Logos (UK /ˈloʊɡɒs/, /ˈlɒɡɒs/, or US /ˈloʊɡoʊs/; Greek: λόγος, from λέγω lego ""I say"") is an important term in philosophy, psychology, rhetoric, and religion. Originally a word meaning ""a ground"", ""a plea"", ""an opinion"", ""an expectation"", ""word"", ""speech"", ""account"", ""to reason"" it became a technical term in philosophy, beginning with Heraclitus (ca. 535–475 BC), who used the term for a principle of order and knowledge.Ancient philosophers used the term in different ways. The sophists used the term to mean discourse, and Aristotle applied the term to refer to ""reasoned discourse"" or ""the argument"" in the field of rhetoric. The Stoic philosophers identified the term with the divine animating principle pervading the Universe. Under Hellenistic Judaism, Philo (c. 20 BC – AD 50) adopted the term into Jewish philosophy. The Gospel of John identifies the Logos, through which all things are made, as divine (theos), and further identifies Jesus Christ as the incarnate Logos. Although the term ""Logos"" is widely used in this Christian sense, in academic circles it often refers to the various ancient Greek uses, or to post-Christian uses within contemporary philosophy, Sufism, and the analytical psychology of Carl Jung.Despite the conventional translation as ""word"", it is not used for a word in the grammatical sense; instead, the term lexis (λέξις) was used. However, both logos and lexis derive from the same verb legō (λέγω), meaning ""to count, tell, say, speak"".Professor Jeanne Fahnestock describes logos as a ""premise."" She states that to find the reason behind a rhetor's backing of a certain position or stance you must acknowledge the different ""premises"" the rhetor applies via his/her chosen diction. She continues by stating that the rhetor's success will come down to ""certain objects of agreement...between arguer and audience."" ""Logos is logical appeal, and the term logic is derived from it. It is normally used to describe facts and figures that support the speaker's topic."" Furthermore, logos is credited with appealing to the audience's sense of logic. With the definition of “logic” being the following: as being concerned with the thing as-it-is-known.Furthermore, you can appeal to this sense of logic via two ways. One, through inductive logic and provide the audience with relevant examples and use them to point back to the overall statement. Or two, through deductive enthymeme and provide the audience with general scenarios and then pull out a certain truth.Philo distinguished between logos prophorikos (""the uttered word"") and the logos endiathetos (""the word remaining within""). The Stoics also spoke of the logos spermatikos (the generative principle of the Universe), which is not important in the Biblical tradition, but is relevant in Neoplatonism. Early translators from Greek, like Jerome in the 4th century, were frustrated by the inadequacy of any single Latin word to convey the Logos expressed in the Gospel of John. The Vulgate Bible usage of in principio erat verbum was thus constrained to use the perhaps inadequate noun verbum for word, but later romance language translations had the advantage of nouns such as le mot in French. Reformation translators took another approach. Martin Luther rejected Zeitwort (verb) in favor of Wort (word), for instance, although later commentators repeatedly turned to a more dynamic use involving the living word as felt by Jerome and Augustine.