... 5. All human rights are universal, indivisible and
interdependent and interrelated. The international
community must treat human rights globally in a fair and
equal manner, on the same footing, and with the same
emphasis. While the significance of national and regional
particularities and various hi ...
... John Locke
• The man responsible for the natural rights
• Locke assumed that humans carried into
modern society rights that the gov’t couldn’t
take away such as life liberty and property.
... Rights and Rights-Based Ethics
As with many ethical perspectives, rights-based approaches also have their roots
with ancient philosophers concerned with the concept of justice, as well as
natural law philosophers who recognized a potential for certain rights inherent in
human nature. Natural rights ...
... The primary responsibility to protect lies with the State, be it the State with which individuals are related
with the bond of ‘nationality’, the host State (in the case of refugees) or the State of habitual residence (in
the case of stateless persons).
On certain occasions, international organizati ...
... Magna Carta -Document signed by King John of England in 1215 A.D. that guaranteed
certain basic rights. Considered the beginning of constitutional government in England.
Natural Law (or Law of Nature) - As used by natural rights philosophers – a moral
rule discovered by the use of reason, which ever ...
... Natural Law is expressed in the conviction that ‘Good should be done
and promoted and evil avoided’.
It is the basis for widely shared principles, norms and practises in
fields such as justice and human rights, life issues and sexual
Anyone guided by natural Law understands that rape , th ...
... rights’, rights that humans have even if particular states don’t recognize or protect them.
Week 4: Natural law – in both its religious and secular forms – presupposes a conception of law’s
‘normativity’ that seems to be different from that offered by the modern American schools of
sociological juri ...
... Individual rights and freedoms shall
be exercised while respecting those
of others and general welfare. So the
State may provide a framework for these
rights and freedoms. For example, freedom of belief cannot be used as a reason
to disobey laws about the schooling of
children. Similarly, freedom of ...
... Understand what the contemporary ethical and human rights issues
To critical assesses the contemporary ethical and human rights challenges
Develop skills of resolving contemporary moral and human rights dilemmas
Develop skills of ethical and human rights analysis
Contemporary ethical ...
... correct does not make it correct.
It is inconsistent with the concept of a moral
reformer, someone who argues against the views of
the majority based on ethical principles.
The strongest argument against ethical relativism
would be to defend universal moral norms (see next
essay by Arnold).
... In combatting this, Grotius reverted to Platonism. “For experience could never reveal what law
and justice are in themselves” (Cassirer 237); rather they “involve the concept of a
correspondence, a harmony and proportion, which would remain valid even if it were never
realized in a single concrete i ...
... Meta-ethics debate: Are the rights of humans universal, or do they depend upon the particular norms of
their cultural context?
In 1948, just after the death and destruction caused by the Second World War, the United Nations (UN)
established the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR). These rig ...
... same way, make the design visible to the people, and they cannot but feel what
they lie under, and see whither they are going; it is not to be wondered at, that
they should then rouse themselves, and endeavor to put the rule into such hands
which may secure to them the ends for which government was ...
... Adding to Our Vocabulary
A common moral concept that we have not yet considered is the
concept of a Right: a legal or moral claim (entitlement) to do or
refrain from doing something or to choose or not choose to have
something done to them.
This is a particularly important concept for Business ...
... are good or evil if they correspond to a pleasure or pain. Thus, being
moral means choosing or “willing” what is good. Obviously there will
be several opinions about what is the good. There will be an opinion
from the community one lives in. There will also be rules from
government, and rules or law ...
... In that case, individuals must submit and accept to live according to the
limitations set by the highest authority, ie, the state.
This is however rejected and challenged by the Cosmopolitan mindset which
brings in a universal notion to normative matters in IR
cosmopolitan approach; posits that all ...
... The rightness or wrongness of the actions
themselves are not judged, But rather their
How are the costs and benefits of no
monetary stakes, such as health, safety, and
public welfare, measured?
Utilitarianism as a principle does not consider
the individual because their interests are n ...
... the most good for the most people, giving equal
consideration to everyone affected
– Rule-Utilitarianism is applying those rules that if
generally adopted would produce the most good for the
– Act-Utilitarianism is applying rules in order to produce
the most good for the most people invo ...
... To repeat: The authority of government is based on
consent; we provide that consent only in order to better
protect our life,
f liberty, and property,
So, a government that fails to provide the order and
protection that we contracted for, or which restricts our
liberty in ways contrary to the law ...
The philosophy of human rights attempts to examine the underlying basis of the concept of human rights and critically looks at its content and justification. Several theoretical approaches have been advanced to explain how and why the concept of human rights developed.One of the oldest Western philosophies on human rights is that they are a product of a natural law, stemming from different philosophical or religious grounds. Other theories hold that human rights codify moral behavior which is a human social product developed by a process of biological and social evolution (associated with Hume). Human rights are also described as a sociological pattern of rule setting (as in the sociological theory of law and the work of Weber). These approaches include the notion that individuals in a society accept rules from legitimate authority in exchange for security and economic advantage (as in Rawls) – a social contract. The two theories that dominate contemporary human rights discussion are the interest theory and the will theory. Interest theory argues that the principal function of human rights is to protect and promote certain essential human interests, while will theory attempts to establish the validity of human rights based on the unique human capacity for freedom.