Particle Physics 2011
... The year 2011 marks a record year for the Large Hadron
Collider (LHC) at CERN in Geneva. The accelerator crew
increased the luminosity beyond even the most optimistic
expectations, by a factor of approximately 100 compared to
2010. The collected luminosity provides the basis for a
multitude of very ...
Astroparticle physics at LHC - Institute of Physics (IoP)
... weak force. Such a Weakly Interacting Massive Particle (WIMP) is often predicted in theories
beyond the standard model and is ought to be produced in particle collider experiments with
sufficient available energy. Important evidence could be found in the analysis of high energy
collisions in the Lar ...
JHEP07(2007)083 - IHEP Diffractive Group
... As was argued in  this must have observable effects. However, in this paper we do not
take this requirement into account, considering such effects as a kind of “fine structure”
which is beyond the accuracy level we adopted.
It is shown in  that the assumption of the linearity of Regge trajec ...
COSMIC RAY SHOWERs
... Particle ID with transition radiation possible (π,K,p) … interesting challenge to improve.
Bent crystal channeling to extend xF – coverage possible … interesting challenge to improve.
Open & accessible & small so evolution of techniques natural.
How and where?
Want many months of running with low pi ...
Introduction to Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking
... group G . As a consequence, the particles will form multiplets of symm group H . For
example, if symmetry SU (2 ) SU (2 ) is spontaneously broken to SU (2 ) , particles will
form SU (2 ) multiplets
Ling-Fong Li (Carnegie Mellon University) Introduction to Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking
2011 BCVSPIN, ...
Beyond the Standard Model
... physics beyond the Standard Model. Although such ideas often have a finite life-time,
there are many that have been around for a decade or more, and are likely to play an
important rôle in particle physics at least for another decade. The emphasis is on those
ideas that are likely to survive for a ...
Grand Unified Models and Cosmology
... The hot big-bang cosmology predicts the expansion of the universe and the present abundances of the light-elements. Its best recent success is the predicted perfect black-body spectrum
of the cosmic background radiation (CBR) measured by COBE (Cosmic Background Explorer
Satellite) . But in spite ...
Search for the Higgs boson
The search for the Higgs boson was a 40-year effort by physicists to prove the existence or non-existence of the Higgs boson, first theorised in the 1960s. The Higgs boson is the last unobserved fundamental particle in the Standard Model of particle physics, and its discovery would be the ""ultimate verification"" of the Standard Model. In March 2013, the Higgs Boson was officially confirmed to exist.A confirmed answer would additionally prove or disprove the existence of the hypothetical Higgs field—a field of immense significance that is hypothesised as the source of electroweak symmetry breaking and the means by which elementary particles acquire mass. Symmetry breaking is considered proven but confirming exactly how this occurs in nature is a major unanswered question in physics. Proof of the Higgs field (by observing the associated particle), and evidence of its properties, is likely to greatly affect human understanding of the universe, validate the final unconfirmed part of the Standard Model as essentially correct, indicate which of several current particle physics theories are more likely correct, and open up ""new"" physics beyond current theories. If the Higgs boson were shown not to exist, other alternative sources for the Higgs mechanism would need to be considered and the same experimental equipment would be used for that purpose.Despite their importance, the search and any proof have been extremely difficult and taken decades, because direct production, detection and verification of the Higgs boson on the scale needed to confirm the discovery and learn its properties requires a very large experimental project and huge computing resources. For this reason, most experiments until around 2011 aimed to exclude ranges of masses that the Higgs could not have. Ultimately the search led to the construction of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in Geneva, Switzerland, the largest particle accelerator in the world, designed especially for this and other high-energy tests of the Standard Model.Experiments showed tentative positive signs were found at the end of 2011, and on 4 July 2012 CERN announced that two different experimental teams (the CMS and the ATLAS teams), working in isolation from each other, independently announced they had each confirmed the same result–a previously unknown boson of mass between 125 and 7002127000000000000♠127 GeV/c2 was proven to exist with a likelihood of error under one in a million in each experiment. The newly discovered particle's behaviour has so far been ""consistent with"" that of the theorized Higgs boson; however, as of August 2012 it has yet to be confirmed as a Higgs boson, nor are its properties fully known.