... graded zones of varying gene expression in
brain where functional specializations are
“poised” but not determined to arise.
Inputs and neuronal activity necessary for
functional specializations to ontogenetically
emerge within graded zones.
• Author’s model: Interactive specialization
• Functional s ...
... Anomia - deficits in word finding (either lexical or semantic); an impairment in the normal ability to
retrieve a semantic concept and say its name. In other words, some aspect of the normally
automatic semantic or lexical components of retrieval has been damaged in anomia.
Alexia - deficit in readi ...
... – Temporal: hearing, auditory association
area, smell, Wernicke’s area (understanding
– Occipital: Vision, Vision association area
– Parietal: Taste, reading, somatosensory
cortex, somatosensory association area
... guided to one of two areas
in the brain depending
upon the patient and the
condition being treated.
The system then functions
in a manner similar to a
heart pacemaker by
delivering mild electrical
pulses that disrupt or
block the irregular nerve
signals responsible for
symptoms of Parkinson’s
... • Social Learning Theories: Language acquisition through imitation or
• Reinforcement: The child is conditioned to perform verbal behavior. (B.F.
• Innateness: We are “pre-wired” or “preprogrammed” to learn language
through a language acquisition device (L.A.D.) in the brain. ...
... Always on the alert for life-threatening events
Controls basic life functions: heart rate, breathing, pain response, etc.
We “downshift” when responding to life-threatening conditions
“Flight or Fight” level of the brain (self preservation / aggression)
Action takes place without thinking;
... task with tDCS in order to examine the effect of tDCS
in the areas of the brain involved in speech production.
The results show that tDCS speeds up word-finding in
healthy persons as well as in stroke patients and helps
to identify the part of the brain that should be stimulated. The first fMRI imag ...
... Small amount of radioactive material ->
bonds to glucose (tracer) -> glucose used as
energy -> areas which are most active
absorb it -> produces colored images of the
level of activity.
Others: MRI (changes of oxygen levels) and
MEG (nerve networks)
... by injection into the lateral ventricle provided sufﬁcient contrast to
outline the ventricular system, initially through the fontanelles and
then via a lumber puncture. This air encephalography became the
predominant form of neuroradiology. Dandy also carried out contrast
ventriculography with lipio ...
... Vibrations provoke movements of the timpanic membrane which are then transmitted and amplified by the chaine of the auditory ossicles :
malleus, incus and stapes.
The stapes, through the oval window, conveys the vibrations to the fluid of the inner ear which moves the basal membrane and the cilia of ...
... One of the most fundamental properties of the brain is its ability to learn and recall information. Memory is
central to all aspects of behaviour and forms the basis for human culture. Understanding the brain mechanisms
responsible for memory has been limited by the lack of tools to investigate how ...
... Although neurons as computational elements are 7 orders of magnitude slower than
their artificial counterparts, the primate brain grossly outperforms robotic algorithms in
all but the most structured tasks. Parallelism alone is a poor explanation, and much
recent functional modelling of the central ...
... developmental programs intrinsic to cortical neurons and
extrinsic signals supplied by specific inputs from sub
cortical structures, and the second one is the Radial Unit
Hypothesis, which postulates that the embryonic cortical
plate forms from vertically oriented cohorts of neurons
generated at the ...
... 29. What does lateralization of function mean? What functions are associated with
each of the cerebral hemispheres?
30. What’s the importance of the corpus callosum?
You can skip the section on the Endocrine System – pages 67-68
31. How are genetic factors related to several aspects of behavior? (Lo ...
... • Nineteen mTBI patients, 11 with persistent
symptoms and 8 recovered
• The subjects had suffered a mTBI (GCS 13 – 15)
on the average five years earlier
• All subjects had normal MRIs in visual inspection
... A stereotactic frame is placed on
the patient’s head and highresolution images are obtained.
The patient remains awake and an
active participant while targeting
the stimulation areas and during
lead implantation. A hole for the
lead is drilled into the cranium to
reach the targeted area. The
... called WINCS Harmoni. WINCS Harmoni incorporates a wirelessly controlled synchronizable
neurostimulator, and four-channel integrated circuit for simultaneous neurochemical and
electrophysiological measurements. PC based software provides real-time control of stimulation,
neurotransmitter detection, ...
... stimulator off at night to spare battery life.
There may be less development of tolerance
• Patients with GPi and STN stimulators
leave them on all the time
• DBS Patient Programmer allows patients to:
• Turn stimulator on and off
• Control amplitude, pulse width and rate
withing physician-prescribe ...
... diseases/disorders. We are hosting various events during the week of March
20th which is called “Brain Awareness Week.” One of our events is “BRAIN
Blast” which will be on Wednesday, March 22nd at 7:30 pm in the Busch Campus
Center International Lounge.
BRAIN Blast will serve as an opportunity to he ...
Cortical stimulation mapping (often shortened to CSM) is a type of electrocorticography that involves a physically invasive procedure and aims to localize the function of specific brain regions through direct electrical stimulation of the cerebral cortex. It remains one of the earliest methods of analyzing the brain and has allowed researchers to study the relationship between cortical structure and systemic function. Cortical stimulation mapping is used for a number of clinical and therapeutic applications, and remains the preferred method for the pre-surgical mapping of the motor cortex and language areas to prevent unnecessary functional damage. There are also some clinical applications for cortical stimulation mapping, such as the treatment of epilepsy.