Celestial Navigation

... Because of the Earth's spin, the stars on the celestial sphere appear to move while we, the observers, remain stationary. Therefore, because a star on the celestial sphere moves so does its geographical position (GP). There's a lot of movement 'out there'. Some bodies which are closer to the Earth - ...

... Because of the Earth's spin, the stars on the celestial sphere appear to move while we, the observers, remain stationary. Therefore, because a star on the celestial sphere moves so does its geographical position (GP). There's a lot of movement 'out there'. Some bodies which are closer to the Earth - ...

Celestial Navigation

... ring is then rotated around and aligned with pointer stars, such as the Big Dipper, Little Dipper or Cassiopeia. The point where the arm coincides with the marked disk will be taken as the time. It is only used to measure Polaris's distance in minutes of arc from true North; thus, there are some cor ...

... ring is then rotated around and aligned with pointer stars, such as the Big Dipper, Little Dipper or Cassiopeia. The point where the arm coincides with the marked disk will be taken as the time. It is only used to measure Polaris's distance in minutes of arc from true North; thus, there are some cor ...

Polaris – Distance to Pole

... • Now, because they could not be disregarded, these 8 minutes alone will lead us along a path to the reform of the whole of Astronomy, and they are the matter for a great part of this work. (that will be the elliptic orbits and non-uniform speed … ) Astronomia Nova (Heidelberg, 1609) Chapter 19, p 1 ...

... • Now, because they could not be disregarded, these 8 minutes alone will lead us along a path to the reform of the whole of Astronomy, and they are the matter for a great part of this work. (that will be the elliptic orbits and non-uniform speed … ) Astronomia Nova (Heidelberg, 1609) Chapter 19, p 1 ...

Chapter 2

... were extended into space, it would meet the celestial sphere at the north celestial pole. Extended above the Earth’s South Pole, it would meet the celestial sphere at the south celestial pole. If there were a bright star directly at the north celestial pole, its diurnal circle would be a point. The ...

... were extended into space, it would meet the celestial sphere at the north celestial pole. Extended above the Earth’s South Pole, it would meet the celestial sphere at the south celestial pole. If there were a bright star directly at the north celestial pole, its diurnal circle would be a point. The ...

Slide 1

... • TYCHO WAS BOTH AN “EXPERIMENTALIST” AND A “THEORIST” • HE MUST HAVE BEEN A VERY GOOD MACHINIST – V.E. THOREN WRITES, “Because of the number and variety of instruments made and described by Tycho, previous commentators have assumed that he made instruments for the sheer sake of keeping his instrume ...

... • TYCHO WAS BOTH AN “EXPERIMENTALIST” AND A “THEORIST” • HE MUST HAVE BEEN A VERY GOOD MACHINIST – V.E. THOREN WRITES, “Because of the number and variety of instruments made and described by Tycho, previous commentators have assumed that he made instruments for the sheer sake of keeping his instrume ...

a PDF version of the Uniglobe Manual.

... A system of coordinates similar to that described in Figures 11 and 12 is used to label directions in the sky. These directions are represented as positions on the CELESTIAL GLOBE of the Uniglobe. The effect of the size of the earth on measurement of angle is shown in Figure 13. The extremely large ...

... A system of coordinates similar to that described in Figures 11 and 12 is used to label directions in the sky. These directions are represented as positions on the CELESTIAL GLOBE of the Uniglobe. The effect of the size of the earth on measurement of angle is shown in Figure 13. The extremely large ...

File - metc instructors collab site

... Proves that the altitude of the elevated pole is equal to the observer's latitude Defines the observer's upper and lower celestial meridian Identifies the apparent daily path of all bodies Defines 'true altitude', 'azimuth', and 'true zenith distance' Explains the relationship between azimuth, quadr ...

... Proves that the altitude of the elevated pole is equal to the observer's latitude Defines the observer's upper and lower celestial meridian Identifies the apparent daily path of all bodies Defines 'true altitude', 'azimuth', and 'true zenith distance' Explains the relationship between azimuth, quadr ...

Astronomy Assignment #1

... 11. Your observatory lies at a latitude of 45N and a longitude of 90W. You wish to observe three celestial objects that have declinations of +87, -40, and -67. Which of these objects can you observe? This question requires a fairly complete understanding of the celestial coordinate system and t ...

... 11. Your observatory lies at a latitude of 45N and a longitude of 90W. You wish to observe three celestial objects that have declinations of +87, -40, and -67. Which of these objects can you observe? This question requires a fairly complete understanding of the celestial coordinate system and t ...

Using Star Charts

... call the ecliptic. Planets also undergo something called retrograde motion- this is due to relative motions of the planets relative to Earth. We move faster than the planet outside Earth’s orbit of the sun, so as we pass them they seem to slow down, turn around and go backwards. This is only an opti ...

... call the ecliptic. Planets also undergo something called retrograde motion- this is due to relative motions of the planets relative to Earth. We move faster than the planet outside Earth’s orbit of the sun, so as we pass them they seem to slow down, turn around and go backwards. This is only an opti ...

Celestial Navigation education kit: Student activities 1-6

... Pole on Earth, the South Celestial Pole would be directly overhead and the stars overhead would seem to be rotating clockwise around this point. In Melbourne, the South Celestial Pole is at an angle of (approximately) 38 degrees above the horizon – Melbourne’s latitude. From southern Australia, star ...

... Pole on Earth, the South Celestial Pole would be directly overhead and the stars overhead would seem to be rotating clockwise around this point. In Melbourne, the South Celestial Pole is at an angle of (approximately) 38 degrees above the horizon – Melbourne’s latitude. From southern Australia, star ...

Dyson Spheres around White Dwarfs arXiv:1503.04376

... A Dyson Sphere represents a particular realization of the Kardashev Type II stage, the obvious way to ”catch” all the power of a star. Dyson [1] in the original paper2 points out that such a sphere would have to emit thermal radiation with total power3 equal to that of the star. Since it would look ...

... A Dyson Sphere represents a particular realization of the Kardashev Type II stage, the obvious way to ”catch” all the power of a star. Dyson [1] in the original paper2 points out that such a sphere would have to emit thermal radiation with total power3 equal to that of the star. Since it would look ...

13. Right Ascension and Declination

... object remain fixed, despite the diurnal motion. Since the whole co-ordinate system appears to be steadily rotating from the perspective of the observer, it is natural also to express α as a time: using our conversion of 15° = 1h as before, an object which is 15° further east than object X on the ce ...

... object remain fixed, despite the diurnal motion. Since the whole co-ordinate system appears to be steadily rotating from the perspective of the observer, it is natural also to express α as a time: using our conversion of 15° = 1h as before, an object which is 15° further east than object X on the ce ...

SU3150-Astronomy - Michigan Technological University

... positions and directions on earth such as those required in navigation and surveying Practical astronomy is also used in precise time keeping, monitoring polar motion and variations in earth rotation Above are accomplished through a combination of observations and computations Most computations invo ...

... positions and directions on earth such as those required in navigation and surveying Practical astronomy is also used in precise time keeping, monitoring polar motion and variations in earth rotation Above are accomplished through a combination of observations and computations Most computations invo ...

Outline of Lecture on Copernican Revolution: 1. Source of word

... Surely experts noted this. It is very hard to believe that this fact is an accident. It results naturally if the earth in fact orbits the sun, but in Ptolemy’s model it emerges as a completely unmotivated result. In fact, in Ptolemy’s model the periods in which also Jupiter and Saturn go around thei ...

... Surely experts noted this. It is very hard to believe that this fact is an accident. It results naturally if the earth in fact orbits the sun, but in Ptolemy’s model it emerges as a completely unmotivated result. In fact, in Ptolemy’s model the periods in which also Jupiter and Saturn go around thei ...

the astrolabe - IREM Aix

... Front of the astrolabe 1. Matrix or mother: a disc of brass or bronze 10 to 50 cm in diameter which accommodates the various parts of the instrument. 2. Tympanum: an engraved plate that is placed on the mother. Designed for a given latitude, certain astrolabes possess several of these. 3. Spider (or ...

... Front of the astrolabe 1. Matrix or mother: a disc of brass or bronze 10 to 50 cm in diameter which accommodates the various parts of the instrument. 2. Tympanum: an engraved plate that is placed on the mother. Designed for a given latitude, certain astrolabes possess several of these. 3. Spider (or ...

Preview Sample 2

... In addition to the sun, the visible planets also move along the ecliptic, and their positions give rise to the ancient superstition called astrology. Mercury and Venus follow orbits inside Earth’s orbit and never move far from the sun. They are visible in the east before dawn or in the west after su ...

... In addition to the sun, the visible planets also move along the ecliptic, and their positions give rise to the ancient superstition called astrology. Mercury and Venus follow orbits inside Earth’s orbit and never move far from the sun. They are visible in the east before dawn or in the west after su ...

CHAPTER 3, Diurnal Motion - The College of New Jersey

... does not change. This is not true, however, for the Sun, Moon, and planets, because these objects move with respect to the background of “fixed” stars, i.e., their declination changes with time. The changing declination and right ascension of the Sun is caused by the fact that Earth revolves in orbi ...

... does not change. This is not true, however, for the Sun, Moon, and planets, because these objects move with respect to the background of “fixed” stars, i.e., their declination changes with time. The changing declination and right ascension of the Sun is caused by the fact that Earth revolves in orbi ...

Neil F. Comins - Kuwait Life Sciences Company

... charts allows students to locate the objects with either the unaided eye or a small telescope, as appropriate. ...

... charts allows students to locate the objects with either the unaided eye or a small telescope, as appropriate. ...

Stellarium – a valuable resource for teaching astronomy in the

... and heavenly coordinate systems are brought together in celestial navigation – the technique used by the ancient mariners to sail across the oceans. In Stellarium whenever a point on the sky is clicked, the celestial coordinates appear in the top left hand corner. To explore this feature it is best ...

... and heavenly coordinate systems are brought together in celestial navigation – the technique used by the ancient mariners to sail across the oceans. In Stellarium whenever a point on the sky is clicked, the celestial coordinates appear in the top left hand corner. To explore this feature it is best ...

Self-avoiding Random Walks and Olbers` Paradox - Serval

... the fractal structure of the universe by Hershel in a private letter (discussed in [1]). This idea was developed further by Charlier [2] who deﬁned the criterion of the hierarchical structure of the universe, i.e., its fractal dimensions that would resolve the Olbers’ paradox. Until today the exact ...

... the fractal structure of the universe by Hershel in a private letter (discussed in [1]). This idea was developed further by Charlier [2] who deﬁned the criterion of the hierarchical structure of the universe, i.e., its fractal dimensions that would resolve the Olbers’ paradox. Until today the exact ...

Chapter 2: The Copernican Revolution

... Copernicus published his great work, De Revolutionibus Orbium Coelestium) and the early 17th century. Many astronomers used Copernicus’s system, but under the assumption that the earth’s motion was a mathematical fiction rather than physically real. No books supporting the Copernican view were ...

... Copernicus published his great work, De Revolutionibus Orbium Coelestium) and the early 17th century. Many astronomers used Copernicus’s system, but under the assumption that the earth’s motion was a mathematical fiction rather than physically real. No books supporting the Copernican view were ...

Basic principles of celestial navigation

... point P of unknown latitude % and longitude &. The celestial sphere rotates westward from the observer’s point of view at an angular rate such that the vernal equinox transits !passes through" the observer’s meridian from east to west at intervals of 23 hour, 56 minute, 4 second of mean solar time, ...

... point P of unknown latitude % and longitude &. The celestial sphere rotates westward from the observer’s point of view at an angular rate such that the vernal equinox transits !passes through" the observer’s meridian from east to west at intervals of 23 hour, 56 minute, 4 second of mean solar time, ...

... point P of unknown latitude % and longitude &. The celestial sphere rotates westward from the observer’s point of view at an angular rate such that the vernal equinox transits !passes through" the observer’s meridian from east to west at intervals of 23 hour, 56 minute, 4 second of mean solar time, ...

2 Coordinate systems

... Let Z be the zenith, vertically overhead be defined by the direction of gravity. OZ is thus the continuation of the straight line joining the earth’s center to O. The plane through O at right angles to OZ is the plane of the horizon, cutting the celestial sphere in the great circle N AS, called the ...

... Let Z be the zenith, vertically overhead be defined by the direction of gravity. OZ is thus the continuation of the straight line joining the earth’s center to O. The plane through O at right angles to OZ is the plane of the horizon, cutting the celestial sphere in the great circle N AS, called the ...

Celestial Navigation in 60 min

... Of course, at this stage we need to look a little bit closer at the celestial mechanics to understand how we can calculate the exact position of a heavenly body (star, planet, moon, sun) in your local sky at any given time and which mathematical relation is linking the altitude of a body to a circle ...

... Of course, at this stage we need to look a little bit closer at the celestial mechanics to understand how we can calculate the exact position of a heavenly body (star, planet, moon, sun) in your local sky at any given time and which mathematical relation is linking the altitude of a body to a circle ...

# Celestial spheres

The celestial spheres, or celestial orbs, were the fundamental entities of the cosmological models developed by Plato, Eudoxus, Aristotle, Ptolemy, Copernicus and others. In these celestial models the apparent motions of the fixed stars and the planets are accounted for by treating them as embedded in rotating spheres made of an aetherial, transparent fifth element (quintessence), like jewels set in orbs. Since it was believed that the fixed stars did not change their positions relative to one another, it was argued that they must be on the surface of a single starry sphere.In modern thought, the orbits of the planets are viewed as the paths of those planets through mostly empty space. Ancient and medieval thinkers, however, considered the celestial orbs to be thick spheres of rarefied matter nested one within the other, each one in complete contact with the sphere above it and the sphere below. When scholars applied Ptolemy's epicycles, they presumed that each planetary sphere was exactly thick enough to accommodate them. By combining this nested sphere model with astronomical observations, scholars calculated what became generally accepted values at the time for the distances to the Sun (about 4 million miles), to the other planets, and to the edge of the universe (about 73 million miles). The nested sphere model's distances to the Sun and planets differ significantly from modern measurements of the distances, and the size of the universe is now known to be inconceivably large and possibly infinite.Albert Van Helden has suggested that from about 1250 until the 17th century, virtually all educated Europeans were familiar with the Ptolemaic model of ""nesting spheres and the cosmic dimensions derived from it"". Even following the adoption of Copernicus's heliocentric model of the universe, new versions of the celestial sphere model were introduced, with the planetary spheres following this sequence from the central Sun: Mercury, Venus, Earth-Moon, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn.