Preventing Constructive Changes and Unauthorized Commitments
... Government official construed by contractor as
having same effect as a written change order.
That is a contract change without formal written
authority. The Government official had “implied”
authority to make a change.
• It occurs when there is a
– Change in performance beyond the minimum
contract r ...
Government and Policymaking
... • Policy making functions vary most dramatically
between these two types of systems
• Competitive elections bring people into policy
• Elites dominate the policy making process in
authoritarian systems and possibility for non-elite
access is low
• Democratic transition??
New York state public-benefit corporations
New York state public benefit corporations and authorities operate like quasi-private corporations, with boards of directors appointed by elected officials. Public authorities share characteristics with government agencies, but they are exempt from many state and local regulations. Of particular importance, they can issue their own debt, allowing them to bypass limits on state debt contained in the New York State Constitution. This allows public authorities to make potentially risky capital and infrastructure investments without directly putting the credit of New York State or its municipalities on the line. As a result, public authorities have become widely used for financing public works, and they are now responsible for more than 90% of the state's debt. The growing influence of public authorities over state and local financing, coupled with their ability to avoid regulations applicable to government agencies, has led to calls for reform. Some reforms were passed in the Public Authorities Accountability Act of 2005.