MMSI_Internet_Jaringan-Komputer_1

... digital signal to be transmitted Multiple digital signals interleaved in time May be at bit level of blocks Time slots pre-assigned to sources and ...

... digital signal to be transmitted Multiple digital signals interleaved in time May be at bit level of blocks Time slots pre-assigned to sources and ...

See the slides

... task in the process of chaotic encryption is to synchronize the transmitter and the receiver. Two ways to achieve this synchronization would be 1. Use two- transmission channel system :Here we have two separate channels, one to carry the encrypted signal and the other to carry the chaotic carrier wa ...

... task in the process of chaotic encryption is to synchronize the transmitter and the receiver. Two ways to achieve this synchronization would be 1. Use two- transmission channel system :Here we have two separate channels, one to carry the encrypted signal and the other to carry the chaotic carrier wa ...

Chapter 4

... voltage levels. Since current Ethernet technology supports data rates of billions of bits per second, each bit must be recognized, even though duration of the bit is very small. The voltage level cannot be amplified at the receiver, nor can the bit duration be extended in order to recognize the data ...

... voltage levels. Since current Ethernet technology supports data rates of billions of bits per second, each bit must be recognized, even though duration of the bit is very small. The voltage level cannot be amplified at the receiver, nor can the bit duration be extended in order to recognize the data ...

A Frequency Quadrupling Optical mm-Wave Generation

... frequency band (57-64 GHz) is significant for high-speed applications [7]. However, mm-wave distribution via wireless or coaxial methods is usually limited to the short-range applications, due to the inherently high propagation losses. Thus, Fi-Wi system operating in the mm-wave frequency range is b ...

... frequency band (57-64 GHz) is significant for high-speed applications [7]. However, mm-wave distribution via wireless or coaxial methods is usually limited to the short-range applications, due to the inherently high propagation losses. Thus, Fi-Wi system operating in the mm-wave frequency range is b ...

Notes on Pulse Modulation

... amplitude of the analog signal at the time the signal is sampled. --The maximum analog signal amplitude produces the widest pulse, and the minimum analog signal amplitude produces the narrowest pulse. Note, however, that all pulses have the same amplitude. Pulse Position Modulation --With PPM, the p ...

... amplitude of the analog signal at the time the signal is sampled. --The maximum analog signal amplitude produces the widest pulse, and the minimum analog signal amplitude produces the narrowest pulse. Note, however, that all pulses have the same amplitude. Pulse Position Modulation --With PPM, the p ...

Pulse modulation

... signal. • For the ADC to accurately convert a voltage to a binary code, the voltage must be relatively constant so that the ADC can complete the conversion before the voltage level changes. If not, the ADC would be continually attempting to follow the changes and may never stabilize on any PCM code. ...

... signal. • For the ADC to accurately convert a voltage to a binary code, the voltage must be relatively constant so that the ADC can complete the conversion before the voltage level changes. If not, the ADC would be continually attempting to follow the changes and may never stabilize on any PCM code. ...

SCTE 40 2011

... The Society of Cable Telecommunications Engineers (SCTE) Standards are intended to serve the public interest by providing specifications, test methods and procedures that promote uniformity of product, interchangeability and ultimately the long term reliability of broadband communications facilities ...

... The Society of Cable Telecommunications Engineers (SCTE) Standards are intended to serve the public interest by providing specifications, test methods and procedures that promote uniformity of product, interchangeability and ultimately the long term reliability of broadband communications facilities ...

Frequency Modulation

... able to accurately interpret the binary ones and zeros transmitted as voltage levels. Since current Ethernet technology supports data rates of billions of bits per second, each bit must be recognized, even though duration of the bit is very small. The voltage level cannot be amplified at the receive ...

... able to accurately interpret the binary ones and zeros transmitted as voltage levels. Since current Ethernet technology supports data rates of billions of bits per second, each bit must be recognized, even though duration of the bit is very small. The voltage level cannot be amplified at the receive ...

CableTesting - vspclil

... able to accurately interpret the binary ones and zeros transmitted as voltage levels. Since current Ethernet technology supports data rates of billions of bits per second, each bit must be recognized, even though duration of the bit is very small. The voltage level cannot be amplified at the receive ...

... able to accurately interpret the binary ones and zeros transmitted as voltage levels. Since current Ethernet technology supports data rates of billions of bits per second, each bit must be recognized, even though duration of the bit is very small. The voltage level cannot be amplified at the receive ...

DCN-5-Data_Transmission

... – High peaks in the wave might produce louder sounds (or quieter sounds), while, – Low peaks on the wave might produce a quieter sound (or louder sound). ...

... – High peaks in the wave might produce louder sounds (or quieter sounds), while, – Low peaks on the wave might produce a quieter sound (or louder sound). ...

for Semester 1 Chapter 4

... Sine Waves • Sine waves have certain characteristics. • Sine waves are periodic – They repeat the same pattern at regular ...

... Sine Waves • Sine waves have certain characteristics. • Sine waves are periodic – They repeat the same pattern at regular ...

Wireless Communications Research Overview

... DSP programmed to process desired signal: no specialized HW ...

... DSP programmed to process desired signal: no specialized HW ...

Physical layer continued

... • In wireless communications, in addition to the bandwidth limit and additive noise, you also have multipath fading! • The faster your symbol rate is, the more badly you will be affected by multipath fading. • In effect, OFDM is like DSL: given a wideband channel, divide it into many sub channels. E ...

... • In wireless communications, in addition to the bandwidth limit and additive noise, you also have multipath fading! • The faster your symbol rate is, the more badly you will be affected by multipath fading. • In effect, OFDM is like DSL: given a wideband channel, divide it into many sub channels. E ...

Signal - University of Vermont

... Noise and other forms of interference have little effect on digital signals Little chance of error because voltage in a digital circuit must be in one state or the ...

... Noise and other forms of interference have little effect on digital signals Little chance of error because voltage in a digital circuit must be in one state or the ...

Chapter 1

... multiplexing: – Time division multiplexing (TDM) is multiple data streams that are combined in a single signal and transmitted over the same link by allocating a different time slot for the transmission of each channel ...

... multiplexing: – Time division multiplexing (TDM) is multiple data streams that are combined in a single signal and transmitted over the same link by allocating a different time slot for the transmission of each channel ...

Modulation, Demodulation and Coding Course

... Autocorrelation and spectral density form a Fourier transform pair. – see Linear systems, noise Autocorrelation is symmetric around zero. Its maximum value occurs at the origin. Its value at the origin is equal to the average power or energy. ...

... Autocorrelation and spectral density form a Fourier transform pair. – see Linear systems, noise Autocorrelation is symmetric around zero. Its maximum value occurs at the origin. Its value at the origin is equal to the average power or energy. ...

Fiber-Optic Communications

... – Identify the parts of a basic telecommunication system – Calculate component and system gain or loss by the transfer function and using decibels ...

... – Identify the parts of a basic telecommunication system – Calculate component and system gain or loss by the transfer function and using decibels ...

01_02_03_05b-TransmissionOfInformation

... • Sampling rate is 8 KHz (samples are 125 s apart). • Each sample is quantized to one of 256 levels. • Each quantized sample is coded into a 8-bit word. • The 8-bit words are transmitted serially (one bit at a time) over a digital transmission channel. The bit rate is 8x8,000 = 64 Kb/s. • The bits ...

... • Sampling rate is 8 KHz (samples are 125 s apart). • Each sample is quantized to one of 256 levels. • Each quantized sample is coded into a 8-bit word. • The 8-bit words are transmitted serially (one bit at a time) over a digital transmission channel. The bit rate is 8x8,000 = 64 Kb/s. • The bits ...

The Link Layer

... • All parity bits are calculated like this: binary addition of the message bits they check, with no carry • Possible to detect single-bit and double-bit errors • Possible to recover from single-bit errors • See Hamming lecture (will be linked on calendar) for more details ...

... • All parity bits are calculated like this: binary addition of the message bits they check, with no carry • Possible to detect single-bit and double-bit errors • Possible to recover from single-bit errors • See Hamming lecture (will be linked on calendar) for more details ...

Part II Data Transmission

... element. If 1000 signal elements are sent per second, then baud rate = 1000 bauds per second, bit rate = 1000 * 4 = 4000 bps ...

... element. If 1000 signal elements are sent per second, then baud rate = 1000 bauds per second, bit rate = 1000 * 4 = 4000 bps ...

Class 4 - Sept. 18-19

... • considering the relation of data rate, noise and error rate: – faster data rate shortens each bit so bursts of noise corrupts more bits – given noise level, higher rates mean higher errors ...

... • considering the relation of data rate, noise and error rate: – faster data rate shortens each bit so bursts of noise corrupts more bits – given noise level, higher rates mean higher errors ...

EEL 6591 Wireless Networks - Information Services and Technology

... Source Coding • Networks are handling streams of 0’s and 1’ • Source Encoding: compression, according to statistics of 0’s and 1’s, map blocks of bits to more regular “shorter” blocks! Get rid of ...

... Source Coding • Networks are handling streams of 0’s and 1’ • Source Encoding: compression, according to statistics of 0’s and 1’s, map blocks of bits to more regular “shorter” blocks! Get rid of ...

# Quadrature amplitude modulation

Quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) is both an analog and a digital modulation scheme. It conveys two analog message signals, or two digital bit streams, by changing (modulating) the amplitudes of two carrier waves, using the amplitude-shift keying (ASK) digital modulation scheme or amplitude modulation (AM) analog modulation scheme. The two carrier waves, usually sinusoids, are out of phase with each other by 90° and are thus called quadrature carriers or quadrature components — hence the name of the scheme. The modulated waves are summed, and the final waveform is a combination of both phase-shift keying (PSK) and amplitude-shift keying (ASK), or (in the analog case) of phase modulation (PM) and amplitude modulation. In the digital QAM case, a finite number of at least two phases and at least two amplitudes are used. PSK modulators are often designed using the QAM principle, but are not considered as QAM since the amplitude of the modulated carrier signal is constant. QAM is used extensively as a modulation scheme for digital telecommunication systems. Arbitrarily high spectral efficiencies can be achieved with QAM by setting a suitable constellation size, limited only by the noise level and linearity of the communications channel.QAM is being used in optical fiber systems as bit rates increase; QAM16 and QAM64 can be optically emulated with a 3-path interferometer.