Chapter 21 . Interferometers
... length using the wavelengths of stabilized lasers. Because of the high degree of coherence
of laser light, interference fringes can be obtained even with quite large optical path
differences, and electronic fringe counting has become a very practical technique for length
The earliest f ...
... many locations on the tractor and trailer where the use of PFC can help reduce
drag. In fact, if these actuators contribute as expected, redesign of both tractor and
trailer may be in order. At this point in the research, most of the attention is being
placed on after-market additions to existing de ...
Report on Gas Absorption and VCSEL Emission Spectra Study
... optical path between the laser and the photodetector, the setup mirrors and the
internal mirrors of the photodetector influence considerably the operation of the
VCSEL laser, working as an external optical resonator and imposing the
generation and amplification of several modes in the obtained spect ...
Fluid Mechanics - 上海交通大学工程力学教学基地
... leads to differential equations describing the relationships among
properties in the flow field (property variations) For the case Steady,
incompressible, frictionless flow along a streamline, integration of
one such differential equation leads to a useful relationship among
speed, pressure, and ele ...
Generation of a few-cycle optical probe pulse for the
... beamsp-litter (BS) creating a probe pulse that is synchronized with the pump pulse. After the probe's
beam diameter is reduced in size by an apodized-aperture (AA), two CMs temporally compress the
probe and a one-meter focal length lens (L) focuses it into a gas-filled HCF. The probe's quadratic
Conservation of momentum:
... the current velocity at the voxel to be updated. The other, ux tux, t n , t n t ,
is an off-grid velocity vector needed in the trapezoidal method. At first glance,
step 2 seems just as suitable for a simple data-parallel approach as step 1.
Unfortunately, the off-grid interpolation involv ...
Article Laser Journal Polygon Scanner
... an uncertainty or timing jitter when the
laser pulse is on in relation to the angle
of incidence onto the mirror face. This
results in approximately a one spot radius displacement on target from scan
to scan as shown in Fig. 3a). In some applications, such as scribing or cutting
applications, this i ...
Polarization-Controlled Multi-Pass Thomson Scattering System in
... key component of this optical system. These lenses maintain the laser beam quality during the multi-pass propagation through the image-relaying optical system from the
iris to the reflection mirror. The laser beam is reflected by
the reflection mirror
4 (CVI, Y1-1037-0) for the second
pass and is ...
Novel high-temperature and pressure-compatible ultrasonic levitator
... sharpness and intensity of the Raman spectral features for
minerals and organic molecules and additionally the ability
to observe the Raman-active symmetric stretching modes of
aromatic rings are further complementary aspects to infrared
The combination of the complimentary ...
A SWDY OF MErnANISM OF RADIATIOO IN LlMINOOS FLAMES
... considering the combustive constituents and geometrical form of the flame a t
the initial stage of combustion because the properties of the radiation are
also related to the temperature, the velocity and the concentration in the
flame , The currently used empirical method ( not based on fundamental ...
A Manuscript Template for JAFM - Journal of Applied Fluid Mechanics
... approaches. A detailed description of these
approaches can be found in the comprehensive
reviews by Enwald et al. (1996), Gouesbet and
Berlemont (1998) and Balachandar and Eaton
(2010). Realized and sophisticated EulerianEulerian and Eulerian-Lagrangian models are used
when detailed local flow param ...
Patterning Proteins and Cells Using Two
... Figure 3. Particle organization and patterning. (A) Microsphere arrays were patterned into grids of 500 micron diameter circles.
(B) Detail of a single circle showing the organization of particles. (C) Fibroblasts stained with rhodamine-conjugated phalloidin
attached and spread on patterned circles ...
... • usually referring to gases,
since their density is not
constant with height/depth
Settling and Sedimentation
... Devices for the separation of solid particles into several fractions based upon their
rates of flow or settling through fluids are known as classifiers
In this methods, a liquid is used whose density is intermediate between that of the
heavy or high-density material and that of the light-density mat ...
Jon Abbatt - Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Physics
... Is this a valid representation?
To some degree, this depends on the setting. For example, in a large dust storm
coming off the Gobi desert, the total particle surface area and mass will be
overwhelmingly dominated by mineral dust. But, as this mineral dust “ages”, it will
pick up a thin mixed sulfat ...
The Material Derivative The equations above apply to a fluid
... Transformation to a Rotating Frame of Reference
Newton’s laws of motion and therefore the Navier-Stokes equation apply only in an inertial frame of reference. When considering the flow of rotating bodies such as the Earth (or other
rotating bodies such as the sun or galaxies), it is convenient to
Destabilisation of colloidal suspensions
... mainly to bound water layers which prevent close contact between particles, although charge is also
considered to contribute to their stability. These mainly organic substances may be single
macromolecules or aggregates of macromolecules and may be in true solution or suspension. They
derive their c ...
Particle Aerodynamics S+P Chap 9.
... • Third is the approach towards equilibrium for an arbitrary initial
• All three presume that the air is not moving, or rather that the
particle velocity is expressed in the reference frame of the air.
• The next step is to link the particle mobility to the properties of
the particle and t ...
Characterization of Electrospray Aerosol Generator
... classification is known as Differential Mobility Analysis. In this method, aerosols are charged, and then
sent through an electric field where particle motion is dependent on size and charge. These instruments
are designed such that they output particles of a narrow range of sizes for selected elect ...
Homework #4 - University of South Florida
... diameter change much from part (a)? In other words, did you make the particles much
bigger so that they will settle well during sedimentation?
d. Now suppose that you add a coagulant, which forms Al(OH)3 or Fe(OH)3 precipitate,
such that the volume fraction in the flocculator is Ω = 10–3. Assume tha ...
Particle image velocimetry
Particle image velocimetry (PIV) is an optical method of flow visualization used in education and research. It is used to obtain instantaneous velocity measurements and related properties in fluids. The fluid is seeded with tracer particles which, for sufficiently small particles, are assumed to faithfully follow the flow dynamics (the degree to which the particles faithfully follow the flow is represented by the Stokes number). The fluid with entrained particles is illuminated so that particles are visible. The motion of the seeding particles is used to calculate speed and direction (the velocity field) of the flow being studied.Other techniques used to measure flows are laser Doppler velocimetry and hot-wire anemometry. The main difference between PIV and those techniques is that PIV produces two-dimensional or even three-dimensional vector fields, while the other techniques measure the velocity at a point. During PIV, the particle concentration is such that it is possible to identify individual particles in an image, but not with certainty to track it between images. When the particle concentration is so low that it is possible to follow an individual particle it is called Particle tracking velocimetry, while Laser speckle velocimetry is used for cases where the particle concentration is so high that it is difficult to observe individual particles in an image.Typical PIV apparatus consists of a camera (normally a digital camera with a CCD chip in modern systems), a strobe or laser with an optical arrangement to limit the physical region illuminated (normally a cylindrical lens to convert a light beam to a line), a synchronizer to act as an external trigger for control of the camera and laser, the seeding particles and the fluid under investigation. A fiber optic cable or liquid light guide may connect the laser to the lens setup. PIV software is used to post-process the optical images.