cooperation and conflict: christian and muslim group identity and
... belongs. An individual’s behaviour in relation to any specific group is based on the
importance of each group.5 It will be argued that the Latin Christians who went to the
Holy Land on crusade, or who remained there, had many identities, related to language,
ethnicity, nationality, political affilia ...
... • Light tax returns from Egypt
• Failure to send troops for Nur al-Din’s campaigns
Kingdom of Jerusalem
• Ayla (Aqaba, Jordan):
Access to Red Sea,
buffer between Egypt
The Fourth Crusade - Jeremy Choat`s Portfolio
... Villehardouin blamed these pilgrims for future “misfortunes that were ahead”11. Even
though not everyone arrived at Venice, Villehardouin thought it was so well equipped “
that no Christian man has ever seen another more handsome or better equipped” 12. The
problem was that the crusaders needed thre ...
Why the Crusades Failed? NarratiNg the episode aFter the Fall oF
... Meanwhile, as events in the West were pressing upon Richard, the endless
disunity in the army was another problem. The native barons favoured and
demanded Conrad’s election as king. Richard acquiesced and compensated Guy
of Lusignan (d. 1194), the son of Hugh VIII of Lusignan, by making him ruler of ...
... Salah al-Din (Saladin) was born in 1138 to a powerful Kurdish Muslim
family in Syria. He was a schoolboy in Damascus when the Christians
attacked the city during the Second Crusade. He observed firsthand how
important it was for Muslims to defend their religion and themselves from
the Christian crus ...
The Crusades - Muslim Population
... knew about the skill of Salahuddin and his bravery and did not know that they were
going to be utterly defeated by him.
Early the next morning, the crusaders were awoken when Salahuddin attacked. The
Muslims fell on the crusaders with full fury. Although the crusaders fought back with
full force, by ...
... What do you think of when you hear about
religious conflict or religious war?
How can religion lead to fighting or conflict?
Salah al-Din - neshaminy.org
... Salah al-Din (Saladin) was born in 1138 to a powerful Kurdish Muslim family in
Syria. He was a schoolboy in Damascus when the Christians attacked the city
during the Second Crusade. He observed firsthand how
important it was for Muslims to defend their religion and themselves from the
Christian crus ...
The Crusader States
... Levant. At the same time, the monumental work of Carole Hillenbrand, both in her path-breaking book
The Crusades: Islamic Perspectives and in her translations of previously unknown Arabic sources, has made
the nuances of 11th- and 12th-century Islamic society more intelligible to Latin medievalists ...
Crusades - Cobb Learning
... Saladin placed guards around the church of the Holy grave as well as other holy places belonging to
the non-Muslims, to avoid them being destroyed. Saladin encouraged the Franks to stay, and invited
Jewish families to move back in to Jerusalem. Saladin’s tax collectors were shocked by the fact that
UNIT 2: The Rise of Islam
... Usamah lived to know that the Muslims recaptured
Jerusalem in 1187.
He died a year later in Damascus.
Usamah also wrote extensively about dedicated Muslims—
including the heroic actions of Muslim women—defending
themselves against the enemy.
Usamah called the crusaders “devils” and “infidels” who
The Crusades Documents
... “The Franks arrived at dawn. It was carnage. As Ibn al-Athir described, ‘for three days they put people to the
sword, killing more than a hundred thousand people and taking many prisoners...In Ma’arra our troops boiled
pagan adults in cooking-pots; they impaled children on spits and devoured them gr ...
What happened when Crusaders entered Jerusalem during the First
... *** Read Document A. While you are reading, underline any words, phrases, or sentences that
indicate that this document was written from a Christian
Finally, our men took possession of the walls and towers, and
wonderful sights were to be seen. Some of our men (and this was
more mercifu ...
... • Nur al-Din (r. 1146-1174): son of
Zengi, inherits rule of Aleppo
• What does it mean to be a
good Muslim ruler?
• Hires religious scholars to write
texts on jihad and the benefits of
• The righteous ruler is the one
who fights the crusaders
• Jerusalem is prioritized
Minbar of al-Aqsa Mo ...
Salah al-Din ~ Muslim
... military commanders. Salah al-Din gained valuable experience in military and political
organization and effective communication. He fought successfully with the Syrian Muslim troops
Egypt against the crusaders.
Salah al-Din’s successful military performance brought him more honors and leadership ...
the crusades - Cobb Learning
... around the church of the Holy grave as well as other holy places
belonging to the non-Muslims, to avoid them being destroyed.
Saladin encouraged the Franks to stay, and invited Jewish
families to move back in to Jerusalem. Saladin’s tax collectors
were shocked by the fact that their leader allowed F ...
The Crusader States - IB DP History Medieval Option
... of Jerusalem. Acre approx. 60,000, Tyre and Jerusalem 20,00030,000.
This meant they had to come to terms with both the mixture of predominantly
Eastern, Jewish and Muslim people who made up most of their subjects.
The need to make agreements with local Muslim rulers led to disagreements
and misunder ...
The First Crusade played a very important part in Medieval England
... Many people did volunteer to fight on the First Crusade.
There were true Christians who wanted to reclaim Jerusalem for their belief and get the
Muslims out of the city. There were those who knew they had committed sin and that by
going on the Crusade they might be forgiven by God. They had also bee ...
... Fulcher of Chartres (1059-1127)
French, chaplain to Baldwin of Boulogne,
went on First Crusade with him
Wrote Historia Iherosolymitana, using
mix of own experience and other
Died of plague
Background on the 1st Crusade: In 1095, Byzantine Emperor
... Jerusalem was taken from the north on the morning of July 15, 1099. The population was put to the
sword by the Franks, who pillaged the area for a week. A band of Muslims barricaded themselves into
the Tower of David and fought on for several days. They were granted their lives in return for
slides - www3.telus.net
... 1110 Demonstrations in mosques of Baghdad
calling rulers to fight Crusaders
1119 Ilghazi of Mardin defeats Roger of
Antioch at Battle of Balat/Ager Sanguinis
1127 ‘Imad al-Din Zangi takes power in
Borrowing or Adaptation of Medieval Weaponry between the
... After the First Crusade, new leaders began to restore
Muslim unity in the Near East.
Third Crusade began as a response to the capture of
Jerusalem in 1187 by Muslims under their new leader,
Salah ad-din Yusuf ibn Ayyub – known by Europeans as
European kingdoms of England, France and t ...
... Document 1 – Saladin, Muslim leader of the 1100s
“I think that when God grants me victory over the rest of Palestine, I shall divide my territories, make a will stating my
wishes, the set sail on this sea for far-off lands and pursue the Franks there, so as to free the earth from anyone who
does not ...
Kitab al-I'tibar (Arabic: كتاب الاعتبار, The Book of Learning by Example) is the autobiography of Usāmah ibn-Munqidh, an Arab Syrian diplomat, soldier of the 12th century, hunter, poet and nobleman.The book was first discovered in 1880 in the Real Biblioteca del Monasterio de San Lorenzo de El Escorial (San Lorenzo de El Escorial, Madrid, Spain). It exists as 134 folios with the first 21 pages missing and is considered a copy of a copy of the original made in July 1213. However it remains the only version available to date.Hartwig Derenbourg (1844-1908) was the first to mention the manuscript it in his three volumes book “Les manuscrits arabes de l’Escurial” (1884-1903) and his book “Ousama ibn Mounkidh, un émir syrien” (1889) when he studied, transcribed and published the work. Philip K. Hitti (1886 – 1978) added to his work in his publication “An Arab-Syrian Gentlemen in the Period of the Crusades: Memoirs of Usamah ibn-Munqidh”, with the latest edition published in 2000 by Columbia University Press.Usāmah's autobiography is part of the literary genre known as adab which aims at ""pleasing, diverting and titilating"" its readers, as well as instructing them. Philip K. Hitti, in the introduction to his translation, describes the work as superior to other Arabic biographies. According to him, It gives us a glimpse into Syrian methods of warfare, hawking and medication, and ushers us into the intimacies of Moslem court life as well as private home life.. It also offers an insight into the mindset of Arabic knights as they interacted with the crusaders as friends, fought against them as enemies and on matters of religion and politics.