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... [25,26]. Longitudinal studies suggest that these rates increase with
traumatic experience, and are most likely a result of “self-medication”
for PTSD symptoms [25,27]. Veterans tend to engage in heavy alcohol
consumption, in order to numb and alleviate the debilitating symptoms
of PTSD. The comorbid ...
... The vast majority of studies aiming to prove the role that the cognitive reserve
plays in terms of prevention of cognitive impairment follow the same logic. That is,
defining the cognitive reserve as the variable to be explained and analyzing its
statistical relationship with several indicators of c ...
Comparing functional connectivity via thresholding correlations and
... resonance imaging (fMRI) measurements over time,
then we could say that they are functionally connected,
even though there may be no direct neuronal connection between these two regions. We can extend this idea
to any image measurements. For example, if two
regions of the brain show similar anatomic ...
The appeal of multiple intelligences to educators
... working memory, and hypercognitive processes underlying self-awareness and self-regulation.
All of these processes are integral components of general intelligence that regulate the
functioning and development of different domains of intelligence. In fact, a recent study by
Visser and colleagues whic ...
Glossary of Standardized Testing Terms
... possible score on a test question depends on one characteristic of the test taker (called
"ability") and a small number (usually three or fewer) of characteristics of the test question.
These characteristics of the test question are indicated by numbers called "parameters." They
always include the d ...
... – Certain patterns of test responses indicate particular deficits
– Several researchers are working to develop a definitive sign
of brain damage and as such have devised various ratios
and quotients based on pattern analysis
... large fluctuations in the excitatory and inhibitory currents occur simultaneously and cancel, leading to a
significant reduction in the correlation of the total synaptic currents c and output spikes.
Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI)
... of the variable, and thus not robust, nor is the mean the best way to quantify
this difference, but the conclusion that the religious composition of the two
countries differ is meaningful nevertheless.
Test scores are used as a measure of a variety of concepts. They are designed
to capture variables ...
... discovery-sample, P = 0.32 replication-sample, allelic model). Second, association results
for rs133885 and BMAF remained significant when the data were corrected for dyslexia
severity (P = 2.91×10-09 discovery-sample, P = 0.012 replication-1 sample, P = 1.61×10-09
combined German sample; all accord ...
Re-Examining the Mental Imagery Debate with Neuropsychological
... hands of the clock. The other type of test does not provide
any circle on the paper. Therefore, patients draw a circle
using a free-drawn circle rather than a pre-drawn circle. In
some cases, patients do not need to draw a circle from their
memory because they are asked to copy a clock by
showing a ...
Neuroanatomical correlates of intelligence
... myelination and thus an enhanced facilitation of neural
transmission. For example, fractional anisotropy, a diffusion
data-derived measure of white matter integrity, is known to
correlate with full-scale IQ (Chiang et al., 2008). Still, other
variables (e.g., biochemical) may also account for the
... Compare frequencies of particular alleles, or
genotypes, in set of cases and controls
Typically, relies on standard contingency table tests
Interlocking finger test: a bedside screen for parietal lobe dysfunction
... Two methods were used to assess the degree of correspondence between the interlocking finger figure scores and other
tests of neuropsychological dysfunction: (1) a simple correlation and (2) similarity to other parietal lobe tests at predicting
parietal dysfunction in an analytical model. In the fir ...
Special Issue on the 12th IEEE International Conference
... Tiedao University. He has industrial experience since 1972 and has been a full professor since
1994. He was a visiting professor on sabbatical leaves in the Computing Laboratory at Oxford
University in 1995, Dept. of Computer Science at Stanford University in 2008, the Berkeley Initiative in Soft Co ...
... French rationalist René Descartes (1596–1650) and the British empiricist John Locke
(1632–1704). Descartes viewed the introspective, reflective method as being superior to
empirical methods for finding truth. He maintained that the only proof of his existence is
that he was thinking and doubting. De ...
As the author of your texts states, “Balance is traditionally defined as
... How Well Did You Do On This Test??
One cannot compute an overall score for this test by just adding up the means or total
score for each test. The reason is there are some tests where the high score is the best
score and other where the lowest score is best score. One needs to convert their means or ...
Cognitive impairment and associated loss in brain white
... 1.0×1.1×1.2 mm) was acquired for anatomical reference and
volume analysis. Volumes were calculated automatically using
the FreeSurfer image analysis suite (http://surfer.nmr.mgh.
harvard.edu), as previously described (Fischl et al. 2002).
Then, a sagittal 3D FLAIR scan (TR/TE/TI 4,800/355/
1,650 ms, ...
An Introduction to Neuropsychological Assessment
... – Within a NP report, test scores can be summarized by various standardized
scores, which include: scaled scores, standard scores, T-Scores, and Percentile
• These scores are generated based on the normal bell curve.
Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor
... compared to standard. The ED50 as determined by the
dose-dependant stimulation of TF-1 cells is less than 3.0 ng/
Endotoxin: Less than 1EU/mg of rHuCNTF as determined
by LAL method.
Reconstitution: We recommend that this vial be briefly
centrifuged prior to opening to bring the contents to the
Basic Research What is Cognitive Modeling?
... and detriments
that may result
from environmental stressors such as nanoparticles,
toxins, radio frequency and optical radiation, and
other forms of directed energy. This division seeks
to protect warfighters from environmental stressors
and help them exploit the bioeffects ...
CogSci 2017 - Cognitive Science Society
... Cognitive scientists from around the world are invited to attend CogSci 2017! The Annual Meeting of the Cognitive
Science Society is the world's premiere annual conference the interdisciplinary study of cognition. Cognitive Science
draws on a broad spectrum of disciplines, topics, and methodologies, ...
Corrigendum: Auditory and cognitive factors underlying
... Auditory and cognitive factors underlying individual differences in aided speechunderstanding among older adults
by Humes, L. E., Kidd, G. R., and Lentz, J. J. (2013). Front. Syst. Neurosci. 7:55. doi:
Reason for Corrigendum:
There is an error in the reporting of the Text Re ...
... 11.5 Present and Future Directions
• The four approaches of experimental cognitive
psychology, cognitive neuropsychology,
cognitive science, and cognitive neuroscience
differ in their strengths and weaknesses. As a
result, what is needed in order to maximise our
understanding of human cognition is ...
G factor (psychometrics)
The g factor (short for ""general factor"") is a construct developed in psychometric investigations of cognitive abilities. It is a variable that summarizes positive correlations among different cognitive tasks, reflecting the fact that an individual's performance at one type of cognitive task tends to be comparable to that person's performance at other kinds of cognitive tasks. The g factor typically accounts for 40 to 50 percent of the between-individual performance differences on a given cognitive test, and composite scores (""IQ scores"") based on many tests are frequently regarded as estimates of individuals' standing on the g factor. The terms IQ, general intelligence, general cognitive ability, general mental ability, or simply intelligence are often used interchangeably to refer to the common core shared by cognitive tests.The existence of the g factor was originally proposed by the English psychologist Charles Spearman in the early years of the 20th century. He observed that children's performance ratings across seemingly unrelated school subjects were positively correlated, and reasoned that these correlations reflected the influence of an underlying general mental ability that entered into performance on all kinds of mental tests. Spearman suggested that all mental performance could be conceptualized in terms of a single general ability factor, which he labeled g, and a large number of narrow task-specific ability factors. Today's factor models of intelligence typically represent cognitive abilities as a three-level hierarchy, where there are a large number of narrow factors at the bottom of the hierarchy, a handful of broad, more general factors at the intermediate level, and at the apex a single factor, referred to as the g factor, which represents the variance common to all cognitive tasks.Traditionally, research on g has concentrated on psychometric investigations of test data, with a special emphasis on factor analytic approaches. However, empirical research on the nature of g has also drawn upon experimental cognitive psychology and mental chronometry, brain anatomy and physiology, quantitative and molecular genetics, and primate evolution. While the existence of g as a statistical regularity is well-established and uncontroversial, there is no consensus as to what causes the positive correlations between tests.Behavioral genetic research has established that the construct of g is highly heritable. It has a number of other biological correlates, including brain size. It is also a significant predictor of individual differences in many social outcomes, particularly in education and employment. The most widely accepted contemporary theories of intelligence incorporate the g factor. However, critics of g have contended that an emphasis on g is misplaced and entails a devaluation of other important abilities.