The Banach–Tarski paradox is a theorem in set-theoretic geometry, which states the following: Given a solid ball in 3‑dimensional space, there exists a decomposition of the ball into a finite number of disjoint subsets, which can then be put back together in a different way to yield two identical copies of the original ball. Indeed, the reassembly process involves only moving the pieces around and rotating them, without changing their shape. However, the pieces themselves are not ""solids"" in the usual sense, but infinite scatterings of points. The reconstruction can work with as few as five pieces.A stronger form of the theorem implies that given any two ""reasonable"" solid objects (such as a small ball and a huge ball), either one can be reassembled into the other. This is often stated informally as ""a pea can be chopped up and reassembled into the Sun"" and called the ""pea and the Sun paradox"".The reason the Banach–Tarski theorem is called a paradox is that it contradicts basic geometric intuition. ""Doubling the ball"" by dividing it into parts and moving them around by rotations and translations, without any stretching, bending, or adding new points, seems to be impossible, since all these operations ought, intuitively speaking, to preserve the volume. The intuition that such operations preserve volumes is not mathematically absurd and it is even included in the formal definition of volumes. However, this is not applicable here, because in this case it is impossible to define the volumes of the considered subsets, as they are chosen with such a large porosity. Reassembling them reproduces a volume, which happens to be different from the volume at the start.Unlike most theorems in geometry, the proof of this result depends in a critical way on the choice of axioms for set theory. It can be proven using the axiom of choice, which allows for the construction of nonmeasurable sets, i.e., collections of points that do not have a volume in the ordinary sense, and whose construction requires an uncountable number of choices.It was shown in 2005 that the pieces in the decomposition can be chosen in such a way that they can be moved continuously into place without running into one another.