English as a second or foreign language
English as a second or foreign language is the use of English by speakers with different native languages. Instruction for English-language learners may be known as English as a second language (ESL), English as a foreign language (EFL), English as an additional language (EAL), or English for speakers of other languages (ESOL).“English as a second or foreign language…” indeed is the use of English by speakers with different native languages. However,“English as a foreign language” is not used in instructional or school settings, as the students might feel devalued by being called foreigners. Therefore, English Language Learners (ELL) is used instead, and the students’ home language and cultures are considered important. All students who do not speak English proficiently or are learning English for the first time, are referred to as ELLs (Wright, 2010). The way English learners are instructed depend on their level of English proficiency and the programs provided in their school or district. In some programs, instructions are taught in both, English and their home language. In other programs, instructions are only in English, but in a manner that is comprehensible to the students (Wright, 2010). Yet, there are other programs in which ELLs are pulled out of the classroom for separate English instructions, or the instructions can also be given in the classroom itself (Wright, 2010).English as a language has great reach and influence; it is taught all over the world. In English-speaking countries, English language teaching has evolved in two broad directions: instruction for people who intend to live there, and instruction for those who do not. These divisions have grown firmer as the instructors of these two ""industries"" have used different terminology, followed distinct training qualifications, formed separate professional associations, and so on. Crucially, these two arms have very different funding structures, public in the former and private in the latter, and to some extent this influences the way schools are established and classes are held. Matters are further complicated by the fact that the United States and the United Kingdom, both major engines of the language, describe these categories in different terms.Although English is the principal language in both the US and the United Kingdom, it differs between the two countries, primarily in pronunciation and vocabulary. For example, some words and phrases that are inoffensive in the US are offensive in the UK and vice versa. These differences are the butt of many jokes. ""We have really everything in common with America nowadays, except, of course, language"" (Oscar Wilde, in The Canterville Ghost). Similarly, Bertrand Russell said: ""It is a misfortune for Anglo-American friendship that the two countries are supposed to have a common language."" Variations have been misattributed to Winston Churchill, and George Bernard Shaw, that England and America ""are two countries [or nations] divided [or separated] by a common language [or tongue].""