A SMN missense mutation complements SMN2 restoring snRNPs
... but is beneficial with mice living on average 13 days (35). The
mild SMA mutation, SMN(A2G) (36), when expressed in
mice with SMN2 results in mild SMA, but SMN(A2G) by
itself cannot rescue Smn2/2 mice (37).
SMN has a well-characterized function essential to all
eukaryotic cells (snRNP assembly), yet ...
History of genetic engineering
Genetic modification caused by human activity has been occurring since around 12,000 BC, when humans first began to domesticate organisms. Genetic engineering as the direct transfer of DNA from one organism to another was first accomplished by Herbert Boyer and Stanley Cohen in 1973. Advances have allowed scientists to manipulate and add genes to a variety of different organism and induce a range of different effects. Since 1976 the technology has been commercialised, with companies producing and selling genetically modified food and medicine.