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Information Technology
 Kranthi Kiran Kotla
 Muralidhara Reddy Janga
 Rakesh Kumar Chindam
 Suresh Kumar Velamuri
Outline
 Introduction
 Computers and the Quality Issues
 Internet and other electronic communication
 Information Quality Issues
 Technologies of the future
 Conclusion
Definition:
Information technology (IT) is defined as computer
technology (either hardware or software) for processing
and storing information, as well as communications
technology for transmitting information.
Information technology (IT), as defined by the
Information Technology Association of America (ITAA), is
"the study, design, development, implementation, support
or management of computer-based information systems,
particularly software applications and computer
hardware.
It has three levels of information technology:
1. Data
2. Information
3. Knowledge
History of computers:
ENIAC:
Mainframe
Midrange computers
Personal computer
Wireless technology
Computers and Quality Functions
The Quality Functions needs
served by the computer are
 Data Collection
 Data Analysis and Reporting
 Statistical Analysis
 Process Control
 Test and Inspection
 System Design
Data Collection
 IT systems best accomplish the collection, utilization,
and dissemination of quality control information.
 Computers are best possible solution to collect data,
since they provide:
 Faster data Transmission
 Fewer Errors
 Lower Collection Cost
Cont.
 Data transmission to computers is performed by:
 Paper or magnetic tape, Optical character
Recognition (OCR), Wireless Transmission,
Keyboard, Voice, Facial, Direct interface with a
process.
 Since Computers have limited storage so Quality
control data are periodically analyzed to determine
the data to retain, or send to another method, or
destroyed.
Data Analysis, Reduction and
Reporting
 Information is Analyzed, reduced to a meaningful
amount, and disseminated in the form of a report.
 Reports generated by the computers help in
controlling the quality of the systems e.g. Fraud
Management System (FMS). Such analyzed and
refined data in the form of reports can continuously
improve processes.
Cont.
 Data can also be analyzed while being accumulated.
 Corrective measures can be taken in real time.
 A New York team developed fraud detection system.
Saved about $5 to $8 millions per year by reducing the
time to detect the fraud.
Cont.
 Business Intelligence (BI) works on the principle data
analysis and reporting.
 These systems help organizations in future decision
making and quality control process.
 Data analysis and reporting from MS Excel to large
data ware houses improves the quality of processes.
Statistical Analysis
 Most of the statistical techniques can be easily
programmed providing error free calculations and
saving considerable calculation time.
 MS Excel uses very sophisticated statistical analysis
technique “ANOVA”.
 Software packages encapsulate the statistical
methods thus improving the quality of data
analysis.
Cont.
 Advantages of Programmed statistical software
packages are:
 Saving time spent on manual calculations.
 Accurate analysis can be performed to maintain process
control
 People with limited knowledge of Advanced statistics
can perform their own statistical analysis.
Process Control
 Digital Computers can perform automated process
control by operating through interfaces with other
machines. Robots are designed and programmed to
achieve such goals.
 The benefits obtained from automatic process
control are:
 Constant Product Quality, increased productivity,
safe process execution.
Test and Inspection
 It is similar to process control.
 It offers improved test quality, lower operating cost,
better report preparation, improved accuracy,
malfunctioning diagnostics.
 Automated test systems can be programmed to
perform a complete quality audit of a product
System Design
 The software packages are providing integrated,
sophisticated, and user friendly interfaces for the
quality functions.
 Some of the softwares that provide integrated quality
functions are:
 MIS (Management Information Systems)
 ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning)
 HRIS (Human Resource Information Systems)
Internet and other Electronic
Communication
Internet and other Electronic
Communication
 Intranet
 Instant Messaging
 Video Conferencing
 Virtual Teaming
 E-Learning
 E-Government
 E-Commerce
 Business-to-Business
 Business-to-Customer
 Website Designing
Intranet
 An intranet is a private network that is contained
within an enterprise.
 Uses Internet protocol and network connectivity.
 Information is shared with in the organization using
Local Area Network.
Instant Messaging
 Allows for "instant" communications between people.
 The text is conveyed via computers connected over a
network such as internet.
 This can save time and money as you can resolve
questions or problems immediately.
Video Conferencing




It is a remote conference
Video conferencing increase productivity.
Video Conferencing Saves Money.
Video Conferencing Saves Time.
Virtual Teaming
 Virtual teams are a great way to enable teamwork in
situations where people are not sitting in the same
physical office at the same time.
 Virtual team uses a combination of internet, email
instant messaging pc to pc connections, shared
computer screens, and linked databases.
Virtual Team
 The existence of standards for availability and
acknowledgement
 The reliability of electronic communications
 The existence of performance metrics
 Process definition, maturity, and alignment
 The existence of corporate memory systems
E-Learning
 E-learning is a type of education where the medium of
instruction is computer technology.
 It is offered in a variety of formats such as CD-ROMbased, LAN-based, Web-based.
Some other terms frequently
interchanged with e-Learning
 online learning
 online education
 distance education
 distance learning
 technology-based training
 web-based training computer-based training
(generally thought of as learning from a CD-ROM)
 e-Learning is a broad term used to describe learning
done at a computer.
Benefits of E-Learning for
organization
 Reduced overall cost.
 Learning times reduced.
 Increased retention.
 Consistent delivery.
 Expert knowledge.
 Proof of completion and certification.
E-Government
 E-government is the use of information and
communications technologies. providing greater
access to government information;
 promoting civic engagement
 making government more accountable by making its
operations more transparent
 providing development opportunities, especially
benefiting rural and traditionally underserved
communities.
E-Commerce
 Electronic commerce or ecommerce is a term for any
type of business, or commercial transaction, that
involves the transfer of information across the
Internet.
Business-to-Business
 B2B applications were proprietary systems
using private networks, but they were not
economically feasible for small businesses.
 Wall-mart and Kmart are best examples.
B2B via internet is expected to
grow rapidly because of
 Low cost entry and operational costs.
 Global reach with its large number of trading partners.
 The benefits of reduced cycle time, product cost savings
and improved B2B coordination.
Business-to-Customer
 It is the electronic transmission of buyer seller
transactions and related information between
individual end and customers and one or more
businesses.
 Both buyers and sellers mutually get benefited.
Website Designing
 Designing a good website is no different than
designing good product or service.
Leadership
 Knowledgeable and effective leaders are extremely
important in determining whether technology use will
improve the organization.
 The major issues are


Responses to change
Effective use of technology
Customer Satisfaction
benchmarking
 One way to benchmark is to periodically touch base
with the competitor’s customers.
 Asking ourselves a question-
“ How satisfied are my customers”
Employee Involvement
 They must be involved in decisions and actions.
 It is neither a goal nor a tool, it is a management and
leadership philosophy about how employees are
enabled to contribute to continuous improvement of
the organization.
Information Quality Issues
Issues are ..










Sufficiency
Accuracy
Timeliness
Intellectual Property
Security
Cybercrime
Privacy
Pollution
Creativity
Control & Prevention
Sufficiency
 Date & information is easy to obtain.
 There is a need to find appropriate information.
Accuracy
 Data accuracy is the foundation dimension of data
quality.
 Accuracy refers to whether the data correctly records
the business project or event it represents.
 Complete, accurate, and reliable data are essential for
effective decision-making.
 Employees need to make every effort in
order to keep the data accurate.
Timeliness
 It is important that information is received in a timely
manner, so that the organization can compete.
 It is critical to product and service design time.
 Examples of timeliness are


Instant message
Video Conferencing
Cont..
 Data delayed is data denied.
 The timeliness of data is extremely important. For
example,
 Customers service providing up-to date information to
the customers.
 Credit system checking on the credit card account
activity.
Intellectual Property
 It is any innovation, commercial, or any unique name,
symbol, logo or design used commercially.
 It is protected by
 Patents or inventions
 Trademarks on branding devices
 Trade secrets for methods or formulas having economic
value and used commercially.
Security
 There are two major security issues Access Security
 Transaction Security
Access Security

Control of access to a computer that is physically
connected to the internet.
• Firewalls can be used as access security.
Cont..
Transaction Security
 Control of given communication such as business
transaction to ensure that it is not violated.
 The data is encrypted in various techniques.
Cybercrime
 Auction fraud, Credit card fraud, & Identity theft.
 Law enforcement lacks cybercrime training and has
jurisdictional problems when parties are in different
towns, states, or countries; and there aren’t enough
personnel.
Privacy
 Advances in technology have greatly expanded the
ability to acquire private and confidential information.
 Major concern for protecting consumers personnel
information such as SSN, bank account numbers,
creditors, investments, mortgages, and credit card
numbers.
Pollution
 There is too much outdated information on the
Internet. Two million web pages are added per day.
 Plenty of information available on the search engines.
 Competition between the search engines makes the
information available faster and better.
Creativity
 Take old information and draw insights and
conclusions to invent, innovate, or conceptualize new
systems, products, or services.
 New knowledge, which is the highest form of
information technology.
Control and Prevention
 The control and prevention of quality problems
associated with information technology will be similar
to any product or service.
 You can implement principles from TQM, ISO 9000,
and FMEA to help control and prevent quality
problems with information technology.
3G
 3G is the third generation of tele standards and
technology for mobile networking. 3G services include
wide area voice telephony, video calls and broad band
wireless data, all in a mobile environment. This shows
how the technology advances day to day and the
companies strive to provide good quality to their
customers and quality service.
Artificial intelligence
 Artificial intelligence has been the subject of breath
taking optimism.AI has successfully been used in a
wide range of fields including medical diagnosis, stock
trading, robot control, law, scientific discovery, video
games and toys. A common theme in science fiction,
AI is often portrayed as a burgeoning force vying for
power against humanity as in: The Terminator, The
Matrix, Colossus: the Forbin Project or Eagle Eye
E-book
 An e book is an electronic book equivalent of a
conventional printed book. The display will show high
resolution text, pictures and video. Any document on
the internet will be accessible and pages will be turned
on or located by voice command. Many mobile phones
can also be used to read e-books.
Cont..
 E-books have seen good growth in Japan throughout
the 2000s and it currently has an e-book market worth
¥10 billion. This shows how the customers are satisfied
with the new technology that is very useful to them.
 Advantages of e-book are
 An e-book can automatically open at the last read
page.
 It is easier for authors to self-publish e-books.
 Font size and font face can be adjusted.
 Some of the disadvantages of e-book are
 A small book is easier to carry around (less mass and
volume) than an e-book.
 E-book readers can malfunction due to faults in
hardware or software, such as hard disk drive failure.
 E-book readers are more likely to be stolen than paper
books.
Virtual e-commerce
 Virtual e commerce is online shopping on internet.
The customer will access the shop usually via internet.
 Let customers experience a product before it is
purchased.
From big screen TV to tiny TV
 Tiny TV is a screen that is no bigger than a half an inch
wide but which promises to pack a cinematic punch.
 The technology is embedded in a pair of glasses that
plugs into a smart phone or laptop.
 They are “energy miserly” which means they are not a
drain on devices that can last for hours.
Cont..
 The technology behind the glasses is called organic
light emitting diode, a cutting edge technology that
does not need a black light to work and is very thinner
than LCD panel.
 This is a fantastic way of carrying a very small piece of
equipment with you and getting an almost cinema like
experience.
 The technologies in future makes our lives better and
happy which leads to growth of unemployment by
using machines every where.
Conclusion
 Information technology has played an immensely
powerful role in today’s communicating world. It has
evolved communication among organizations and has
improved the overall Quality of products and services.
 History of Internet