The Role of Construal Level in Self-Control - Labs
... low-level construal, incorporating the incidental and secondary details provided by direct experience to form idiosyncratic
representations of singular events. An individual may know
that tomorrow will entail a breakfast of oatmeal, a 10 a.m.
meeting with a research collaborator, and dinner with an ...
Moral Dilemmas andRealism
... desire. A difference between belief and desire is what makes them
disappear. Apprehending the falsity of belief is like apprehending
the satisfaction of desire. For in both such cases, the state in question
tends to evaporate. And apprehending the truth of belief is like apprehending the unsatisfact ...
UKU TOOMING The Communicative Significance of Beliefs and
... 1.1 Beliefs and desires
This thesis is about intentional attitudes. These are mental states which are
supposed to represent possible and actual states of affairs. In philosophy of
mind, intentional attitudes (or propositional attitudes)1 are usually divided into
two types: cognitive and conative att ...
Dilemmas and Moral Realism
... state of affairs is the possession by something of a genuine moral property.3 It is a thesis about the
world not about the mind. However, Williams’ argument assumes, in traditional style, that the crucial
distinction is between ‘cognitive’ and ‘non-cognitive’ mental states. Williams is concerned to ...
The mirror neuron system and its role in learning Master`s thesis by
... with mirror properties. Future research should shed more light on this issue and show
which neurons exactly are active in humans in conditions studied so far using brain
The mirror neuron system indeed seems to play an important role in several
types of learning. It is probably e ...
Understanding Albert Camus` Absurd as Ambivalence, and its
... the ability to hold it together, to sustain a consistent view of an object in
spite of its ambivalent appraisals. Whereas the ‘healthy’ individual came
to accept his or her ambivalence as a mixed stance toward an object, the
schizophrenic in Bleuler’s theory was forced either to oscillate between a ...
The Girl Who Cried Pain - [email protected] Carey Law
... pain sensitivity increases and decreases throughout her
menstrual cycle, with skin, subcutaneous tissue, and
muscles being affected differently by female hormonal fluctuations.'^ They also found that sex-based differences in
pain response may depend on the proximity of the stimulus to external repro ...
Is Empathy Necessary for Morality?
Psychological Benefit Theories Buffer and Coping Theory
... A consistent finding is that husbands and wives who share leisre time together in joint
activities tend to be much more satisfied with their marriages than those who do not.
There tends to be a negative impact on marital satisfaction of frequent independent,
individual activities by family members ...
... • Sociobiology – application of evolutionary
biology to understand the social behavior of
animals, including humans
• Evolution – a theory that all living things
have acquired their present forms through
gradual changes in their genetic endowment
over successive generations
A Path Analytic Model of the Relationships between Involvement
... Thus, the purposes of this paper are to advance the conceptual clarification of the multifaceted constructs of leisure involvement, psychological
commitment, and behavioral loyalty, and to clarify the relationships among
them. The focus is on theoretically clarifying the causal roles of involvement, ...
Cruel to be kind: The role of the evolution of altruistic punishment in
... good and punishes others at a personal cost in order to sustain a cooperative norm that redounds
to the benefit of her social group. I will use both terms, interchangeably, simply depending on
what term the researcher used in her own analysis of the behavior.
One potential criticism of these public ...
The Ethical Mirage - Harvard Business School
... environment, falling prey to the influence of conflicts of interest, and failing to realize
that you hold overly positive views of yourself (Bazerman and Moore, 2008; Caruso,
Epley, & Bazerman, 2006), to name a few. Chugh et al.’s (2005) summary of the
literature on implicit attitudes documents how ...
jeremy bentham and gary becker: utilitarianism and economic
... considered as part of its field of study. This expansion of economics has been called
economic imperialism: economics colonizing the territory of other social sciences.
Economic imperialism is not a new phenomenon. The Physiocrats considered their
nouvelle science of economics as the ‘‘science of na ...
Moral Development - Texas Collaborative
... welfare, justice, rights); 2) social-conventional (social rules for the orderly function of society); and 3)
personal (pure self-interest, exempt from social or moral rules).
Relationship of Academic Intrinsic Motivation and Psychological
... factor that stimulates desire and energy in people to be continually interested and committed
to a job, role on subject, or to make an effort to attain a goal. Motivation results from the
interaction of both conscious and unconscious factors such as the: (1) intensity of desire or
need (2) incentive ...
Brief Historical Perspective: Twentieth
... • For example, when depression is linked with the
depletion of certain chemicals in the brain,
reductionists assume that brain chemistry is the
cause of depression.
Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007
On Psychological Growth and Vulnerability - Self
... authenticity, and nondefensiveness, which in
turn contributes to well-being (Kernis &
Goldman, 2006). Herein, we suggest a positive cascading effect (Masten & Cicchetti,
2010) of need satisfactions.
In line with these claims, dozens of studies
have indicated that need-supportive environments, such a ...
AUTHORS` RESPONSE The Darker and Brighter Sides of Human
... According to TMT, everyone has death anxiety,
presumably of the same magnitude, and thus there is a
universal readiness to accept culture as a defense
against the anxiety. Because the anxiety postulated by
TMT is largely a nonconscious, existential anxiety, it
is theorized to operate regardless of w ...
Cultivating Sympathy: Sophie Condorcet`s Letters on Sympathy
... this leads to a similar ability to sympathize with the physical pleasure felt by others. But
physical pleasures are often more private than physical pain, giving less evidence through
physical signs. For example, a grimace may signal pain, but a smile is less striking in the
case of physical pleasu ...
Marisa Mealy - Psychology - Central Connecticut State University
... contributing to improvements in intergroup relations. For example, interacting with an
individual from a disadvantaged group, such as the disabled, may activate compassionate
reactive empathy leading to a concern for the individual outgroup member, which may
then generalize to the outgroup as a whol ...
Prosocial Behavior and Empathy: Developmental Processes
... Mature empathy has a metacognitive dimension: one
knows one’s feeling of distress results from another’s
plight and how the other presumably feels. One thus
has a sense of oneself and others as separate beings
with independent inner states (that are only partly
reﬂected in outward behavior), separat ...
Core Phenomenon: Chronic Pain
... the level of chronic pain reported by long-term care residents. The study claims that in order to manage pain, better pain assessment needs to be carried out. There were 21 participants in the study, all
of whom suffered from chronic pain; their average age was 74.9 years old. At any time participan ...
Jon Rick, Core Lecturer in Philosophy, Columbia University, June
... Last time, we reconstructed the argument for what I called (following John Rawls)
‘Hobbes’ Thesis’: a State of Nature inevitably amounts to a State of War. By connecting
a series of fairly uncontroversial claims about human nature and about the world, Hobbes
was able to argue in 13 that SoNSoW.
Psychological egoism is the view that humans are always motivated by self-interest, even in what seem to be acts of altruism. It claims that, when people choose to help others, they do so ultimately because of the personal benefits that they themselves expect to obtain, directly or indirectly, from doing so. This is a descriptive rather than normative view, since it only makes claims about how things are, not how they ought to be. It is, however, related to several other normative forms of egoism, such as ethical egoism and rational egoism.A specific form of psychological egoism is psychological hedonism, the view that the ultimate motive for all voluntary human action is the desire to experience pleasure or to avoid pain. Many discussions of psychological egoism focus on this type, but the two are not the same: theorists have explained behavior motivated by self-interest without using pleasure and pain as the final causes of behavior. Psychological hedonism argues actions are caused by both a need for pleasure immediately and in the future. However, immediate gratification can be sacrificed for a chance of greater, future pleasure. Further, humans are not motivated to strictly avoid pain and only pursue pleasure, but, instead, humans will endure pain to achieve the greatest net pleasure. Accordingly, all actions are tools for increasing pleasure or decreasing pain, even those defined as altruistic and those that do not cause an immediate change in satisfaction levels.