An optician, or dispensing optician, is a technical practitioner who designs, fits and dispenses corrective lenses for the correction of a person's vision. Opticians determine the specifications of various ophthalmic appliances that will give the necessary correction to a person's eyesight. Some registered or licensed opticians also design and fit special appliances to correct cosmetic, traumatic or anatomical defects. These devices are called shells or artificial eyes. Other registered or licensed opticians manufacture lenses to their own specifications and design and manufacture spectacle frames and other devices.Corrective ophthalmic appliances may be contact lenses, spectacles lenses, low vision aids or ophthalmic prosthetics to those who are partially sighted. The appliances are mounted either on the eye as contact lenses or mounted in a frame or holder in front of the eye as spectacles or as a monocle.Opticians may work in any variety of settings such as joint practice, hospitals, laboratories, eye care centers or retail stores. However, registered opticians have to meet standards of practice and training, commit to ongoing education, hold professional liability insurance and are held to these standards by their respective regulating bodies.A fully credentialed optician in the United States is college educated in Optical Science and is known as an Ophthalmic Optician® (O.O.) and they are credentialed by the Society to Advance Opticianry (SAO). To achieve this nationally registered title an optician must achieve a combination of a college education, American Board of Opticianry and National Contact Lens Examiners advanced certifications, or maintain their state license in both eyewear dispensing and contact lens fitting when applicable. In the United Kingdom, an ophthalmic optician is also known as an optometrist and is regulated by the General Optical Council under the Opticians Act 1989.Like many health care providers, opticians are regulated professionals in certain countries. The profession is often regulated by optician-specific agencies, as in Canada and some states of the U.S., or jointly with optometry such as the New Zealand Optometrist and Dispensing Opticians Board or the United Kingdom General Optical Council. Opticians may work independently or dependently with an optometrist or ophthalmologist although some opticians may work in an optical labaratory as a labaratory technical optician. Opticians convert a prescription for the correction of a refractive error into an ophthalmic lens or some other device, such as reading aids or telescopic lenses.