The Intercultural Ethics Agenda from an Objectivist Point of View
... producing agreement: Gert’s “common morality” +
Rawls “reflective equilibrium”
– Much disagreement that appears moral is not about
fundamental moral principles at all: much disagreement
involves disagreement about how to apply shared
principles or disagreement about factual matters that
condition ap ...
Moral Absolutism: a Response to Relativists
... by the objective state of these things in themselves. Pojman explains that this thesis can be taken
in two ways: as the weak dependency thesis, which argues that the way moral principles are (or
are not) applied in particular cultures is relative to the culture’s beliefs, history, etc., and as the
... reasonable conclusion: it is essential to be modest in ethics and not to adopt major philosophical
systems that exclude a priori any rival moral concepts. Ruwen Ogien’s project can therefore be
understood as an epistemological critique of the most robust moral theories which clearly show
their metho ...
... b. Phenomenlogy: Brantano; Scheler; Hartman; Heidegger
(1) Emotive theory: Hagerstrom; Ayel
(2) Existentialism: Camus; Sartre
5. Recent arguments
a. Linguistic philosophy: Hare
b. The good-reason approach: Toulmin
II. How to Moralize?
A. Theory and Practice
1. Intellectual activiti ...
Normative Principles and Practical Ethics: A Response to O`Neill
... latter). Whereas empirical and descriptive work aims to ascertain or to explain the truth
about some matter, normative work, by contrast, is neither explanatory nor interpretive.
It is prescriptive: normative theories hold that aspects of the world should be changed
to fit certain descriptions and p ...
What is Ethical Relativism?
... In a complex moral situation, I may be uncertain about what is the right thing to do. I
may indeed have to simply act according to my conscience, i.e., what I believe to be
right. But this does not prove that morality is wholly a matter of mere belief. That would
be like saying; since I do not know ...
PowerPoint - Computer Science, NMSU
... •I don't understand this!! I just saw this website for the first time and it
has actually made me cry! I am terrified, TERRIFIED for our future.
•Everything in this website is so twisted. It reads like cloning is the
most natural and normal thing in the world. Smiling people holding
cloned cats, ign ...
4: Law and Order
... • Level III: Post-conventional. Reasoning transcends society’s rules; reflects
an understanding that rules sometimes need to be changed/ignored.
... people have be raised differently and we cannot judge them or their
Nuremberg trials 1946 - the
defense argued that Nazi's could
not be held to moral codes outside
their culture. The defense did not
work - crimes against humanity
were said to hold across all cultures.
Adolescence and Moral Development
... • Level III: Post-conventional. Reasoning transcends
society’s rules; reflects an understanding that rules
sometimes need to be changed/ignored.
... Moral Issues Involved in Sexuality
... represented among others, by Edgar Schein’s work relating to organizational basic assumptions,
and Stephen Toulmin’s work on the justification structure of any logical argument, including
ethical arguments. To construct a polyphonic ethics scale, we applied the Toulmin method to
generate statements ...
Glossary of Terms for Rhetorical Argument
... one’ with a person other than himself” (Rhetoric 21). In the process of
acting together, individuals share common sensations, concepts, images, ideas, and attitudes. Burke’s term for this is consubstantiality, a way
of “acting together.” To clarify, Burke speaks of consubstantiality in
terms of pare ...
pragmatism and relativism
... Moral relativism rejects that there are any universal and absolute moral principles that apply to
everybody everywhere at all times. This belief can have different motivations. Some people argue based
on epistemological considerations that there is no proper ‘knowledge’ of moral rules. Moral rules a ...
... • Arguments are used to justify things, to convince
people of things etc.
• Generally arguments will succeed or not depending
on how well constructed they are, and on their
• How do we determine argument strength?
– Need to understand difference between valid & invalid
CSCI102 - University of Wollongong
... Eg: ‘Computers have memory. Memory allows us to remember
our childhood. So, Computers can recall their childhood”
NO – because the terms “think” & “memory” are ambiguous,
the ‘thinking’ each of these entities does is not the same thing,
and the ‘memory’ is not of the same kind
Stace on ethical absolutism
... [It’s also consistent with ethical absolutism that no one has ever known or
done the Good.]
for the ethical absolutist, ethics is comparable to science, the Good
comparable to the laws of nature. Moral law part of the “fundamental
structure of the universe.”
ethical absolutism is not necessari ...
Is Morality Relative or are There Universal Standards?
... • People think the moral perspective
of their culture is correct
• The “abnormals” of one society are
the norms of another society.
• Cultural attitudes towards trances,
polygamy, and homosexuality
• Cultural diversity forces us to accept
... • Note that in order to be used in an argument, language
has to be of a sort that is truth-evaluable, that is, that
can be true or false. Premises are judged on the basis
of whether they are true or false, and arguments are
put together so that true premises related in the
proper way will generate a ...
Stephen Edelston Toulmin (/ˈtuːlmɪn/; 25 March 1922 – 4 December 2009) was a British philosopher, author, and educator. Influenced by Ludwig Wittgenstein, Toulmin devoted his works to the analysis of moral reasoning. Throughout his writings, he sought to develop practical arguments which can be used effectively in evaluating the ethics behind moral issues. His works were later found useful in the field of rhetoric for analyzing rhetorical arguments. The Toulmin Model of Argumentation, a diagram containing six interrelated components used for analyzing arguments, was considered his most influential work, particularly in the field of rhetoric and communication, and in computer science.