Studies, Texas State University,
San Marcos, Texas – class handout
“Calming Traffic” by Doug Lemov in “Governing” Magazine – August, 1996
“Police and Planners: A partnership for Safe Communities” article by Richard Preuss
and Richard Rosaler, October, 2005
“Safety Audit Guidelines” – unattributed
“Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design: Survey of Lincoln Park Apartments
– Houston Police Department, August, 1999
“Introduction to CPTED” Institute for Criminal Justice Studies, Texas State University,
San Marcos, Texas – class handout
“CPTED in the 21st Century- The Past is Prologue” by Timothy D. Crowe
“Ultimate Guide to Home Security” on-line at
“Protecting the Perimeter of Your Building – Stop the Bad Guys at the Perimeter”
CPTED Lesson Plan – Property of Sgt. Steve Garst
“The Role of Police in Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design” by Robert J.
Potts, South Australia Police Department.
“Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design – Landscaping – on-line at
“The Ten Commandments of Proper Lighting” by Chris Hertig and Andrew Romero,
Access Control and Security Systems, October 1, 2002
“Light” Institute for Criminal Justice Studies, Texas State University, San Marcos, Texas –
class handout
“Recommended Lighting Levels for Exterior Lighting” Institute for Criminal Justice
Studies, Texas State University, San Marcos, Texas – class handout
“The History of Locks” by Mary Bellis on-line at
“A Consumer’s Guide to Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy – on-line at
“Dallas law aims to bring signs down from storefronts” – Dallas Morning News article –
July 7, 2008
“Bulletproof Glass” article by Ryan Groom
“How Landscapes Can Support the CPTED Components” unattributed.
“Safe School Design Guidelines – Recommendations for a Safe and Secure Environment
in Florida’s Public Schools” online at
“www.Department of website
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 website - Premises Liability
 website - Parking Facilities
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CPTED Lesson Plan – Property of Sgt. Steve Garst
 website
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2 website
 website
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 article in American
School and University Magazine - 2008
CPTED Lesson Plan – Property of Sgt. Steve Garst