A unification of photons, electrons, and gravitons under qbit

... • A pair of string ends is bosonic, since A pair of string ends = an open string The statistics of a single end of strings is determined by the form of string-net condensation. ...

... • A pair of string ends is bosonic, since A pair of string ends = an open string The statistics of a single end of strings is determined by the form of string-net condensation. ...

Part I: Understanding String Theory

... is as follows: It is a GUT that proposes everything is made up out tiny one dimensional string of energy that can move in 10 dimensions [2]. The geometry of the strings being either open string or closed loops and the various ways in which these may vibrate gives rise to all the complexity we experi ...

... is as follows: It is a GUT that proposes everything is made up out tiny one dimensional string of energy that can move in 10 dimensions [2]. The geometry of the strings being either open string or closed loops and the various ways in which these may vibrate gives rise to all the complexity we experi ...

underdetermination and theory succession from the perspective of

... The current status of string theory looks even more remarkable when one considers the theory’s future prospects: today, about 30 years after its creation, string theory still lacks any realistic prospect of becoming experimentally testable. The characteristic experimental signatures of string theory ...

... The current status of string theory looks even more remarkable when one considers the theory’s future prospects: today, about 30 years after its creation, string theory still lacks any realistic prospect of becoming experimentally testable. The characteristic experimental signatures of string theory ...

Lecture notes

... What is the significance of topological order? Globel danicing pattern is a nice picture for topological order. But does it mean anything? Does topological order have any experiemntal significance? Does topological order have any new experiemntal properties, that is different from any symmetry brea ...

... What is the significance of topological order? Globel danicing pattern is a nice picture for topological order. But does it mean anything? Does topological order have any experiemntal significance? Does topological order have any new experiemntal properties, that is different from any symmetry brea ...

Week04 - Wednesday lecture (multiple sequence alignment)

... same as the Steiner string Unfortunately, we have no way to determine the Steiner string (although we can approximate within a factor of 2 using the center-star string) ...

... same as the Steiner string Unfortunately, we have no way to determine the Steiner string (although we can approximate within a factor of 2 using the center-star string) ...

talk_pacific - University of Kentucky

... This fluctuating nature is most naturally expressed in Feynman’s path integral formulation of quantum theory. Consider a Quantum-Mechanical particle described by Hamiltonian H and corresponding classical action S. ...

... This fluctuating nature is most naturally expressed in Feynman’s path integral formulation of quantum theory. Consider a Quantum-Mechanical particle described by Hamiltonian H and corresponding classical action S. ...

The Internal and External Problems of String Theory

... that of a mathematically inspired metaphysics of nature? An adequate answer to these questions is certainly not to be expected from physics; physics does not have the methodology to answer such metatheoretical questions. These are undoubtedly questions to be answered in the context of philosophy of ...

... that of a mathematically inspired metaphysics of nature? An adequate answer to these questions is certainly not to be expected from physics; physics does not have the methodology to answer such metatheoretical questions. These are undoubtedly questions to be answered in the context of philosophy of ...

Harmony of Scattering Amplitudes: From gauge theory

... 3) Interesting hint from string dualities. Chalmers; Green, Vanhove, Russo – Dualities restrict form of effective action. May prevent divergences from appearing in D = 4 supergravity, athough issues with decoupling of towers of massive states and indirect. ...

... 3) Interesting hint from string dualities. Chalmers; Green, Vanhove, Russo – Dualities restrict form of effective action. May prevent divergences from appearing in D = 4 supergravity, athough issues with decoupling of towers of massive states and indirect. ...

URL - StealthSkater

... The string word sheets are uniquely identified as inverse images under imbedding map of space-time surface to H=M4×CP2 of homologically non-trivial geodesic sphere of CP2 defining homological magnetic monopole. Holography in its strongest sense states that all information about non-trivial 2-homolog ...

... The string word sheets are uniquely identified as inverse images under imbedding map of space-time surface to H=M4×CP2 of homologically non-trivial geodesic sphere of CP2 defining homological magnetic monopole. Holography in its strongest sense states that all information about non-trivial 2-homolog ...

Superstring Theory

... • Strings: particles in string theory arise as excitations of the string, and included in the excitations of a string. A "1-brane," is a string. • Brane: Short for membrane. a higher-dimensional manifold moving in spacetime. • D-brane; D-branes are a class of extended objects upon which open strings ...

... • Strings: particles in string theory arise as excitations of the string, and included in the excitations of a string. A "1-brane," is a string. • Brane: Short for membrane. a higher-dimensional manifold moving in spacetime. • D-brane; D-branes are a class of extended objects upon which open strings ...

Recent Developments in String Theory

... necessarily appear, which means that this kind of string theories imply gravity. This fact has been one of the main motivations for studying string theory. Fermions (thought as “quarks” and “leptons”) are obtained by suitably choosing the boundary conditions of the two dimensional fermions ψ on Σ. T ...

... necessarily appear, which means that this kind of string theories imply gravity. This fact has been one of the main motivations for studying string theory. Fermions (thought as “quarks” and “leptons”) are obtained by suitably choosing the boundary conditions of the two dimensional fermions ψ on Σ. T ...

20071031110012301

... Conservation laws and Scattering in 1+1 dimensions local conserved charges ...

... Conservation laws and Scattering in 1+1 dimensions local conserved charges ...

Equivalence of Topological Codes and Fast Decoding

... To define precisely what we mean by local, consider an operator P acting on some qubits contained within a region of finite radius r. Then, a unitary transformation U is a local mapping if U P U † is contained within a region of radius less or equal to r + c, where c is a constant. This result is im ...

... To define precisely what we mean by local, consider an operator P acting on some qubits contained within a region of finite radius r. Then, a unitary transformation U is a local mapping if U P U † is contained within a region of radius less or equal to r + c, where c is a constant. This result is im ...

F From Vibrating Strings to a Unified Theory of All Interactions

... with abstract field theoretic concepts, 8.251 started rooted in the physics that we were all familiar with: the mechanics of a simple string. It all started there and quickly went through many iterations until arriving at the quantum mechanics of relativistic strings. Though at times the math was di ...

... with abstract field theoretic concepts, 8.251 started rooted in the physics that we were all familiar with: the mechanics of a simple string. It all started there and quickly went through many iterations until arriving at the quantum mechanics of relativistic strings. Though at times the math was di ...

URL - StealthSkater

... classical electroweak and color fields correspond to induced metric and induced gauge fields in TGD framework. The fundamental field space becomes essentially compact CP2 whereas for ordinary gauge potentials the field space is non-compact affine space. This means that the imbedding of, say, constan ...

... classical electroweak and color fields correspond to induced metric and induced gauge fields in TGD framework. The fundamental field space becomes essentially compact CP2 whereas for ordinary gauge potentials the field space is non-compact affine space. This means that the imbedding of, say, constan ...

fundamental_reality\Black hole war

... Strings have entropy. The presence of a photon represents one single bit of information. As more energy is pumped into the photon, it becomes a string with thermal jitters. The tangle of the string is too complicated to describe in detail, but a rough description is possible. This is the “hidden inf ...

... Strings have entropy. The presence of a photon represents one single bit of information. As more energy is pumped into the photon, it becomes a string with thermal jitters. The tangle of the string is too complicated to describe in detail, but a rough description is possible. This is the “hidden inf ...

The Excitement of Scattering Amplitudes

... Amplitude excitement • Field interesting in its own right: new insights into QFT? • Solve all order amplitudes in planar N=4 SYM? • Relevant for particle physics processes at the LHC. • Fundamental physics applications: Perturbative gravity? Origin of simple structure in string theory? • New method ...

... Amplitude excitement • Field interesting in its own right: new insights into QFT? • Solve all order amplitudes in planar N=4 SYM? • Relevant for particle physics processes at the LHC. • Fundamental physics applications: Perturbative gravity? Origin of simple structure in string theory? • New method ...

Strings as hadrons

... magnitude and therefore completely abandon the idea that progress in physics proceeds incrementally. Heady stuff. But also the source of much irritation in the rest of the physics community. Another reason for annoyance was somebody's idea to start referring to string theory as a "Theory of Everythi ...

... magnitude and therefore completely abandon the idea that progress in physics proceeds incrementally. Heady stuff. But also the source of much irritation in the rest of the physics community. Another reason for annoyance was somebody's idea to start referring to string theory as a "Theory of Everythi ...

The Elegant Universe: Part 2

... MICHAEL DUFF (University of Michigan): We work on the assumption that there is a theory out there, and it's our job, if we're sufficiently smart and sufficiently industrious, to figure out what it is. STEVEN WEINBERG (University of Texas at Austin): We don't have a guarantee—it isn't written in the ...

... MICHAEL DUFF (University of Michigan): We work on the assumption that there is a theory out there, and it's our job, if we're sufficiently smart and sufficiently industrious, to figure out what it is. STEVEN WEINBERG (University of Texas at Austin): We don't have a guarantee—it isn't written in the ...

string theory: big problem for small size

... The original string theory developed in the period 1968–70 was known as bosonic string theory. The main disadvantages of this theory were: (i) it needs 26-dimensional space-time, (ii) the absence of fermions in the theory, and (iii) the existence of a particle with imaginary mass, called tachyon, ge ...

... The original string theory developed in the period 1968–70 was known as bosonic string theory. The main disadvantages of this theory were: (i) it needs 26-dimensional space-time, (ii) the absence of fermions in the theory, and (iii) the existence of a particle with imaginary mass, called tachyon, ge ...

Broken symmetry revisited - Homepages of UvA/FNWI staff

... Also, an important effect on the spectrum and the interactions of a theory with a broken gauge group is caused by the introduction of additional topological terms in the action, such as a nonvanishing θ angle in 3+1 dimensional space time and the Chern-Simons term in 2+1 dimensions. It has been show ...

... Also, an important effect on the spectrum and the interactions of a theory with a broken gauge group is caused by the introduction of additional topological terms in the action, such as a nonvanishing θ angle in 3+1 dimensional space time and the Chern-Simons term in 2+1 dimensions. It has been show ...

UNSTRUNG

... caught up with experiment. In the absence of new data, physicists must steer by something other than hard empirical evidence in their quest for a final theory. And that something they call “beauty.” But in physics, as in the rest of life, beauty can be a slippery thing. The gold standard for beauty ...

... caught up with experiment. In the absence of new data, physicists must steer by something other than hard empirical evidence in their quest for a final theory. And that something they call “beauty.” But in physics, as in the rest of life, beauty can be a slippery thing. The gold standard for beauty ...

Ioan Muntean - International Society for the Advanced Study of

... electroweak unification: the V-A model and the Glashow model (1961). ...

... electroweak unification: the V-A model and the Glashow model (1961). ...

String Backgrounds

... String theory can be formulated on any background. String quantisation probes nearby backgrounds. Low-energy physics depends on classical background. Full quantum string theory is background independent, contains all backgrounds as ...

... String theory can be formulated on any background. String quantisation probes nearby backgrounds. Low-energy physics depends on classical background. Full quantum string theory is background independent, contains all backgrounds as ...

Gravity, Particle Physics and Their Unification 1 Introduction

... far away, it looks like a pointlike object. These diﬀerent oscillatory states of the string are analogous to the diﬀerent polarization states of the particles. Note that the mass of the string state itself depends on the “polarization” state. Some of these oscillatory states of the string will have ...

... far away, it looks like a pointlike object. These diﬀerent oscillatory states of the string are analogous to the diﬀerent polarization states of the particles. Note that the mass of the string state itself depends on the “polarization” state. Some of these oscillatory states of the string will have ...