Copyright by Ulf Hermjakob 1997 - Information Sciences Institute
... We therefore propose a system for parsing and translating natural language that learns
from examples and uses some background knowledge. As our parsing model we choose a deterministic shift-reduce type parser that integrates part-of-speech tagging and syntactic and semantic
processing, which not onl ...
this PDF file - Journal of Language Modelling
... parsing system for Wolof which is able to disambiguate (when necessary) the input text in order to ensure correct analysis of the language.
In other words, given a string and a context, the aim is to have a system
that is able to distinguish the intended reading from the implausible
one, but also to ...
THE CATEGORY OF THE CONJUNCTION IN CATEGORIAL
... In this section I shall expose the main features of Categorial Grarnmar to allow people who do
not know anything of this formalism to understand the objective of the second part of this
Discourse markers and grammaticalization
... to Early Modern English in the 16th century, and they concern both
Sentence Grammar units, as in (a), and thetical units in (b) and (c).
a Theyr reseruations were as wel ... in vittailis, whether flesh, fishe,
corne, bread, drinke, or what els, as in money. (1579 Expos.
Termes Law s.v. Reservation [ ...
An Evaluation of Microsoft Word 97’s Grammar Checker
... The publishers of the early grammar and style software made extravagant claims
about their products’ performance, claims that were, in my experience, unfounded.
These days, grammar checkers, although still far from perfect, are much better and
easier to use as well. In fact, it’s hard to ignore them ...
Life after PCFGs? 1 Problems with CFGs 2 CFGs and features
... and syntactically. Noun forms such as epithets, pronouns, or anaphora – words that refer to earlier phrases
in or across sentences – may be required to agree or disagree with other noun forms in person, number,
gender, and so forth. For instance: Reagan, the fool, believed he could appoint justices ...
Grammar Punk Primer
... Grammar Punk 9-12 Secondary comes complete with 1 set of 6 specialized dice (consonant,
vowel, number, punctuation, parts of speech, topic) which offer another set of tools to
introduce, reinforce, and illuminate the complexities of grammar and punctuation. Because they
are required to fulfill speci ...
Elimination of lexical ambiguities by grammars - Accueil HAL-ENPC
... The boxes with "!" and "=" are delimitors which are used to recognize the structure of the
rules. All other boxes contain linguistic elements that are searched in input sentences when
rules are applied to text. The left and right "!" and "=" are present to make the rule more
readable. The central "! ...
Dependency Parsing with an Extended Finite
... for filtering them. We then describe the parser and its operational aspects, with details
on how linguistically motivated constraints for further filtering are implemented. We
briefly provide a scheme for a robust-parsing extension of our approach using the
lenient composition operation. We then pro ...
The Encoding Grammar and Syntax
... Both accounts quote Blake‘s [1983:145] opinion that ―there are in fact no noun phrases, but
… where an argument is represented by more than one word we have nominals in parallel or
in apposition …Each word is a constituent of the Clause‖ [Blake 1983:145].
Here the ergative marking of all words refer ...
Building a lexicon for a categorial grammar of the
... In this dissertation we attempt to adapt the Combinatory Categorial Grammar
(CCG) to the specifics of Polish language, and create a bank of sentence derivations
in the resulting formalism.
CCG is a simple but expressive grammar, proposed by Mark Steedman as an extension of Categorial Grammar first d ...
What is Syntax? - Columbia University
... • Formal languages: formal device to
generate a set of strings (such as a CFG)
• Linguistics (Chomskyan linguistics in
particular): approach in which a linguistic
theory enumerates all possible
strings/structures in a language
Word - The Open University
... on one hand and meaning or function on the other. This free
course, Grammar matters, introduces you to one particular way of
understanding how meanings relate systematically to different
aspects of grammar – the functional approach of Michael Halliday
and others, known as Systemic Functional Linguis ...
The Alpino Dependency Treebank
... shows the dependency tree for the sentence Kim wil weten of Anne komt. The
dependency relations are the top labels in the boxes. In addition, the syntactic
category, lexical entry and string position are added to each leaf. The index 1
indicates that Kim is the subject of both wil (wants) and weten ...
Relationship Between Traditional Grammar Terminology
... grammar, rhetorical grammar includes traditional terminology, but it uses a structuralist
approach to understand these traditional terms. Therefore, the structure of a noun clause is the
basis for understanding nouns, pronouns and adjectives. For operational grammar, traditional
terms such as noun a ...
... Head-Driven Phrase Structure Grammar (HPSG) , Paninian Grammar (PG)  and
Maximum Entropy model (EM) . Like some other Indo-Iranian languages (a branch of
Indo-European language group) such as Hindi, Bengali (from Indic group), Tamil (from Dadric
group), Assamese is a morphologically r ...
Context-Free Grammars for English
... • Approaches that are TOO STRONG have the power to
predict/describe/capture syntactic structures that don’t exist in
human languages. (But CFG probably not enough)
• Computational processes associated with stronger formalisms
are not as efficient as those associated with weaker methods
Syntactic Analysis of Natural Language
... adjuncts are modifiers. An example of a left adjunct of N is the adjec
tive green in the green blackboard. A right adjunct of N is the clause
whom we met in the man tchom ice met. A replacement string of N is,
for instance, what he said in the sentence What he said was interesting.
The same sentence ...
Some Predictions of Optimality Theory on Sentence Processing
... Ideally, an OT parsing model takes a very simple form. Suppose the parser has already
computed the structure S for the partial syntactic string S, and suppose that W is the next
word to be integrated. The generative procedure of the grammar then computes the set of
grammatical possibilities S* by wh ...
Natural Language Processing
... NLP is a large and multidisciplinary field, so this course can only provide a very general introduction. The first
lecture is designed to give an overview of the main subareas and a very brief idea of the main applications and
the methodologies which have been employed. The history of NLP is briefly ...
HPSG, SBCG, and FCG - German Grammar Group FU Berlin
... interact with the dative passive and hence should be treated as arguments. So, for
the resultative construction one would need an active variant, a passive variant, a
variant with dative argument, a variant with dative argument and dative passive,
and a middle variant. While it is technically possi ...
In formal language theory, a context-free grammar (CFG)is a formal grammar in which every production rule is of the formV → wwhere V is a single nonterminal symbol, and w is a string of terminals and/or nonterminals (w can be empty). A formal grammar is considered ""context free"" when its production rules can be applied regardless of the context of a nonterminal. No matter which symbols surround it, the single nonterminal on the left hand side can always be replaced by the right hand side. This is what distinguishes it from a context-sensitive grammar.Languages generated by context-free grammars are known as context-free languages (CFL). Different context-free grammars can generate the same context-free language. It is important to distinguish properties of the language (intrinsic properties) from properties of a particular grammar (extrinsic properties). The language equality question (do two given context-free grammars generate the same language?) is undecidable.Context-free grammars arise in linguistics where they are used to describe the structure of sentences and words in natural language, and they were in fact invented by the linguist Noam Chomsky for this purpose, but have not really lived up to their original expectation. By contrast, in computer science, as the use of recursively defined concepts increased, they were used more and more. In an early application, grammars are used to describe the structure of programming languages. In a newer application, they are used in an essential part of the Extensible Markup Language (XML) called the Document Type Definition.In linguistics, some authors use the term phrase structure grammar to refer to context-free grammars, whereby phrase structure grammars are distinct from dependency grammars. In computer science, a popular notation for context-free grammars is Backus–Naur Form, or BNF.